Combining multi-modality data for searching biomarkers in schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT: Identification of imaging biomarkers for schizophrenia is an important but still challenging problem. Even though considerable efforts have been made over the past decades, quantitative alterations between patients and healthy subjects have not yet provided a diagnostic measure with sufficient high sensitivity and specificity. One of the most important reasons is the lack of consistent findings, which is in part due to single-mode study, which only detects single dimensional information by each modality, and thus misses the most crucial differences between groups. Here, we hypothesize that multimodal integration of functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI (sMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might yield more power for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. A novel multivariate data fusion method for combining these modalities is introduced without reducing the dimension or using the priors from 161 schizophrenia patients and 168 matched healthy controls. The multi-index feature for each ROI is constructed and summarized with Wilk's lambda by performing multivariate analysis of variance to calculate the significant difference between different groups. Our results show that, among these modalities, fMRI has the most significant featureby calculating the Jaccard similarity coefficient (0.7416) and Kappa index (0.4833). Furthermore, fusion of these modalities provides the most plentiful information and the highest predictive accuracy of 86.52%. This work indicates that multimodal integration can improve the ability of distinguishing differences between groups and might be assisting in further diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Project description:There is growing evidence that rather than using a single brain imaging modality to study its association with physiological or symptomatic features, the field is paying more attention to fusion of multimodal information. However, most current multimodal fusion approaches that incorporate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are restricted to second-level 3D features, rather than the original 4D fMRI data. This trade-off is that the valuable temporal information is not utilized during the fusion step. Here we are motivated to propose a novel approach called "parallel group ICA+ICA" that incorporates temporal fMRI information from group independent component analysis (GICA) into a parallel independent component analysis (ICA) framework, aiming to enable direct fusion of first-level fMRI features with other modalities (e.g., structural MRI), which thus can detect linked functional network variability and structural covariations. Simulation results show that the proposed method yields accurate intermodality linkage detection regardless of whether it is strong or weak. When applied to real data, we identified one pair of significantly associated fMRI-sMRI components that show group difference between schizophrenia and controls in both modalities, and this linkage can be replicated in an independent cohort. Finally, multiple cognitive domain scores can be predicted by the features identified in the linked component pair by our proposed method. We also show these multimodal brain features can predict multiple cognitive scores in an independent cohort. Overall, results demonstrate the ability of parallel GICA+ICA to estimate joint information from 4D and 3D data without discarding much of the available information up front, and the potential for using this approach to identify imaging biomarkers to study brain disorders.
Project description:Multimodal fusion is an effective approach to better understand brain diseases. However, most such instances have been limited to pair-wise fusion; because there are often more than two imaging modalities available per subject, there is a need for approaches that can combine multiple datasets optimally. In this paper, we extended our previous two-way fusion model called "multimodal CCA+joint ICA", to three or N-way fusion, that enables robust identification of correspondence among N data types and allows one to investigate the important question of whether certain disease risk factors are shared or distinct across multiple modalities. We compared "mCCA+jICA" with its alternatives in a 3-way fusion simulation and verified its advantages in both decomposition accuracy and modal linkage detection. We also applied it to real functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)-Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and structural MRI fusion to elucidate the abnormal architecture underlying schizophrenia (n=97) relative to healthy controls (n=116). Both modality-common and modality-unique abnormal regions were identified in schizophrenia. Specifically, the visual cortex in fMRI, the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) and forceps minor in DTI, and the parietal lobule, cuneus and thalamus in sMRI were linked and discriminated between patients and controls. One fMRI component with regions of activity in motor cortex and superior temporal gyrus individually discriminated schizophrenia from controls. Finally, three components showed significant correlation with duration of illness (DOI), suggesting that lower gray matter volumes in parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes and cerebellum are associated with increased DOI, along with white matter disruption in ATR and cortico-spinal tracts. Findings suggest that the identified fractional anisotropy changes may relate to the corresponding functional/structural changes in the brain that are thought to play a role in the clinical expression of schizophrenia. The proposed "mCCA+jICA" method showed promise for elucidating the joint or coupled neuronal abnormalities underlying mental illnesses and improves our understanding of the disease process.
Project description:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a source of information for automatic prediction of individual diagnosis in schizophrenia. Optimal integration of data from different MRI modalities is an active area of research aimed at increasing diagnostic accuracy. Based on a sample of 96 patients with schizophrenia and a matched sample of 115 healthy controls that had undergone a single multimodal MRI session, we generated individual brain maps of gray matter vbm, 1back, and 2back levels of activation (nback fMRI), maps of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (resting-state fMRI), and maps of weighted global brain connectivity (resting-state fMRI). Four unimodal classifiers (Ridge, Lasso, Random Forests, and Gradient boosting) were applied to these maps to evaluate their classification accuracies. Based on the assignments made by the algorithms on test individuals, we quantified the amount of predictive information shared between maps (what we call redundancy analysis). Finally, we explored the added accuracy provided by a set of multimodal strategies that included post-classification integration based on probabilities, two-step sequential integration, and voxel-level multimodal integration through one-dimensional-convolutional neural networks (1D-CNNs). All four unimodal classifiers showed the highest test accuracies with the 2back maps (80% on average) achieving a maximum of 84% with the Lasso. Redundancy levels between brain maps were generally low (overall mean redundancy score of 0.14 in a 0-1 range), indicating that each brain map contained differential predictive information. The highest multimodal accuracy was delivered by the two-step Ridge classifier (87%) followed by the Ridge maximum and mean probability classifiers (both with 85% accuracy) and by the 1D-CNN, which achieved the same accuracy as the best unimodal classifier (84%). From these results, we conclude that from all MRI modalities evaluated task-based fMRI may be the best unimodal diagnostic option in schizophrenia. Low redundancy values point to ample potential for accuracy improvements through multimodal integration, with the two-step Ridge emerging as a suitable strategy.
Project description:Fusing complementary information from different modalities can lead to the discovery of more accurate diagnostic biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However, biomarker discovery through data fusion is challenging since it requires extracting interpretable and reproducible patterns from data sets, consisting of shared/unshared patterns and of different orders. For example, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) signals from multiple subjects can be represented as a third-order tensor with modes: subject, time, and channel, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may be in the form of subject by voxel matrices. Traditional data fusion methods rearrange higher-order tensors, such as EEG, as matrices to use matrix factorization-based approaches. In contrast, fusion methods based on coupled matrix and tensor factorizations (CMTF) exploit the potential multi-way structure of higher-order tensors. The CMTF approach has been shown to capture underlying patterns more accurately without imposing strong constraints on the latent neural patterns, i.e., biomarkers. In this paper, EEG, fMRI, and structural MRI (sMRI) data collected during an auditory oddball task (AOD) from a group of subjects consisting of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, are arranged as matrices and higher-order tensors coupled along the subject mode, and jointly analyzed using structure-revealing CMTF methods [also known as advanced CMTF (ACMTF)] focusing on unique identification of underlying patterns in the presence of shared/unshared patterns. We demonstrate that joint analysis of the EEG tensor and fMRI matrix using ACMTF reveals significant and biologically meaningful components in terms of differentiating between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while also providing spatial patterns with high resolution and improving the clustering performance compared to the analysis of only the EEG tensor. We also show that these patterns are reproducible, and study reproducibility for different model parameters. In comparison to the joint independent component analysis (jICA) data fusion approach, ACMTF provides easier interpretation of EEG data by revealing a single summary map of the topography for each component. Furthermore, fusion of sMRI data with EEG and fMRI through an ACMTF model provides structural patterns; however, we also show that when fusing data sets from multiple modalities, hence of very different nature, preprocessing plays a crucial role.
Project description:By exploiting cross-information among multiple imaging data, multimodal fusion has often been used to better understand brain diseases. However, most current fusion approaches are blind, without adopting any prior information. There is increasing interest to uncover the neurocognitive mapping of specific clinical measurements on enriched brain imaging data; hence, a supervised, goal-directed model that employs prior information as a reference to guide multimodal data fusion is much needed and becomes a natural option. Here, we proposed a fusion with reference model called "multi-site canonical correlation analysis with reference + joint-independent component analysis" (MCCAR+jICA), which can precisely identify co-varying multimodal imaging patterns closely related to the reference, such as cognitive scores. In a three-way fusion simulation, the proposed method was compared with its alternatives on multiple facets; MCCAR+jICA outperforms others with higher estimation precision and high accuracy on identifying a target component with the right correspondence. In human imaging data, working memory performance was utilized as a reference to investigate the co-varying working memory-associated brain patterns among three modalities and how they are impaired in schizophrenia. Two independent cohorts (294 and 83 subjects respectively) were used. Similar brain maps were identified between the two cohorts along with substantial overlaps in the central executive network in fMRI, salience network in sMRI, and major white matter tracts in dMRI. These regions have been linked with working memory deficits in schizophrenia in multiple reports and MCCAR+jICA further verified them in a repeatable, joint manner, demonstrating the ability of the proposed method to identify potential neuromarkers for mental disorders.
Project description:To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses [schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP)] and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives, and 242 healthy controls (1). All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scanning. Joint-independent component analysis (jICA) was used to fuse sMRI gray matter and rs-fMRI amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. jICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function, and schizo-bipolar scale scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality). Using a multivariate-fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers, we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Furthermore, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Group-level results suggest that relative to healthy controls (HCs), ultra-high-risk (UHR) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects show alterations in neuroanatomy, neurofunction and cognition that may be mediated genetically. It is unclear, however, whether these groups can be differentiated at single-subject level, for instance using the machine learning analysis support vector machine (SVM). Here, we used a multimodal approach to examine the ability of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor neuroimaging (DTI), genetic and cognitive data to differentiate between UHR, FEP and HC subjects at the single-subject level using SVM.<h4>Method</h4>Three age- and gender-matched SVM paired comparison groups were created comprising 19, 19 and 15 subject pairs for FEP versus HC, UHR versus HC and FEP versus UHR, respectively. Genetic, sMRI, DTI, fMRI and cognitive data were obtained for each participant and the ability of each to discriminate subjects at the individual level in conjunction with SVM was tested.<h4>Results</h4>Successful classification accuracies (p < 0.05) comprised FEP versus HC (genotype, 67.86%; DTI, 65.79%; fMRI, 65.79% and 68.42%; cognitive data, 73.69%), UHR versus HC (sMRI, 68.42%; DTI, 65.79%), and FEP versus UHR (sMRI, 76.67%; fMRI, 73.33%; cognitive data, 66.67%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results suggest that FEP subjects are identifiable at the individual level using a range of biological and cognitive measures. Comparatively, only sMRI and DTI allowed discrimination of UHR from HC subjects. For the first time FEP and UHR subjects have been shown to be directly differentiable at the single-subject level using cognitive, sMRI and fMRI data. Preliminarily, the results support clinical development of SVM to help inform identification of FEP and UHR subjects, though future work is needed to provide enhanced levels of accuracy.
Project description:We consider the problem of multimodal data integration for the study of complex neurological diseases (e.g. schizophrenia). Among the challenges arising in such situation, estimating the link between genetic and neurological variability within a population sample has been a promising direction. A wide variety of statistical models arose from such applications. For example, Lasso regression and its multitask extension are often used to fit a multivariate linear relationship between given phenotype(s) and associated observations. Other approaches, such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA), are widely used to extract relationships between sets of variables from different modalities. In this paper, we propose an exploratory multivariate method combining these two methods. More Specifically, we rely on a 'CCA-type' formulation in order to regularize the classical multimodal Lasso regression problem. The underlying motivation is to extract discriminative variables that display are also co-expressed across modalities. We first evaluate the method on a simulated dataset, and further validate it using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data for the study of schizophrenia.
Project description:In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).
Project description:Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA?+?jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined. In this study, first-episode schizophrenia patients (nSZ =19) and matched controls (nHC =21) completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan at 7 T. Grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) maps were used as features in a mCCA?+?jICA model. Results of the mCCA?+?jICA model indicated three joint group-discriminating components (GM-CSF, WM-ALFF, GM-ALFF) and two modality-unique group-discriminating components (GM, WM). The joint component findings are highlighted by GM basal ganglia, somatosensory, parietal lobe, and thalamus abnormalities associated with ventricular CSF volume; WM occipital and frontal lobe abnormalities associated with temporal lobe function; and GM frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobe abnormalities associated with caudate function. These results support and extend major findings throughout the literature using independent single modality analyses. The multimodal fusion of 7 T data in this study provides a more comprehensive illustration of the relationships between underlying neuronal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia than examination of imaging data independently.