Project description:The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that bind the plasma membrane (PM) via C2 domains and transport lipids between them via SMP domains. E-Syt1 tethers and transports lipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but the role of Ca2+ in this regulation is unclear. Of the five C2 domains of E-Syt1, only C2A and C2C contain Ca2+-binding sites. Using liposome-based assays, we show that Ca2+ binding to C2C promotes E-Syt1-mediated membrane tethering by releasing an inhibition that prevents C2E from interacting with PI(4,5)P2-rich membranes, as previously suggested by studies in semi-permeabilized cells. Importantly, Ca2+ binding to C2A enables lipid transport by releasing a charge-based autoinhibitory interaction between this domain and the SMP domain. Supporting these results, E-Syt1 constructs defective in Ca2+ binding in either C2A or C2C failed to rescue two defects in PM lipid homeostasis observed in E-Syts KO cells, delayed diacylglycerol clearance from the PM and impaired Ca2+-triggered phosphatidylserine scrambling. Thus, a main effect of Ca2+ on E-Syt1 is to reverse an autoinhibited state and to couple membrane tethering with lipid transport.
Project description:The Ca2+-independent membrane interactions of the soluble C2 domains from synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) were characterized using a combination of site-directed spin labeling and vesicle sedimentation. The second C2 domain of syt1, C2B, binds to membranes containing phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine in a Ca2+-independent manner with a lipid partition coefficient of approximately 3.0 x 10(2) M(-1). A soluble fragment containing the first and second C2 domains of syt1, C2A and C2B, has a similar affinity, but C2A alone has no detectable affinity to phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine bilayers in the absence of Ca2+. Although the Ca2+-independent membrane affinity of C2B is modest, it indicates that this domain will never be free in solution within the cell. Site-directed spin labeling was used to obtain bilayer depth restraints, and a simulated annealing routine was used to generate a model for the membrane docking of C2B in the absence of Ca2+. In this model, the polybasic strand of C2B forms the membrane binding surface for the domain; however, this face of C2B does not penetrate the bilayer but is localized within the aqueous double layer when C2B is bound. This double-layer location indicates that C2B interacts in a purely electrostatic manner with the bilayer interface. In the presence of Ca2+, the membrane affinity of C2B is increased approximately 20-fold, and the domain rotates so that the Ca2+-binding loops of C2B insert into the bilayer. This Ca2+-triggered conformational change may act as a switch to modulate the accessibility of the polybasic face of C2B and control interactions of syt1 with other components of the fusion machinery.
Project description:The therapeutic efficacy of some anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) depends on the capacity of the mAb to recognize the tumor-associated antigen and induce cytotoxicity via a network of immune effector cells. This process of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells is triggered by the interaction of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of the mAb with the Fc receptors on effector cells like natural killer cells, macrophages, ?? T cells, and dendritic cells. By augmenting ADCC, the antitumor activity of mAbs can be significantly increased. Currently, identifying and developing therapeutic agents that enhance ADCC is a growing area of research. Combining existing tumor-targeting mAbs and ADCC-promoting agents that stimulate effector cells will translate to greater clinical responses. In this review, we discuss strategies for enhancing ADCC and emphasize the potential of combination treatments that include US Food and Drug Administration-approved mAbs and immunostimulatory therapeutics.
Project description:Several antiangiogenic drugs targeting VEGF/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) that were approved by the Food and Drug Administration for many cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer, can effectively reduce tumor growth. However, targeting the VEGF signaling pathway will probably influence the normal function of endothelial cells in maintaining homeostasis and can cause unwanted adverse effects. Indeed, emerging experimental evidence suggests that VEGF-targeting therapy induced less tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity, allowing residual cells to become more resistant and eventually develop a more malignant phenotype. We report an antitumor therapeutic EndoCD fusion protein developed by linking endostatin (Endo) to cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD). Specifically, Endo possesses tumor antiangiogenesis activity that targets tumor endothelial cells, followed by CD, which converts the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the cytotoxic antitumor drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the local tumor area. Moreover, selective targeting of tumor sites allows an increasing local intratumoral concentration of 5-FU, thus providing high levels of cytotoxic activity. We showed that treatment with EndoCD plus 5-FC, compared with bevacizumab plus 5-FU treatment, significantly increased the 5-FU concentration around tumor sites and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in human breast and colorectal orthotropic animal models. In addition, in contrast to treatment with bevacizumab/5-FU, EndoCD/5-FC did not induce cardiotoxicity leading to heart failure in mice after long-term treatment. Our results showed that, compared with currently used antiangiogenic drugs, EndoCD possesses potent anticancer activity with virtually no toxic effects and does not increase tumor invasion or metastasis. Together, these findings suggest that EndoCD/5-FC could become an alternative option for future antiangiogenesis therapy.
Project description:Synaptic vesicle recycling is essential for maintaining normal synaptic function. The coupling of exocytosis and endocytosis is assumed to be Ca2+ dependent, but the exact role of Ca2+ and its key effector synaptotagmin-1 (syt1) in regulation of endocytosis is poorly understood. Here, we probed the role of syt1 in single- as well as multi-vesicle endocytic events using high-resolution optical recordings. Our experiments showed that the slowed endocytosis phenotype previously reported after syt1 loss of function can also be triggered by other manipulations that promote asynchronous release such as Sr2+ substitution and complexin loss of function. The link between asynchronous release and slowed endocytosis was due to selective targeting of fused synaptic vesicles toward slow retrieval by the asynchronous release Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-7. In contrast, after single synaptic vesicle fusion, syt1 acted as an essential determinant of synaptic vesicle endocytosis time course by delaying the kinetics of vesicle retrieval in response to increasing Ca2+ levels.
Project description:Although targeting angiogenesis with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has become standard of care in the treatment of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), resistance mechanism are not fully understood, and there is a need to develop new therapeutic options overcoming them.To develop a preclinical model that predicts clinical activity of novel agents in 19 RCC patients, we established patient-derived cell (PDC) and xenograft (PDX) models derived from malignant effusions or surgical specimen.Successful PDCs, defined as cells that maintained growth following two passages, were established in 5 of 15 malignant effusions and 1 of 4 surgical specimens. One PDC, clinically refractory to TKIs, was implanted and engrafted in mice, resulting in a comparable histology to the primary tumor. The PDC-PDX model also showed similar genomic features when tested using targeted sequencing of cancer-related genes. When we examined the drug effects of the PDX model, the tumor cells showed resistance to TKIs and everolimus in vitro.The results suggest that the PDC-PDX preclinical model we developed using malignant effusions can be a useful preclinical model to interrogate sensitivity to targeted agents based on genomic alterations.
Project description:Although many anticancer agents for gastric cancer have been developed, the prognosis for many patients remains poor. Recently, costimulatory immune molecules that reactivate antitumor immune responses by utilizing the host immune system have attracted attention as new therapeutic strategies. CD137 is a costimulatory molecule that reportedly potentiates the antitumor activity of tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by enhancing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. However, it remains unclear whether CD137 stimulates tumor-regulatory activity in gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of CD137 stimulation on gastric cancer cells administered tumor-targeting mAbs. Our results showed that human natural killer (NK) cells were activated by expressing CD137 after encountering trastuzumab-coated gastric cancer cells, and that stimulation of activated NK cells in the presence of trastuzumab and recombinant human CD137 ligand (rhCD137L) enhanced cytotoxicity and release of cytokines (IFN-?, TNF, granzyme A, or granzyme B) as compared with activated NK cells with trastuzumab alone (p < 0.05). By combination treatment with rhCD137L, similar effects were obtained regarding cancer cell cytotoxicity in the presence of cetuximab (p < 0.01). Moreover, we revealed that CD137 expression was dependent upon the affinity between the Fc portion of the antibodies and Fc?RIIIa of NK cells based on results indicating that human IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses enhanced CD137 expression (p < 0.001). These results confirmed that Fc?RIIIA polymorphisms (158 V/V) enhanced CD137 expression to a greater degree than 158 F polymorphisms (p = 0.014). Our results suggested that CD137 stimulation could promote the effects of tumor-targeting mAbs in gastric cancer, and that further investigation of antibody binding affinity and in vivo activities might improve therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of gastric cancer patients.
Project description:Ca2+-triggered SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is essential for neuronal communication. The speed of this process is of particular importance because it sets a time limit to cognitive and physical activities. In this work, we expand the proteoliposome-to-supported bilayer (SBL) fusion assay by successfully incorporating synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a major Ca2+ sensor. We report that Syt1 and Ca2+ together can elicit more than a 50-fold increase in the number of membrane fusion events when compared with membrane fusion mediated by SNAREs only. What is remarkable is that ~55% of all vesicle fusion events occurs within 20 ms upon vesicle docking. Furthermore, pre-binding of Syt1 to SNAREs prior to Ca2+ inhibits spontaneous fusion, but intriguingly, this leads to a complete loss of the Ca2+ responsiveness. Thus, our results suggest that there is a productive and a non-productive pathway for Syt1, depending on whether there is a premature interaction between Syt1 and SNAREs. Our results show that Ca2+ binding to Syt1 prior to Syt1's binding to SNAREs may be a prerequisite for the productive pathway. The successful reconstitution of Syt1 activities in the physiological time scale provides new opportunities to test the current mechanistic models for Ca2+-triggered exocytosis.
Project description:Spontaneous 'mini' release occurs at all synapses, but its nature remains enigmatic. We found that >95% of spontaneous release in murine cortical neurons was induced by Ca2+-binding to synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1), the Ca2+ sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release. Thus, spontaneous and evoked release used the same Ca2+-dependent release mechanism. As a consequence, Syt1 mutations that altered its Ca2+ affinity altered spontaneous and evoked release correspondingly. Paradoxically, Syt1 deletions (as opposed to point mutations) massively increased spontaneous release. This increased spontaneous release remained Ca2+ dependent but was activated at lower Ca2+ concentrations and with a lower Ca2+ cooperativity than synaptotagmin-driven spontaneous release. Thus, in addition to serving as a Ca2+ sensor for spontaneous and evoked release, Syt1 clamped a second, more sensitive Ca2+ sensor for spontaneous release that resembles the Ca2+ sensor for evoked asynchronous release. These data suggest that Syt1 controls both evoked and spontaneous release at a synapse as a simultaneous Ca2+-dependent activator and clamp of exocytosis.
Project description:We recently have established a successful xenograft model of human glioblastoma cells by enriching hyaluronic acid-dependent spheroid-forming populations termed U251MG-P1 cells from U251MG cells. Since U251MG-P1 cells have been confirmed to express CD44 along with principal stemness marker genes, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and Nanog, this CD44 expressing population appeared to majorly consist of undifferentiated cells. Evaluating the sensitivity to anti-cancer agents, we found U251MG-P1 cells were sensitive to doxorubicin with IC50 at 200 nM. Although doxorubicin has serious side-effects, establishment of an efficient therapy targeting undifferentiated glioblastoma cell population is necessary. We previously designed a chlorotoxin peptide fused to human IgG Fc region without hinge sequence (M-CTX-Fc), which exhibited a stronger growth inhibitory effect on the glioblastoma cell line A172 than an original chlorotoxin peptide. Combining these results together, we designed M-CTX-Fc conjugated liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin and used U251MG-P1 cells as the target model in this study. The liposome modified with M-CTX-Fc was designed with a diameter of approximately 100-150 nm and showed high encapsulation efficiency, adequate loading capacity of anticancer drug, enhanced antitumor effects demonstrating increasing uptake into the cells in vitro; M-CTX-Fc-L-Dox shows great promise in its ability to suppress tumor growth in vivo and it could serve as a template for targeted delivery of other therapeutics.