Connected Health Devices for Health Care in French General Medicine Practice: Cross-Sectional Study.
ABSTRACT: The integration of Connected Health Devices (CHDs) is growing within mobile health (mHealth) and telemedicine, encouraged by institutions and industries. The idea is to improve lifestyle habits and health behaviors as a preventive goal in an aging population with fewer physicians available. However, their ill-defined place in health care does not promote their use in current medical practice.The primary objective of this study was to quantify CHDs' use rate by general practitioners (GPs). A secondary objective was to evaluate their benefits and limitations in usual care.A cross-sectional study through an Internet-based survey was addressed to French GPs via regional medical unions and continuous education agencies, supplemented with an informative website, from March 2015 to July 2015. Surveys where either the form was insufficiently filled or the main question was left unanswered were excluded from the study.A total of 1084 answers were analyzed, of which 19.46% (211/1084, 95% CI 17.1-21.8) GPs used CHDs, and 10.15% (110/1084, 95% CI 8.5-12.1) prescribed a CHD. CHD users statistically prescribed more CHDs (7.38% [80/1084] in the user group vs 2.86% [31/1084] in nonusers; P<.001) and were more likely to use them in the future. Major interests in their utilization were in patient monitoring for 84.96% (921/1084) and patient education for 75.83% (822/1084), especially for diabetes (89.67%, 972/1084) and hypertension (84.13%, 912/1084). Generated data had to be managed securely by the patient primarily for 85.79% (930/1084) of the GPs. CHDs had to not constrain GPs outside clinical consultation, nor restrain their time for 75.83% (822/1084). Additional actors in patient care were not desired for 79.98% (867/1084) of the GPs. Questions about data management issues and technical difficulties were raised.CHDs are little used by French GPs and even less prescribed to their patients, as only a few GPs use these tools. Their benefits as tools of patient empowerment, although expected, remain to be demonstrated in real-life setups.
Project description:Improved treatment of congenital heart defects (CHDs) has resulted in women with CHDs living to childbearing age. However, no US population-based systems exist to estimate pregnancy frequency or complications among women with CHDs. Cases were identified in multiple data sources from 3 surveillance sites: Emory University (EU) whose catchment area included 5 metropolitan Atlanta counties; Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MA) whose catchment area was statewide; and New York State Department of Health (NY) whose catchment area included 11 counties. Cases were categorized into one of 5 mutually exclusive CHD severity groups collapsed to severe versus not severe; specific ICD-9-CM codes were used to capture pregnancy, gestational complications, and nongestational co-morbidities in women, age 11 to 50 years, with a CHD-related ICD-9-CM code. Pregnancy, CHD severity, demographics, gestational complications, co-morbidities, and insurance status were evaluated. ICD-9-CM codes identified 26,655 women with CHDs, of whom 5,672 (21.3%, range: 12.8% in NY to 22.5% in MA) had codes indicating a pregnancy. Over 3 years, age-adjusted proportion pregnancy rates among women with severe CHDs ranged from 10.0% to 24.6%, and 14.2% to 21.7% for women with nonsevere CHDs. Pregnant women with CHDs of any severity, compared with nonpregnant women with CHDs, reported more noncardiovascular co-morbidities. Insurance type varied by site and pregnancy status. These US population-based, multisite estimates of pregnancy among women with CHD indicate a substantial number of women with CHDs may be experiencing pregnancy and complications. In conclusion, given the growing adult population with CHDs, reproductive health of women with CHD is an important public health issue.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between gifts from pharmaceutical companies to French general practitioners (GPs) and their drug prescribing patterns. DESIGN:Retrospective study using data from two French databases (National Health Data System, managed by the French National Health Insurance system, and Transparency in Healthcare). SETTING:Primary care, France. PARTICIPANTS:41?257 GPs who in 2016 worked exclusively in the private sector and had at least five registered patients. The GPs were divided into six groups according to the monetary value of the received gifts reported by pharmaceutical, medical device, and other health related companies in the Transparency in Healthcare database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The main outcome measures were the amount reimbursed by the French National Health Insurance for drug prescriptions per visit (to the practice or at home) and 11 drug prescription efficiency indicators used by the National Health Insurance to calculate the performance related financial incentives of the doctors. Doctor and patient characteristics were used as adjustment variables. The significance threshold was 0.001 for statistical analyses. RESULTS:The amount reimbursed by the National Health Insurance for drug prescriptions per visit was lower in the GP group with no gifts reported in the Transparency in Healthcare database in 2016 and since its launch in 2013 (no gift group) compared with the GP groups with at least one gift in 2016 (-€5.33 (99.9% confidence interval -€6.99 to -€3.66) compared with the GP group with gifts valued at €1000 or more reported in 2016) (P<0.001). The no gift group also more frequently prescribed generic antibiotics (2.17%, 1.47% to 2.88% compared with the ?€1000 group), antihypertensives (4.24%, 3.72% to 4.77% compared with the ?€1000 group), and statins (12.14%, 11.03% to 13.26% compared with the ?€1000 group) than GPs with at least one gift between 2013 and 2016 (P<0.001). The no gift group also prescribed fewer benzodiazepines for more than 12 weeks (-0.68%, -1.13% to -0.23% compared with the €240-€999 group) and vasodilators (-0.15%, -0.28% to -0.03% compared with the ?€1000 group) than GPs with gifts valued at €240 or more reported in 2016, and more angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors compared with all ACE and sartan prescriptions (1.67%, 0.62% to 2.71%) compared with GPs with gifts valued at €1000 or more reported in 2016 (P<0.001). Differences were not significant for the prescription of aspirin and generic antidepressants and generic proton pump inhibitors. CONCLUSION:The findings suggest that French GPs who do not receive gifts from pharmaceutical companies have better drug prescription efficiency indicators and less costly drug prescriptions than GPs who receive gifts. This observational study is susceptible to residual confounding and therefore no causal relation can be concluded. TRIAL REGISTRATION:OSF register OSF.IO/8M3QR.
Project description:We tested the following hypotheses: (1) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) might use more Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Tests (RADTs) in tonsillitis in children, probably to decrease their diagnostic uncertainty regarding the aetiology of the disease (viral vs due to group A Streptococcus); and (2) GPs not using RADT might prescribe more antibiotics when they are risk averse.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1093 GPs in 2012.Multivariate analyses adjusted on the four stratification variables (age, gender, location and volume of activity, ie, the number of annual consultations) were performed to identify the risk domains associated with indicators of good or poor practice.69.4% of GPs were aware of national guidelines regarding tonsillitis and declared that they had taken these guidelines into account for their last paediatric tonsillitis case. 59.1% declared they used RADT in their last patient aged between 3 and 16 years presenting with tonsillitis; 29.7% of these tests were positive. Among the GPs who used RADT, 30.7% prescribed an antibiotic; 98.3% did either prescribe an antibiotic because of a positive RADT result, or did not prescribe an antibiotic in view of a negative result. Among the GPs who did not use RADT, 50.7% prescribed an antibiotic. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs declared being more aware of and compliant with guidelines (OR=1.56, p<0.01), and used RADTs more often for their last patient (OR=1.30, p<0.05). Among GPs not using RADT in their last patient, risk-averse GPs prescribed more antibiotics compared with risk-tolerant doctors (OR=1.18, p<0.05).Individual risk attitudes influenced GPs' practices in tonsillitis, particularly the use of RADTs and antibiotic prescriptions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improved treatment of congenital heart defects (CHDs) has increased survival of persons with CHDs; however, no U.S. population-based systems exist to assess prevalence, healthcare utilization, or longer-term outcomes among adolescents and adults with CHDs. METHODS:Novel approaches identified individuals aged 11-64?years who received healthcare with ICD-9-CM codes for CHDs at three sites: Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia (EU), Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MA), New York State Department of Health (NY) between January 1, 2008 (2009 for MA) and December 31, 2010. Case-finding sources included outpatient clinics; Medicaid and other claims data; and hospital inpatient, outpatient, and emergency visit data. Supplemental information came from state vital records (EU, MA), and birth defects registries (EU, NY). Demographics and diagnostic and procedural codes were linked, de-duplicated, and shared in a de-identified dataset. Cases were categorized into one of five mutually exclusive CHD severity groups; non-cardiac comorbidity codes were grouped into broad categories. RESULTS:73,112 individuals with CHD codes in healthcare encounters were identified. Primary data source type varied: clinics (EU, NY for adolescents), claims (MA), hospital (NY for adults). There was a high rate of missing data for some variables and data varied in format and quality. Some diagnostic codes had poor specificity for CHD ascertainment. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first population-based, multi-site CHD surveillance among adolescents and adults in the U.S. Identification of people living with CHDs through healthcare encounters using multiple data sources was feasible, though data quality varied and linkage/de-duplication was labor-intensive.
Project description:Because of advancements in care, there has been a decline in mortality from congenital heart defects (CHDs) over the past several decades. However, there are no current empirical data documenting the number of people living with CHDs in the United States. Our aim was to estimate the CHD prevalence across all age groups in the United States in the year 2010.The age-, sex-, and severity-specific observed prevalence of CHDs in Québec, Canada, in the year 2010 was assumed to equal the CHD prevalence in the non-Hispanic white population in the United States in 2010. A race-ethnicity adjustment factor, reflecting differential survival between racial-ethnic groups through 5 years of age for individuals with a CHD and that in the general US population, was applied to the estimated non-Hispanic white rates to derive CHD prevalence estimates among US non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Confidence intervals for the estimated CHD prevalence rates and case counts were derived from a combination of Taylor series approximations and Monte Carlo simulation.We estimated that ?2.4 million people (1.4 million adults, 1 million children) were living with CHDs in the United States in 2010. Nearly 300?000 of these individuals had severe CHDs.Our estimates highlight the need for 2 important efforts: planning for health services delivery to meet the needs of the growing population of adults with CHD and the development of surveillance data across the life span to provide empirical estimates of the prevalence of CHD across all age groups in the United States.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Dextropropoxyphene (DXP), a step 2 analgesic commonly prescribed in France, was withdrawn from the French market in 2011 following a European decision due to its poor risk-benefit ratio. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of French general practitioners (GPs) and patients regarding DXP withdrawal. DESIGN:Qualitative study based on 26 individual semi-structured interviews. SETTING:Rhône-Alpes region of France. PARTICIPANTS:Thirteen patients and 13 GPs. METHODS:Interviews were conducted to collect data concerning the status of DXP, its efficacy and safety, the conditions of DXP's withdrawal and its potential impact. The transcripts were analysed using NVivo software. RESULTS:DXP was a very popular drug among both patients and GPs. Its withdrawal was a bad experience for patients and many GPs; these misunderstood the reasons for its withdrawal and several contested them. They generally recognised more benefits than risks of DXP and considered alternative drugs unsatisfactory. In the same period, a French court case regarding another drug led to distrust towards the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare institutions, which contributed to the negative feelings reported. However, the experience was positive for the GPs who had been alerted to the poor DXP risk-benefit ratio well before its withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS:Apart from physicians who were previously informed of its poor risk-benefit ratio, DXP withdrawal was not a good experience for patients and GPs. Better anticipation by the health authorities, in terms of pharmacoepidemiological surveillance and communication to healthcare professionals as well as the general public, should provide better acceptance of such a decision in the future.
Project description:To evaluate perinatal outcomes and congenital heart defect (CHD) prognosis in a non-selected population.The population-based surveillance data used in this assessment of CHDs were based on birth defect surveillance data collected from 2010-2012 in Liuyang City, China. Infants living with CHDs were followed up for 5 years to determine their prognosis. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, perinatal outcomes, and total and type-specific prognosis data were assessed using SPSS 18.0.In total, 190 CHD cases were identified among the 53313 included perinatal infants (PIs), indicating a CHD prevalence of 35.64 per 10000 PIs in this non-selected population. The five most frequently identified types of CHDs were ventricular septal defects (VSDs, 38.95%), atrial septal defects (ASDs, 15.79%), cardiomegaly (7.89%), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, 5.79%), and atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs, 5.26%). Of the 190 CHD cases, 110 (57.89%) were diagnosed prenatally, 30 (15.79%) were diagnosed with associated malformations, and 69 (36.32%) resulted in termination of pregnancy (TOP). Moreover, 15 (7.89%) PIs died within 7 days after delivery, and 42 (22.10%) died within 1 year. In contrast, 79 (41.58%) were still alive after 5 years. When TOP cases were included, the 5-year survival rate of PIs with prenatally detected CHDs was lower than that of PIs with postnatally detected CHDs (25.45% vs. 63.75%). The CHD subtype associated with the highest rate of infant (less than 1 year old) mortality was transposition of the great arteries (100%). The subtypes associated with higher 5-year survival rates were patent ductus arteriosus (80%), ASD (63.33%), VSD (52.70%) and AVSD (50%).The rates of prenatal CHD detection and TOP were high in this study population, and the 5-year survival rate of PIs with CHDs was low. The government should strengthen efforts to educate pediatricians regarding this issue and provide financial assistance to improve the prognosis of infants living with CHDs, especially during the first year of life.
Project description:Background:Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common congenital anomaly. The causes of CHDs are largely unknown. Higher prenatal body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with increased risk of CHDs. Whether these are causal is unclear. Methods and Results:Seven European birth cohorts including 232,390 offspring (2,469 CHD cases [1.1%]) were included. We applied negative exposure paternal control analyses to explore the intrauterine effects of maternal BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, on offspring CHDs and CHD severity. We used logistic regression and combined estimates using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analyses of BMI categories resulted in similar increased odds of CHD in overweight (mothers OR: 1.15 (1.01, 1.31) and fathers 1.10 (0.96, 1.27)) and obesity (mothers OR: 1.12 (0.93, 1.36) and fathers 1.16 (0.90, 1.50)). The association of mean BMI with CHD was null. Maternal smoking was associated with increased odds of CHD (OR: 1.11 (0.97, 1.25)) but paternal smoking was not (OR: 0.96 (0.85, 1.07)). The difference increased when removing offspring with genetic/chromosomal defects (mothers OR: 1.15 (1.01, 1.32) and fathers 0.93 (0.83, 1.05)). The positive association with maternal pregnancy smoking appeared to be driven by non-severe CHD cases (OR: 1.22 (1.04, 1.44)). Associations with maternal (OR: 1.16 (0.52, 2.58)) and paternal (OR: 1.23 (0.74, 2.06)) moderate/heavy pregnancy alcohol consumption were similar. Conclusions:We found evidence of an intrauterine effect for maternal smoking on offspring CHDs, but no evidence for higher maternal BMI or alcohol consumption. Our findings provide further support for why smoking cessation is important during pregnancy.
Project description:Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), integrating the additive associations of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CHD, we examined the consequences of the joint presence of a high GPS and conventional risk factors (CRFs).We studied 11 SNPs at eight loci in 197 participants with prior CHD and 524 CHD-free subjects from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Each polymorphism contributed 1 unit (high-risk allele homozygous), 0.5 units (heterozygous) and 0 units (low-risk allele homozygous) to the GPS. Odds ratio (OR) of CHD for those at high risk because of GPS (>5) and simultaneous presence of CRFs were estimated, compared with subjects at low risk, for both measurements. The mean score was higher in participants with prior CHD than those CHD-free (P=0.015), and the OR for CHD with a GPS>5 was 2.90 (P<0.001).The joint presence of a high GPS and each CRF was associated with higher risk of CHD. Compared to participants with high GPS, those with low GPS (<or=5) were protected against CHD even if they were smokers (OR=0.44), heavy drinkers (OR=0.43), displayed low physical activity (OR=0.35), had hypertension (OR=0.52) or hyperlipidemia (OR=0.34) (P values ranging from 0.004 to 0.023).A simple genetic score of 11 polymorphisms may identify those subjects at increased risk of CHD beyond conventional risk factors.