Asthma Morbidity, Comorbidities, and Modifiable Factors Among Older Adults.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Asthma morbidity is increased among older adults, especially older adult women. Interventions to improve asthma control in this population are not well described. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (including modifiable factors) associated with asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care center visits (ED/UCV) among older adults. A secondary objective was to investigate sex differences in variables relevant to asthma control. METHODS:Data were obtained from 14,076 older adults ?65 years with active asthma participating in the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey (a random-digit dialed survey) in 40 US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, representative of >2.6 million persons. Weighted, adjusted logistic regression was conducted. RESULTS:One or more asthma-related hospitalizations in the past year were reported by 5.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 5.0% to 6.4%) of participants; 10.6% (95% CI = 9.7% to 11.5%) reported ?1 asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with older adults without asthma-related hospitalizations, adjusted odds were higher among those with ?1 asthma-related hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary artery disease, depression, cockroaches or mold in the home, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. All these factors, except for cockroaches, were associated with asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with males, adjusted odds were higher among females for COPD, depression, obesity, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. CONCLUSIONS:Among older adults, asthma-related hospitalizations and ED/UCV were associated with clinical comorbidities, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Interventions addressing modifiable factors could reduce asthma morbidity among older adults.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Statins are hypothesized to have beneficial effects in asthma management through their pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects. Several studies have examined this relationship, but have yielded conflicting results. This study investigates the effect of statin use on asthma-related hospitalizations and/or emergency department (ED) visits, and whether this relationship varies by concomitant inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in a large cohort of asthma patients. METHODS:Subjects with asthma, a recent history of asthma exacerbation, and who were 18 years or older were selected from the population-based Medco Health Solutions administrative database over a 1 year period. Prescription claims for statins and asthma medications, and asthma-related hospitalizations and/or ED visits were ascertained over a 12 month follow-up period. Subjects were stratified into two groups based on their ICS use. RESULTS:A total of 3747 ICS users and 2905 non-ICS users were included in this study. Statin users represented 21% of ICS users and 11% of non-users. Among ICS users, statin use was significantly associated with decreased odds of asthma-related ED visits (OR?=?0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.94, p?=?0.008), but not with asthma-related hospitalizations (OR?=?1.09, 95% CI 0.92-1.30, p?=?0.31). No significant associations were found among non-ICS users (for asthma-related ED visits: OR?=?0.92, 95% CI 0.57-1.49, p?=?0.73; asthma-related hospitalizations: OR?=?1.10, 95% CI 0.85-1.41, p?=?0.48). The statistical interactions between ICS and statin use on asthma-related hospitalizations and/or ED visits were not significant. CONCLUSION:Statin use is associated with fewer ED visits in asthma patients who are using ICS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Improving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence should improve asthma outcomes.<h4>Objective</h4>In a randomized controlled trial we tested whether an individualized problem-solving (PS) intervention improves ICS adherence and asthma outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>Adults with moderate or severe asthma from clinics serving urban neighborhoods were randomized to PS (ie, defining specific barriers to adherence, proposing/weighing solutions, trying the best, assessing, and revising) or standard asthma education (AE) for 3 months and then observed for 3 months. Adherence was monitored electronically. Outcomes included the following: asthma control, FEV(1), asthma-related quality of life, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. In an intention-to-treat-analysis longitudinal models using random effects and regression were used.<h4>Results</h4>Three hundred thirty-three adults were randomized: 49 ± 14 years of age, 72% female, 68% African American, 7% Latino, mean FEV(1) of 66% ± 19%, and 103 (31%) with hospitalizations and 172 (52%) with ED visits for asthma in the prior year. There was no difference between groups in overall change in any outcome (P > .20). Mean adherence (61% ± 27%) decreased significantly (P = .0004) over time by 14% and 10% in the AE and PS groups, respectively. Asthma control improved overall by 15% (P = .002). In both groups FEV(1) and quality of life improved by 6% (P = .01) and 18% (P < .0001), respectively. However, the improvement in FEV(1) only occurred during monitoring but not subsequently after randomization. Rates of ED visits and hospitalizations did not significantly decrease over the study period.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PS was not better than AE in improving adherence or asthma outcomes. However, monitoring ICS use with provision of medications and attention, which was imposed on both groups, was associated with improvement in FEV(1) and asthma control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Statins have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, yet the effect of statin use on asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations has remained unclear, especially in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine the effect of statin therapy on asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations. METHODS:A cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2001 to 2013. A total of 117,595 adult patients with asthma were included. The outcomes were defined as asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations. Multiple Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the effect of statin use on asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations. RESULTS:There were 3,417 asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations among 117,595 subjects with asthma. Statin users were significantly less likely to experience asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.89) compared with nonstatin users. The risks of asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations were decreased among those with a higher cumulative defined daily dose (DDD), greater average DDD, and longer cumulative-day users than the counterparts. CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggests that statin use is associated with the decreased risk of asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations in patients with asthma. A dose-response effect of statin use is also observed in this study. Therefore, future randomized clinical trials would be warranted to further evaluate the association.
Project description:Local agencies that enforce housing policies can partner with the health care system to target pediatric asthma care. These agencies retain data that can be used to pinpoint potential clusters of high asthma morbidity. We sought to assess whether the density of housing code violations in census tracts-the in-tract asthma-relevant violations (such as the presence of mold or cockroaches) divided by the number of housing units-was associated with population-level asthma morbidity and could be used to predict a hospitalized patient's risk of subsequent morbidity. We found that increased density in housing code violations was associated with population-level morbidity independent of poverty, and that the density explained 22 percent of the variation in rates of asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Children who had been hospitalized for asthma had 1.84 greater odds of a revisit to the emergency department or a rehospitalization within twelve months if they lived in the highest quartile of housing code violation tracts, compared to those living in the lowest quartile. Integrating housing and health data could highlight at-risk areas and patients for targeted interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Exercise-induced wheeze (EIW) has been found to be associated with asthma-related urgent care in school-aged children. Despite asthma's high prevalence and morbidity among adolescents, this association has not been examined in adolescents. We tested the association of EIW and other asthma symptoms to asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations in urban adolescents with probable asthma. We hypothesized that EIW would be associated with urgent care. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study 30,467 high school students (mean age?=?16.0) from 49 NYC schools completed two brief validated measures, one assessing probable asthma and the other the frequency of six asthma symptoms over the past year. Adolescents also reported if in the past year they had an asthma-related ED visit or hospitalization. Analyses presented here included students with probable asthma (n?=?9149). Using logistic regression, we modeled each asthma symptom as a function of ED visits and hospitalizations adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity and asthma severity. Multivariable models included all symptoms to account for the potential interaction between symptoms. RESULTS:Among adolescents with probable asthma, EIW was associated with ED visits and hospitalizations. In multivariable models wheeze without a cold, chest tightness, night wakening, but not EIW, were significantly associated with both ED visits and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS:Unlike findings with younger children, EIW does not appear to be associated with ED visits and hospitalizations among urban adolescents with probable asthma. Instead, symptoms, such as chest tightness and night wakening, appear to be important at identifying adolescents at risk for asthma-related urgent care.
Project description:To assess the relationship between the number of primary care providers (PCPs) in an area and emergency department (ED) visits by older adults.Population-based cross-sectional observational study.Nonfederal EDs in North Carolina in 2010.All older adults (n = 640,086) presenting to a nonfederal ED in North Carolina in 2010.The primary outcome was the number of ED visits by older adults in each ZIP code per 100 adults aged 65 and older living in that ZIP code. A secondary outcome was the number of ED visits not resulting in hospital admission per 100 older adults. The primary predictor variable was the number of PCPs per 100 older residents for each ZIP code. Covariates included those representing healthcare need (Medicare hospitalizations, nursing home beds), predisposing factors for healthcare use (race, education, population density of older adults), and enabling factors (distance to the nearest ED).In a multivariable regression model corrected for spatial clustering, ZIP code characteristics associated with ED visits included more hospitalizations by Medicare beneficiaries, more nursing home beds, and closer proximity to an ED. Number of PCPs per 100 older adult residents in each ZIP code was not associated with ED use, and the 95% confidence limit indicates at most a small effect of PCP availability on ED use.These findings suggest that primary care availability has at most a limited effect on ED use by older adults in North Carolina.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rhinovirus is linked to asthma exacerbations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations in adults. The severity and rates of rhinovirus acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) in adults are uncertain. OBJECTIVES:We sought to determine rhinovirus-associated ARI rates in adults presenting for care in multiple settings and identify factors associated with rhinovirus detection. METHODS:This prospective, population-based cohort enrolled Tennessee residents 18 years or older in the emergency department (ED), outpatient clinics, or hospitalized for ARI from December 2008 to May 2010. Nasal/throat swabs were collected and tested for rhinovirus and other viruses by using RT-PCR. Rates of ED visits and hospitalizations were calculated and rhinovirus-positive and rhinovirus-negative patients were compared. RESULTS:Among 2351 enrollees, rhinovirus was detected in 247 (11%). There were 7 rhinovirus-associated ED visits and 3 hospitalizations per 1000 adults annually. Patients with rhinovirus, compared with virus-negative ARI, were more likely to present with wheezing (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.23-2.35; P < .001), to be a current smoker (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.68-3.19) or live with a smoker (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.10-2.67), have a history of chronic respiratory disease (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.17-2.22), and were less likely to be hospitalized versus seen in the outpatient setting (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.41-0.83). CONCLUSIONS:Rhinovirus is associated with a substantial number of ED visits and hospitalizations for ARIs in adults. There may be modifiable factors that can reduce the likelihood of presenting with rhinovirus-associated ARIs.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship of social support with hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits among older Chinese adults in the United States and its possible mechanism. This was a secondary analysis of data from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (July 2011-June 2013; N = 3,157). After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and functional covariates in logistic regression analyses, significant interaction between social support from spouse and the number of functional limitations in (instrumental) activities of daily living was related to lower odds of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97 [0.95-0.99]) and ED visits (OR = 0.98 [0.96-0.99]). This finding suggests that among older Chinese American adults with functional limitations, more spousal support was related to lower odds of hospitalizations and ED visits. Future studies should comprehensively measure social support (e.g., content, amount) from other sources and investigate how unnecessary acute health service utilization in this population may be reduced by social support interventions.
Project description:Importance:Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood. Hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma are more frequently experienced by minority children and adolescents and those with low socioeconomic status. Objective:To reduce asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits for Medicaid-insured pediatric patients residing in Hamilton County, Ohio. Design, Setting, and Participants:From January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015, a multidisciplinary team used quality-improvement methods and the chronic care model to conduct interventions in inpatient, outpatient, and community settings in a large, urban academic pediatric hospital in Hamilton County, Ohio. Children and adolescents aged 2 to 17 years who resided in Hamilton County, had a diagnosis of asthma, and were Medicaid insured were studied. Interventions:Interventions were implemented in 3 phases: hospital-based inpatient care redesign, outpatient-based care enhancements, and community-based supports. Plan-do-study-act cycles allowed for small-scale implementation of change concepts and rapid evaluation of how such tests affected processes and outcomes of interest. Main Outcomes and Measures:The study measured asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits per 10?000 Medicaid-insured pediatric patients. Data were measured monthly on a rolling 12-month mean basis. Data from multiple previous years were used to establish a baseline. Data were tracked with annotated control charts and with interrupted time-series analysis. Results:Of the estimated 36 000 children and adolescents with asthma in Hamilton County (approximately 13 000 of whom are Medicaid insured and 6000 of whom are cared for in Cincinnati Children's Hospital primary care practices), asthma-related hospitalizations decreased from 8.1 (95% CI, 7.7-8.5) to 4.7 (95% CI, 4.3-5.1) per 10?000 Medicaid patients per month by June 30, 2014, a 41.8% (95% CI, 41.7%-42.0%) relative reduction. Emergency department visits decreased from 21.5 (95% CI, 20.6-22.3) to 12.4 (95% CI, 11.5-13.2) per 10?000 Medicaid patients per month by June 30, 2014, a 42.4% (95% CI, 42.2%-42.6%) relative reduction. Improvements were sustained for the subsequent 12 months. The proportion of patients who were rehospitalized or had a return ED visit for asthma within 30 days of an index hospitalization was reduced from 12% to 7%. The proportion of patients with documented well-controlled asthma in this study's primary care population increased from 48% to 54%. Conclusions and Relevance:An integrated, multilevel approach focused on enhancing availability and accessibility of treatments, removing barriers to adherence, mitigating multidomain risks, augmenting self-management, and creating a collaborative relationship between the family and the health care system was associated with improved asthma outcomes for a population of Medicaid-insured pediatric patients. Similar models used in accountable care organizations or across patient panels and with other chronic conditions could be feasible and warrant evaluation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the contemporary prevalence of intensive glucose-lowering therapy among US adults with diabetes and model the number of hypoglycemia-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations that are attributable to such intensive treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS:US adults with diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels less than 7.0% who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2011 and 2014. Participants were categorized as clinically complex if 75 years or older or with 2 or more activities of daily living limitations, end-stage renal disease, or 3 or more chronic conditions. Intensive treatment was defined as any glucose-lowering medications with HbA1c levels of 5.6% or less or 2 or more with HbA1c levels of 5.7% to 6.4%. First, we quantified the proportion of clinically complex and intensively treated individuals in the NHANES population. Then, we modeled the attributable hypoglycemia-related ED visits/hospitalizations over a 2-year period based on published data for event risk. RESULTS:Almost half (48.8% [10,719,057 of 21,980,034]) of US adults with diabetes (representing 10.7 million US adults) had HbA1c levels less than 7.0%. Among them, 32.3% (3,466,713 of 10,719,057) were clinically complex, and 21.6% (2,309,556 of 10,719,057) were intensively treated, with no difference by clinical complexity. Over a 2-year period, we estimated 31,511 hospitalizations and 30,954 ED visits for hypoglycemia in this population; of these, 4774 (95% CI, 954-9714) hospitalizations and 4804 (95% CI, 862-9851) ED visits were attributable to intensive treatment. CONCLUSION:Intensive glucose-lowering therapy, particularly among vulnerable clinically complex adults, is strongly discouraged because it may lead to hypoglycemia. However, intensive treatment was equally prevalent among US adults, irrespective of clinical complexity. Over a 2-year period, an estimated 9578 hospitalizations and ED visits for hypoglycemia could be attributed to intensive diabetes treatment, particularly among clinically complex patients. Patients at risk for hypoglycemia may benefit from treatment deintensification to reduce hypoglycemia risk and treatment burden.