Comparison of up-front treatments for newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia -a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone have been established as up-front therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia. Recent studies have indicated that other treatments such as rituximab or thrombopoietin receptor agonist can also be effective choices. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to establish a clinically meaningful hierarchy of efficacy and safety of treatments for newly diagnosed primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults. Randomized controlled trials evaluating medical treatments for newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia were included. Reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The main outcome was the sustained response (platelet count >30×109/L for 3-6 months after completion of treatments), while overall response (platelet count >30×109/L for 2-4 weeks after initiation of the up-front treatment) and therapy-related adverse events were the secondary endpoints. A total of 21 randomized controlled trials (1898 patients) were included in this study. Our main findings were a significantly better sustained response in the recombinant human thrombopoietin+dexamethasone and rituximab+dexamethasone arms compared to those of conventional therapies (prednisolone and dexamethasone monotherapy). Moreover, recombinant human thrombopoietin+dexamethasone and +prednisolone improved early overall response compared to prednisolone, dexamethasone, and rituximab-containing regimens. Therapy-related adverse events showed similar profiles and were tolerable in all treatment arms. Regimens containing recombinant human thrombopoietin agonist may be beneficial up-front therapies in addition to the conventional corticosteroid monotherapies. Future head-to-head trials including these regimens and rituximab-containing treatments are necessary in order to overcome the limitations of the small number in our study and determine the most suitable initial therapies for newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:Persistent immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients require second-line treatments, for which information on clinical outcomes are lacking. A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted. Only randomised controlled trials (RCT) of second-line drugs in adult persistent ITP patients with platelet response, platelet count, any bleeding or serious adverse events (SAE) outcome were eligible. Twelve RCTs (n = 1313) were included in NMA. For platelet response outcome, eltrombopag and romiplostin were the best relative to placebo; the former had a non-significant advantage [risk ratio (RR) = 1·10 (95% confidence interval: 0·46, 2·67)]. Both treatments were superior to rituximab and recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO)+rituximab, with corresponding RRs of 4·56 (1·89, 10·96) and 4·18 (1·21, 14·49) for eltrombopag; 4·13 (1·56, 10·94) and 3·79 (1·02, 14·09) for romiplostim. For platelet count, romiplostim ranked highest, followed by eltrombopag, rhTPO+rituximab, and rituximab. For bleeding, rituximab had lowest risk, followed by eltrombopag and romiplostim. For SAEs, rhTPO+rituximab had highest risk, followed by rituximab, eltrombopag and romiplostim. From clustered ranking, romiplostim had the best balance between short-term efficacy and SAEs, followed by eltrombopag. In conclusion, romiplostim and eltrombopag may yield high efficacy and safety. Rituximab may not be beneficial due to lower efficacy and higher complications compared with the thrombopoietin receptor agonists. RCTs with long-term clinical outcomes are required.
Project description:Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a bleeding disorder caused by a decrease in platelet count resulting from increased destruction and insufficient production of platelets. Although impaired regulatory T-lymphocyte activity plays a critical role in platelet destruction, many other immunologic abnormalities are also likely to be involved. Importantly, patients with ITP appear to have defects in a thrombopoietin-mediated physiological mechanism that compensates for a decrease in platelet count by increasing platelet production. Thus, simultaneous treatment of multiple pathogenic pathways involved in ITP could potentially result in synergistic efficacy. While conventional treatments for ITP suppress or modulate the immune system to reduce platelet destruction, a unique class of ITP therapy, namely thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs), improves platelet production by activating the thrombopoietin pathway. As hypothesized, preliminary studies show that combinations of eltrombopag, an oral TPO-RA, with conventional treatments improve outcomes in both newly diagnosed and refractory patients. In this review, the clinical experience with eltrombopag-based combinations in patients with ITP is summarized and the implications of the available data are discussed.
Project description:Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (WM) is a rare lymphoma affecting older patients. Its management largely relies on small phase II trials and it is unclear how their results translate into clinical practice in the community.We evaluated changes in the presentation, management, and survival among 2,666 Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with WM between 1994 and 2011, using Medicare claims linked to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.Prevalence of transfusions, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neuropathy at diagnosis significantly increased over time, whereas the use of plasmapheresis was low (2.5%) and stable. The proportion of patients starting chemotherapy within 1 year of WM diagnosis increased from 39% in 1994 to 62% in 2011 (p < .0001). Treatments based on classic alkylators and purine analogs predominated in the 1990s, but were quickly replaced by rituximab-containing regimens after 2000. Rituximab monotherapy has been prescribed for >50% of patients since 2004, and combination chemoimmunotherapy for a further 30%. Most patients initiating multiagent regimens in 2012-2013 received rituximab with bortezomib or bendamustine. These changes were accompanied by significant improvements in overall and WM-related survival, but also by a significant increase in cost of chemotherapy. Mean Medicare payments for chemotherapy drugs accrued in the first year of treatment rose from $9,464 in 1994-2000 to $29,490 after 2008.Hematologists have rapidly adopted innovative, expensive therapies for WM before completion of randomized trials. This underscores the need to assess the comparative value of such therapies in rare malignancies through a combination of clinical and observational data.Most older patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia currently treated in the U.S. receive rituximab as monotherapy or in combination with bortezomib or bendamustine. Newly designed trials should consider control arms aligned with this prevalent real-life standard. Compared with the 1990s, patients diagnosed according to current criteria are more likely to have anemia or neuropathy, or to receive early chemotherapy, but only 2.5% require plasmapheresis at diagnosis. The incremental clinical value of newly introduced agents needs to be assessed through a combination of clinical and health services research, taking into consideration their associated survival benefits, toxicities, and associated costs of care.
Project description:Secondary thrombotic microangiopathies are associated with several underlying conditions, with most of them being resolved after the treatment of background disease. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare microangiopathy presenting with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neurological deficits, occurring most often in various autoimmune diseases due to inhibition of ADAMTS13 by autoantibodies, as well as in pregnant women with or without an autoimmune substrate. In this article, we report two newly diagnosed TTP cases, who have not been published so far. The first is a 27-year-old woman with a history of polyarticular rheumatoid factor negative juvenile idiopathic arthritis, who presented with thrombocytopenia, anemia, schistocytes on blood smear, headache, and active arthritis. Originally she was treated successfully with plasma exchange, intravenous prednisone, and vincristine, and a few months after the TTP episode, she was commenced on rituximab, resulting in remission of primary disease and no relapse of TTP. The second case refers to a 29-year-old pregnant woman complaining of dizziness and fatigue with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. She was treated with plasma exchanges, intravenous prednisolone, and INN human normal immunoglobulin with full remission of the TTP episode. Six and half years later, she was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and was commenced on interferon beta-1 alpha, with no recurrent episode of TTP. These cases broaden the spectrum of autoimmune disorders manifested or complicated clinically by TTP. Furthermore, biological agents such as rituximab appear to be an effective treatment option for refractory cases of TTP related to systemic rheumatic disease, indicating an alternative therapeutic solution in persistent cases of this disorder.
Project description:Dexamethasone could be more effective than prednisolone at similar anti-inflammatory doses in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In order to check if this "superiority" of dexamethasone might be dose-dependent, we conducted a randomized phase III trial comparing dexamethasone (6 mg/m(2)/day) to prednisolone (60 mg/m(2)/day) in induction therapy. All newly diagnosed children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the 58951 EORTC trial were randomized on prephase day 1 or day 8. The main endpoint was event-free survival; secondary endpoints were overall survival and toxicity. A total of 1947 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were randomized. At a median follow-up of 6.9 years, the 8-year event-free survival rate was 81.5% in the dexamethasone arm and 81.2% in the prednisolone arm; the 8-year overall survival rates were 87.2% and 89.0% respectively. The 8-year incidences of isolated or combined central nervous system relapse were 2.9% and 4.5% in the dexamethasone and prednisolone arms, respectively. The incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities during induction and the frequency of osteonecrosis were similar in the two arms. In conclusion, dexamethasone and prednisolone, used respectively at the doses of 6 and 60 mg/m(2)/day during induction, were equally effective and had a similar toxicity profile. Dexamethasone decreased the 8-year central nervous system relapse incidence by 1.6%. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003728.
Project description:Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder with isolated thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic risk. While many children with ITP can be safely observed, treatments are often needed for various reasons, including to decrease bleeding, or to improve health related quality of life (HRQoL). There are a number of available second-line treatments, including rituximab, thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, oral immunosuppressive agents, and splenectomy, but data comparing treatment outcomes are lacking. ICON1 is a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 120 children starting second-line treatments for ITP designed to compare treatment outcomes including platelet count, bleeding, and HRQoL utilizing the Kids ITP Tool (KIT). While all treatments resulted in increased platelet counts, romiplostim had the most pronounced effect at 6 months (P?=?.04). Only patients on romiplostim and rituximab had a significant reduction in both skin-related (84% to 48%, P?=?.01 and 81% to 43%, P?=?.004) and non-skin-related bleeding symptoms (58% to 14%, P?=?.0001 and 54% to 17%, P?=?.0006) after 1 month of treatment. HRQoL significantly improved on all treatments. However, only patients treated with eltrombopag had a median improvement in KIT scores at 1 month that met the minimal important difference (MID). Bleeding, platelet count, and HRQoL improved in each treatment group, but the extent and timing of the effect varied among treatments. These results are hypothesis generating and help to improve our understanding of the effect of each treatment on specific patient outcomes. Combined with future randomized trials, these findings will help clinicians select the optimal second-line treatment for an individual child with ITP.
Project description:We report on a 28-year old primigravida who presented in the second trimester with sudden onset of bleeding tendencies and thrombocytopenia of 2/nL during the first manifestation of autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and steroids was initiated but could not prevent renewed bleeding incidents and recurrent thrombocytopenia in the long term, thus premature delivery by Caesarean section in the 32?+?3 week of pregnancy could not be avoided. The bleeding complications could only be mastered by multiple thrombocyte transfusions. Because the ITP remained refractory to therapy in the postpartum period a thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA) was administered. This led to an increase in the thrombocyte count which was later stabilised by prednisolone alone.
Project description:High-dose methotrexate based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). The role of rituximab is controversial because of its large size, which limits its penetration of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of adding rituximab to methotrexate-cytarabine-dexamethasone combination therapy (RMAD regimen).The patients treated with RMAD had a complete remission rate of 66.7% after induction chemotherapy; this rate was only 33.3% in patients treated with MAD alone (p = .011). The most common grade 1-3 adverse events were similar and included hematologic toxicity, increased aminotransferase levels, and gastrointestinal reactions. Multivariate analysis revealed that rituximab treatment was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS, p = .005) but not overall survival (OS). Additionally, we observed that elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase was associated with shorter OS and PFS.We retrospectively analyzed 60 immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2010 to June 2016. Twenty-four patients received 3-6 courses of 3.5 g/m2 methotrexate on day 1; 0.5-1 g/m2 cytarabine on day 2; and 5-10 mg dexamethasone on days 1, 2 and 3. Thirty-six patients received the same combination plus rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day 0. All patients repeated the treatment every 3 weeks.High-dose methotrexate based chemotherapy with rituximab yields a higher complete remission rate and does not increase serious toxicities. PFS benefits from the addition of rituximab. OS has an increasing trend in patients treated with rituximab without statistical significance.
Project description:Glucocorticoids are used in the curative treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Resistance to glucocorticoids is an important adverse prognostic factor in newly diagnosed ALL patients but its mechanism is unknown. Because SWI/SNF complex-mediated chromatin remodeling is required for glucocorticoid transcriptional activity in vitro, we investigated whether expression of subunits of the SWI/SNF complex was related to glucocorticoid resistance in ALL.Gene expression and in vitro sensitivity to prednisolone and dexamethasone were assessed in a training set of primary ALL cells from 177 children with newly diagnosed ALL and a validation set of cells from an independent cohort of 95 ALL patients. The global test method was used to select pathways whose genes were associated with drug sensitivity. Genes involved in chromatin remodeling were identified by use of the Gene Ontology database. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knock down mRNA expression of SMARCA4 in glucocorticoid-sensitive Jurkat human ALL cells. Spearman rank correlation, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression were used to investigate associations between gene expression and glucocorticoid sensitivity. All statistical tests were two-sided.Statistically significant associations between decreased expression in ALL cells of genes for core subunits of the SWI/SNF complex-SMARCA4, ARID1A, and SMARCB1-and resistance to prednisolone and dexamethasone were identified in the training cohort. In the validation cohort, expression of SMARCA4 (P < .001 and r = -0.43), ARID1A (P = .016 and r = -0.29), and SMARCB1 (P = .019 and r = -0.29) in ALL cells was statistically significantly associated with dexamethasone sensitivity, and SMARCA4 expression (P = .018 and r = -0.28) was statistically significantly associated with prednisolone sensitivity. Prednisolone resistance was higher in SMARCA4 shRNA-transfected Jurkat cells (drug concentration lethal to 50% of the leukemia cells [LC(50)] = 277 microM) than in control shRNA-transfected cells (LC(50) = 174 microM, difference = 103 microM, 95% confidence interval of the difference = 100 to 106 microM; P < .001, t test).Decreased expression of as many as three subunits of the SWI/SNF complex appears to be associated with glucocorticoid resistance in primary ALL cells.