Functional antagonism of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 prevents cuprizone-induced demyelination.
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that the oral drug Fingolimod (FTY720) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) may act directly on the central nervous system (CNS) and modulate disease pathogenesis and progression in experimental models of MS. However, the specific subtype of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors that mediates the effect of FTY720 on the CNS cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) is elevated in reactive astrocytes in an autoimmunity independent mouse model of MS and that selective S1PR1 modulation is sufficient to ameliorate the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. The non-selective S1PR modulator, FTY720, or a short-lived S1PR1-specific modulator, CYM5442, was administered daily to mice while on cuprizone diet. Both FTY720- and CYM5422-treated mice displayed a significant reduction in oligodendrocyte apoptosis and astrocyte and microglial activation in comparison to vehicle-treated groups, which was associated with decreased production of proinflammatory mediators and down-regulation of astrocytic S1PR1 protein. Interestingly, S1PR1 modulation during the early phase of cuprizone intoxication was required to suppress oligodendrocyte death and consequent demyelination as drug treatment from 10 days after the initiation of cuprizone feeding was no longer effective. CYM5442 treatment during the brief cuprizone exposure significantly prevented Il-1?, Il-6, Cxcl10, and Cxcl3 induction, resulting in suppression of subsequent reactive gliosis and demyelination. Our study identifies functional antagonism of S1PR1 as a major mechanism for the protective effect of FTY720 in the cuprizone model and suggests pathogenic contributions of astrocyte S1PR1 signaling in primary demyelination and its potential as a therapeutic target for CNS inflammation.
Project description:Fingolimod (FTY720) is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator that regulates lymphocyte trafficking and exerts pleiotropic actions on oligodendrocytes (OLGs) and other neural cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of S1P receptors in a non-T-cell model of demyelination, the cuprizone (cupr) model in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with FTY720 (1 mg/kg) led to attenuated injury to OLGs, myelin, and axons in the corpus callosum (percentage of myelinated fibers was 44.7% in cupr-water and 63% in cupr-FTY720). Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were ameliorated when FTY720 was given from d 1, but astrogliosis was augmented when FTY720 was given from wk 4-9. FTY720 did not promote remyelination in this model. The protective effect of FTY720 was associated with decreased interleukin-1? and CCL2 transcripts in the corpus callosum, as well as altered S1P1 expression. Targeted deletion of S1P1 in OLG lineage cells did not lead to obvious clinical phenotype, but resulted in subtle abnormalities in myelin and an increased susceptibility to cupr-induced demyelination. We conclude that S1P receptors expressed by neuroglia are involved in regulating the response to injury, and CNS effects of FTY720 could contribute to its favorable therapeutic response in multiple sclerosis.
Project description:The development of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We now report that bortezomib causes the dysregulation of de novo sphingolipid metabolism in the spinal cord dorsal horn to increase the levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1) ligands, S1P and dihydro-S1P. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological disruption of S1PR1 with multiple S1PR1 antagonists, including FTY720, blocked and reversed neuropathic pain. Mice with astrocyte-specific alterations of S1pr1 did not develop neuropathic pain and lost their ability to respond to S1PR1 inhibition, strongly implicating astrocytes as a primary cellular substrate for S1PR1 activity. At the molecular level, S1PR1 engaged astrocyte-driven neuroinflammation and altered glutamatergic homeostasis, processes blocked by S1PR1 antagonism. Our findings establish S1PR1 as a target for therapeutic intervention and provide insight into cellular and molecular pathways. As FTY720 also shows promising anticancer potential and is FDA approved, rapid clinical translation of our findings is anticipated.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lysophospholipid, has gained relevance to multiple sclerosis through the discovery of FTY720 (fingolimod), recently approved as an oral treatment for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism of action is thought to be immunological through an active phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720-P, that resembles S1P and alters lymphocyte trafficking through receptor subtype S1P(1). However, previously reported expression and in vitro studies of S1P receptors suggested that direct CNS effects of FTY720 might theoretically occur through receptor modulation on neurons and glia. To identify CNS cells functionally contributing to FTY720 activity, genetic approaches were combined with cellular and molecular analyses. These studies relied on the functional assessment, based on clinical score, of conditional null mouse mutants lacking S1P(1) in CNS cell lineages and challenged by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. All conditional null mutants displayed WT lymphocyte trafficking that responded normally to FTY720. In marked contrast, EAE was attenuated and FTY720 efficacy was lost in CNS mutants lacking S1P(1) on GFAP-expressing astrocytes but not on neurons. In situ hybridization studies confirmed that astrocyte loss of S1P(1) was the key alteration in functionally affected mutants. Reductions in EAE clinical scores were paralleled by reductions in demyelination, axonal loss, and astrogliosis. Receptor rescue and pharmacological experiments supported the loss of S1P(1) on astrocytes through functional antagonism by FTY720-P as a primary FTY720 mechanism. These data identify nonimmunological CNS mechanisms of FTY720 efficacy and implicate S1P signaling pathways within the CNS as targets for multiple sclerosis therapies.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with heterogeneous pathophysiology. In its progressive course oligodendrocyte and neuroaxonal damage is sustained by compartmentalized inflammation due to glial dysregulation. Siponimod (BAF312), a modulator of two sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1P1 and S1P5) is the first oral treatment specifically approved for active secondary progressive MS. To address potential direct effects of BAF312 on glial function and glia-neuron interaction, we set up a series of in vitro functional assays with astrocytes generated from human fibroblasts. These cells displayed the typical morphology and markers of astroglia, and were susceptible to the action of inflammatory mediators and BAF312, because expressing receptors for IL1, IL17, and S1P (namely S1P1 and S1P3). Targeting of S1P signaling by BAF312 inhibited NF?B translocation evoked by inflammatory cytokines, indicating a direct anti-inflammatory activity of the drug on the human astrocyte. Further, while glia cells exposed to IL1 or IL17 downregulated protein expression of glutamate transporters, BAF312-treated astrocytes maintained high levels of GLAST and GLT1 regardless of the presence of inflammatory mediators. Interestingly, despite potential glial susceptibility to S1P signaling via S1P3, which is not targeted by BAF312, NF?B translocation and downregulation of glutamate transporters in response to S1P were inhibited at similar levels by BAF312 and FTY720, another S1P signaling modulator targeting also S1P3. Accordingly, specific inhibition of S1P1 via NIBR-0213 blocked S1P-evoked NF?B translocation, demonstrating that modulation of S1P1 is sufficient to dampen signaling via other S1P receptors. Considering that NF?B-dependent responses are regulated by Nrf2, we measured activation of this critical transcription factor for anti-oxidant reactions, and observed that BAF312 rapidly induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, but this effect was attenuated in the presence of an inflammatory milieu. Finally, in vitro experiments with spinal neurons exposed to astrocyte-conditioned media showed that modulation of S1P or cytokine signaling in astrocytes via BAF312 prevented neurons from astrocyte-induced degeneration. Overall, these experiments on human astrocytes suggest that during neuroinflammation targeting of S1P1 via BAF312 may modulate key astrocyte functions and thereby attain neuroprotection indirectly.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory CNS demyelinating disease in which remyelination largely fails. Transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) and TNF receptor 2 are important for remyelination in experimental MS models, but it is unknown whether soluble TNF (solTNF), a major proinflammatory factor, is involved in regeneration processes. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of solTNF to demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model. Treatment with XPro1595, a selective inhibitor of solTNF that crosses the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), in cuprizone-fed mice did not prevent toxin-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, but it permitted profound early remyelination due to improved phagocytosis of myelin debris by CNS macrophages and prevented disease-associated decline in motor performance. The beneficial effects of XPro1595 were absent in TNF-deficient mice and replicated in tmTNF-knockin mice, showing that tmTNF is sufficient for the maintenance of myelin and neuroprotection. These findings demonstrate that solTNF inhibits remyelination and repair in a cuprizone demyelination model and suggest that local production of solTNF in the CNS might be one reason why remyelination fails in MS. These findings also suggest that disinhibition of remyelination by selective inhibitors of solTNF that cross the BBB might represent a promising approach for treatment in progressive MS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Recent studies have suggested diverse mechanisms as underlying demyelination, including a subset of lesions induced by an interaction between metabolic insult to oligodendrocytes and inflammatory mediators. For mice of susceptible strains, cuprizone feeding results in oligodendrocyte cell loss and demyelination of the corpus callosum. Remyelination ensues and has been extensively studied. Cuprizone-induced demyelination remains incompletely characterized. We found that mice lacking the type 2 CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR2) were relatively resistant to cuprizone-induced demyelination and that circulating CXCR2-positive neutrophils were important for cuprizone-induced demyelination. Our findings support a two-hit process of cuprizone-induced demyelination, supporting the idea that multiple sclerosis pathogenesis features extensive oligodendrocyte cell loss. These data suggest that cuprizone-induced demyelination is useful for modeling certain aspects of multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.
Project description:Fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya), a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is one of the first-line immunomodulatory therapies for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Human S1PR1 variants have been reported to have functional heterogeneity in vitro, suggesting that S1PR1 function may influence FTY720 efficacy. In this study, we examined the influence of S1PR1 phosphorylation on response to FTY720 in neuroinflammation. We found that mice carrying a phosphorylation-defective S1pr1 gene [S1PR1(S5A) mice] were refractory to FTY720 treatment in MOG35-55-immunized and Th17-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. Long-term treatment with FTY720 induced significant lymphopenia and suppressed Th17 response in the peripheral immune system via downregulating STAT3 phosphorylation in both WT and S1PR1(S5A) mice. However, FTY720 did not effectively prevent neuroinflammation in the S1PR1(S5A) EAE mice as a result of encephalitogenic cells expressing C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6). Combined treatment with FTY720 and anti-CCR6 delayed disease progression in S1PR1(S5A) EAE mice, suggesting that CCR6-mediated cell trafficking can overcome the effects of FTY720. This work may have translational relevance regarding FTY720 efficacy in MS patients and suggests that cell type-specific therapies may enhance therapeutic efficacy in MS.
Project description:Laquinimod (LAQ) is a new oral immunomodulatory compound that reduces relapse rate, brain atrophy and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). LAQ has well-documented effects on inflammation in the periphery, but little is known about its direct activity within the central nervous system (CNS). To elucidate the impact of LAQ on CNS-intrinsic inflammation, we investigated the effects of LAQ on cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice in vivo and on primary CNS cells in vitro. Demyelination, inflammation, axonal damage and glial pathology were evaluated in LAQ-treated wild type and Rag-1-deficient mice after cuprizone challenge. Using primary cells we tested for effects of LAQ on oligodendroglial survival as well as on cytokine secretion and NF-?B activation in astrocytes and microglia. LAQ prevented cuprizone-induced demyelination, microglial activation, axonal transections, reactive gliosis and oligodendroglial apoptoses in wild type and Rag-1-deficient mice. LAQ significantly decreased pro-inflammatory factors in stimulated astrocytes, but not in microglia. Oligodendroglial survival was not affected by LAQ in vitro. Astrocytic, but not microglial, NF-?B activation was markedly reduced by LAQ as evidenced by NF-?B reporter assay. LAQ also significantly decreased astrocytic NF-?B activation in cuprizone-treated mice. Our data indicate that LAQ prevents cuprizone-induced demyelination by attenuating astrocytic NF-?B activation. These effects are CNS-intrinsic and not mediated by peripheral immune cells. Therefore, LAQ downregulation of the astrocytic pro-inflammatory response may be an important mechanism underlying its protective effects on myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons. Modulation of astrocyte activation may be an attractive therapeutic target to prevent tissue damage in MS.
Project description:Different types of insults to the CNS lead to axon demyelination. Remyelination occurs when the CNS attempts to recover from myelin loss and requires the activation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. With the rationale that CB1 receptor is expressed in oligodendrocytes and marijuana consumption alters CNS myelination, we study the effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212.2 in (1) an in vitro model of oligodendrocyte differentiation and (2) the cuprizone model for demyelination.The synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55212.2 at 1 ?M increased the myelin basic protein mRNA and protein expression in vitro. During cuprizone-induced acute demyelination, the administration of 0.5 mg/kg WIN55212.2 confers more myelinated axons, increased the expression of retinoid X receptor alpha, and declined nogo receptor expression. Controversially, 1 mg/kg of the drug increased the number of demyelinated axons and reduced the expression of nerve growth factor inducible, calreticulin and myelin-related genes coupling specifically with a decrease in 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase expression.The cannabinoid agonist WIN55212.2 promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. Moreover, 0.5 mg/kg of the drug confers neuroprotection during cuprizone-induced demyelination, while 1 mg/kg aggravates the demyelination process.
Project description:Current multiple sclerosis (MS) medications are mainly immunomodulatory, having little or no effect on neuroregeneration of damaged central nervous system (CNS) tissue; they are thus primarily effective at the acute stage of disease, but much less so at the chronic stage. An MS therapy that has both immunomodulatory and neuroregenerative effects would be highly beneficial. Using multiple in vivo and in vitro strategies, in the present study we demonstrate that ursolic acid (UA), an antiinflammatory natural triterpenoid, also directly promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelin repair. Oral treatment with UA significantly decreased disease severity and CNS inflammation and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Importantly, remyelination and neural repair in the CNS were observed even after UA treatment was started on day 60 post immunization when EAE mice had full-blown demyelination and axonal damage. UA treatment also enhanced remyelination in a cuprizone-induced demyelination model in vivo and brain organotypic slice cultures ex vivo and promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in vitro, indicating a direct myelinating capacity. Mechanistically, UA induced promyelinating neurotrophic factor CNTF in astrocytes by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?(PPAR?)/CREB signaling, as well as by up-regulation of myelin-related gene expression during oligodendrocyte maturation via PPAR? activation. Together, our findings demonstrate that UA has significant potential as an oral antiinflammatory and neural repair agent for MS, especially at the chronic-progressive stage.