Versatile and on-demand biologics co-production in yeast.
ABSTRACT: Current limitations to on-demand drug manufacturing can be addressed by technologies that streamline manufacturing processes. Combining the production of two or more drugs into a single batch could not only be useful for research, clinical studies, and urgent therapies but also effective when combination therapies are needed or where resources are scarce. Here we propose strategies to concurrently produce multiple biologics from yeast in single batches by multiplexing strain development, cell culture, separation, and purification. We demonstrate proof-of-concept for three biologics co-production strategies: (i) inducible expression of multiple biologics and control over the ratio between biologic drugs produced together; (ii) consolidated bioprocessing; and (iii) co-expression and co-purification of a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies. We then use these basic strategies to produce drug mixtures as well as to separate drugs. These strategies offer a diverse array of options for on-demand, flexible, low-cost, and decentralized biomanufacturing applications without the need for specialized equipment.
Project description:Current biopharmaceutical manufacturing systems are not compatible with portable or distributed production of biologics, as they typically require the development of single biologic-producing cell lines followed by their cultivation at very large scales. Therefore, it remains challenging to treat patients in short time frames, especially in remote locations with limited infrastructure. To overcome these barriers, we developed a platform using genetically engineered Pichia pastoris strains designed to secrete multiple proteins on programmable cues in an integrated, benchtop, millilitre-scale microfluidic device. We use this platform for rapid and switchable production of two biologics from a single yeast strain as specified by the operator. Our results demonstrate selectable and near-single-dose production of these biologics in <24?h with limited infrastructure requirements. We envision that combining this system with analytical, purification and polishing technologies could lead to a small-scale, portable and fully integrated personal biomanufacturing platform that could advance disease treatment at point-of-care.
Project description:Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics.
Project description:The achievements of cell-based therapeutics have galvanized efforts to bring cell therapies to the market. To address the demands of the clinical and eventual commercial-scale production of cells, and with the increasing generation of large clinical datasets from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy, from transplants of engineered haematopoietic stem cells and from other promising cell therapies, an emphasis on biomanufacturing requirements becomes necessary. Robust infrastructure should address current limitations in cell harvesting, expansion, manipulation, purification, preservation and formulation, ultimately leading to successful therapy administration to patients at an acceptable cost. In this Review, we highlight case examples of cutting-edge bioprocessing technologies that improve biomanufacturing efficiency for cell therapies approaching clinical use.
Project description:In 2017, the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Global Alliance for Rabies control developed a strategic plan to end human rabies deaths by 2030. A survey for manufacturing capacity and product characteristics of rabies biologics was conducted to inform this process. Twenty-three of 42 manufacturers, responded, giving a market capacity for 2017 of 90 million vials for human vaccines, 2.5 million vials for rabies immunoglobulins, 2 million vials for monoclonal antibodies and 181 million vials for dog vaccines. Production capacity could be increased by many manufacturers but was limited by country demand, lack of long-term planning and restricted market expansion. Should countries implement national rabies elimination programmes where biologic needs are forecasted and production lead times respected, manufacturers can meet future supply needs towards global elimination of human dog-mediated rabies deaths.
Project description:The advent of “at will” production of biologics in lieu of harvesting animal proteins (i.e. insulin) or human cadaver proteins (i.e. growth hormone) has revolutionized the treatment of disease. While the fruits of the biotechnology revolution are widely acknowledged, the realization of the differences in the means of production and changes in the manner of control of potential impurities and contaminants in regard to the new versus the old are less widely appreciated. This chapter is an overview of the biologics revolution in terms of the rigors of manufacturing required to produce them, their mechanism of action, and caveats of endotoxin control. It is a continulation of the previous chapter that established a basic background knowledge of adaptive immune principles necessary to understand the mode of action of both disease causation and biologics therapeutic treatment via immune modulation.
Project description:Conventional manufacturing of protein biopharmaceuticals in centralized, large-scale, single-product facilities is not well-suited to the agile production of drugs for small patient populations or individuals. Previous solutions for small-scale manufacturing are limited in both process reproducibility and product quality, owing to their complicated means of protein expression and purification. We describe an automated, benchtop, multiproduct manufacturing system, called Integrated Scalable Cyto-Technology (InSCyT), for the end-to-end production of hundreds to thousands of doses of clinical-quality protein biologics in about 3 d. Unlike previous systems, InSCyT includes fully integrated modules for sustained production, efficient purification without the use of affinity tags, and formulation to a final dosage form of recombinant biopharmaceuticals. We demonstrate that InSCyT can accelerate process development from sequence to purified drug in 12 weeks. We used integrated design to produce human growth hormone, interferon ?-2b and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with highly similar processes on this system and show that their purity and potency are comparable to those of marketed reference products.
Project description:Manufacturability of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies from the Chemistry, Manufacture, and Controls (CMC) perspective has received little attention during early drug discovery. Despite the success of protein engineering in improving antibody biophysical properties, a clear gap still exists between rational design of IgG4 candidates and their manufacturing suitability. Here, we illustrate that undesirable two-peak elution profiles in cation-exchange chromatography are attributed to the S228P mutation (in IgG4 core-hinge region) intentionally designed to prevent Fab-arm exchange. A new scaffolding platform for engineering IgG4 antibodies amenable to bioprocessing and bioanalysis is proposed by introducing an "IgG1-like" single-point mutation in the hinge or CH1 region of IgG4S228P. This work offers insight into the design, discovery, and development of innovative therapeutic antibodies that are well suited for robust biomanufacturing and quality control.
Project description:Biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and genetically modified enzymes) offer a promising class of therapeutics to treat substance use disorders (SUD) involving abuse of opioids and stimulants such as nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In contrast to small molecule medications targeting brain receptors, biologics for SUD are larger molecules that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but target the drug itself, preventing its distribution to the brain and blunting its effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Active and passive immunization approaches rely on antibodies (Ab) that bind drugs of abuse in serum and block their distribution to the brain, preventing the rewarding effects of drugs and addiction-related behaviors. Alternatives to vaccines and anti-drug mAb are genetically engineered human or bacterial enzymes that metabolize drugs of abuse, lowering the concentration of free active drug. Pre-clinical and clinical data support development of effective biologics for SUD.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being treated with biologics and those being treated without biologics.From 8,630 patients with RA in our institution, we enrolled 24 patients who had developed PCP during the course of their treatment. They were divided into two groups according to the treatment they were receiving for RA: the biologics group (n = 12) and the nonbiologics group (n = 12). Clinical characteristics of PCP were compared between the two groups.At PCP diagnosis, the biologics group showed significantly lower serum levels of β-D-glucan and C-reactive protein than the nonbiologics group, while the biologics group had significantly higher lymphocyte counts than the nonbiologics group. In the nonbiologics group, lower lymphocyte counts were associated with higher β-D-glucan levels; however, this was not observed in the biologics group.The finding that RA patients being treated with biologics developed PCP with relatively normal lymphocyte counts and lower β-D-glucan levels suggests that the pathophysiology of PCP in those patients is different from that in patients being treated with other antirheumatic drugs.
Project description:The advent of biologics in dermatologic treatment armentarium has added refreshing dimensions, for it is a major breakthrough. Several agents are now available for use. It is therefore imperative to succinctly comprehend their pharmacokinetics for their apt use. A concerted endeavor has been made to delve on this subject. The major groups of biologics have been covered and include: Drugs acting against TNF-?, Alefacept, Ustekinumab, Rituximab, IVIG and Omalizumab. The relevant pharmacokinetic characteristics have been detailed. Their respective label (approved) and off-label (unapproved) indications have been defined, highlighting their dosage protocol, availability and mode of administration. The evidence level of each indication has also been discussed to apprise the clinician of their current and prospective uses. Individual anti-TNF drugs are not identical in their actions and often one is superior to the other in a particular disease. Hence, the section on anti-TNF agents mentions the literature on each drug separately, and not as a group. The limitations for their use have also been clearly brought out.