Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) Enzyme Links Innate Immunity and Altered T-Cell Differentiation in Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a complex interplay between innate and adaptive immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in T-cell activation and regulation by promoting a tolerogenic environment through the expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an intracellular enzyme involved in tryptophan catabolism. IDO expression and activity was analyzed in monocytes derived DCs (MDDCs) from non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients, stable angina (SA) patients and healthy controls (HC) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) before and after in vitro maturation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The amount of tryptophan catabolite; kynurenine; was evaluated in the culture supernatants of mature-MDDCs by ELISA assay. Autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) between mature-MDDCs and naïve T-cells was carried out to study the differentiation towards T-helper 1 (Th1) and induced regulatory T-cells (iTreg). Analysis of IDO mRNA transcripts in mature-MDDCs revealed a significant reduction in cells isolated from NSTEMI (625.0 ± 128.2; mean ± SEM) as compared with those from SA (958.5 ± 218.3; p = 0.041) and from HC (1183.6 ± 231.6; p = 0.034). Furthermore; the concentration of kynurenine was lower in NSTEMI patients (2.78 ± 0.2) and SA (2.98 ± 0.25) as compared with HC (5.1 ± 0.69 ng/mL; p = 0.002 and p = 0.016; respectively). When IDO-competent mature-MDDCs were co-cultured with allogeneic naïve T-cells, the ratio between the percentage of generated Th1 and iTreg was higher in NSTEMI (4.4 ± 2.9) than in SA (1.8 ± 0.6; p = 0.056) and HC (0.9 ± 0.3; p = 0.008). In NSTEMI, the tolerogenic mechanism of the immune response related to IDO production by activated MDDCs is altered, supporting their role in T-cell dysregulation.
Project description:Immature or semi-mature dendritic cells (DCs) represent tolerogenic maturation stages that can convert naive T cells into Foxp3+ induced regulatory T cells (iTreg). Here we found that murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) treated with cholera toxin (CT) matured by up-regulating MHC-II and costimulatory molecules using either high or low doses of CT (CThi, CTlo) or with cAMP, a known mediator CT signals. However, all three conditions also induced mRNA of both isoforms of the tolerogenic molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 2 (CTLA-2α and CTLA-2β). Only DCs matured under CThi conditions secreted IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 leading to the instruction of Th17 cell polarization. In contrast, CTlo- or cAMP-DCs resembled semi-mature DCs and enhanced TGF-β-dependent Foxp3+ iTreg conversion. iTreg conversion could be reduced using siRNA blocking of CTLA-2 and reversely, addition of recombinant CTLA-2α increased iTreg conversion in vitro. Injection of CTlo- or cAMP-DCs exerted MOG peptide-specific protective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by inducing Foxp3+ Tregs and reducing Th17 responses. Together, we identified CTLA-2 production by DCs as a novel tolerogenic mediator of TGF-β-mediated iTreg induction in vitro and in vivo. The CT-induced and cAMP-mediated up-regulation of CTLA-2 also may point to a novel immune evasion mechanism of Vibrio cholerae.
Project description:Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal for development and maintenance of both the innate and adaptive compartments of the immune system. Zn homeostasis impacts maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) that are important in shaping T cell responses. The mechanisms by which Zn regulates the tolerogenic phenotype of DCs remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of Zn on DC phenotype and the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) using a model of Histoplasma capsulatum fungal infection. Exposure of bone marrow-derived DCs to Zn in vitro induced a tolerogenic phenotype by diminishing surface MHC class II (MHCII) and promoting the tolerogenic markers, programmed death-ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, and the tryptophan degrading enzyme, IDO. Zn triggered tryptophan degradation by IDO and kynurenine production by DCs and strongly suppressed the proinflammatory response to stimulation by TLR ligands. In vivo, Zn supplementation and subsequent H. capsulatum infection supressed MHCII on DCs, enhanced PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression on MHCII(lo) DCs, and skewed the Treg-Th17 balance in favor of Foxp3(+) Tregs while decreasing Th17 cells. Thus, Zn shapes the tolerogenic potential of DCs in vitro and in vivo and promotes Tregs during fungal infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The use of tolerogenic DCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for transplantation and autoimmune disorders. Immunomodulatory DCs are primarily generated from monocytes (MDDCs) for in vitro experiments following protocols that fail to fulfil the strict regulatory rules of clinically applicable products. Here, we compared the efficacy of three different tolerance-inducing agents, dexamethasone, rapamycin and vitamin D3, on DC biology using GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) or clinical grade reagents with the aim of defining their use for human cell therapy. METHODS: Tolerogenic MDDCs were generated by adding tolerogenic agents prior to the induction of maturation using TNF-?, IL-? and PGE2. We evaluated the effects of each agent on viability, efficiency of differentiation, phenotype, cytokine secretion and stability, the stimulatory capacity of tol-DCs and the T-cell profiles induced. RESULTS: Differences relevant to therapeutic applicability were observed with the cellular products that were obtained. VitD3-induced tol-DCs exhibited a slightly reduced viability and yield compared to Dexa-and Rapa-tol-DCs. Phenotypically, while Dexa-and VitD3-tol-DCs were similar to immature DCs, Rapa-tol-DCs were not distinguishable from mature DCs. In addition, only Dexa-and moderately VitD3-tol-DCs exhibited IL-10 production. Interestingly, in all cases, the cytokine secretion profiles of tol-DCs were not modified by a subsequent TLR stimulation with LPS, indicating that all products had stable phenotypes. Functionally, clearly reduced alloantigen T cell proliferation was induced by tol-DCs obtained using any of these agent. Also, total interferon-gamma (IFN-?) secretion by T cells stimulated with allogeneic tol-DCs was reduced in all three cases, but only T cells co-cultured with Rapa-tol-DCs showed impaired intracellular IFN-? production. In addition, Rapa-DCs promoted CD4+ CD127 low/negative CD25high and Foxp3+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate contrasting influences of different clinical-grade pharmacological agents on human tol-DC generation. This should be taken into account for decisions on the use of a specific agent for the appropriate cellular therapy in the context of a particular disease.
Project description:Interplay between Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and dendritic cells (DCs) maintains immunologic tolerance, but the effects of each cell on the other are not well understood. We report that polyclonal CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells induced ex vivo with transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) (iTreg) suppress a lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease by preventing the expansion of immunogenic DCs and inducing protective DCs that generate additional recipient CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells. The protective effects of the transferred iTreg cells required both interleukin (IL)-10 and TGF?, but the tolerogenic effects of the iTreg on DCs, and the immunosuppressive effects of these DCs were exclusively TGF?-dependent. The iTreg were unable to tolerize Tgfbr2-deficient DCs. These results support the essential role of DCs in 'infectious tolerance' and emphasize the central role of TGF? in protective iTreg/DC interactions in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We previously showed that co-immunization with a protein antigen and a DNA vaccine coding for the same antigen induces CD40 low IL-10 high tolerogenic DCs, which in turn stimulates the expansion of antigen-specific CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (CD25- iTreg). However, it was unclear how to choose the antigen sequence to maximize tolerogenic antigen presentation and, consequently, CD25- iTreg induction. RESULTS: In the present study, we demonstrated the requirement of highly antigenic epitopes for CD25- iTreg induction. Firstly, we showed that the induction of CD25- iTreg by tolerogenic DC can be blocked by anti-MHC-II antibody. Next, both the number and the suppressive activity of CD25- iTreg correlated positively with the overt antigenicity of an epitope to activate T cells. Finally, in a mouse model of dermatitis, highly antigenic epitopes derived from a flea allergen not only induced more CD25- iTreg, but also more effectively prevented allergenic reaction to the allergen than did weakly antigenic epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data thus indicate that efficient induction of CD25- iTreg requires highly antigenic peptide epitopes. This finding suggests that highly antigenic epitopes should be used for efficient induction of CD25- iTreg for clinical applications such as flea allergic dermatitis.
Project description:Therapy of autoimmune diseases by tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) represents an interesting option for clinical application. Mostly, immature or semi-mature stages of DCs have been shown to convert naïve T cells into FoxP3+ induced regulatory T cells (iTreg). Here we found that murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) matured with cholera toxin (CT) produced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 2 (CTLA-2) via cAMP signaling. CTLA-2 is a cathepsin L inhibitor, however, it exerted cathepsin L-independent tolerogenic functions as shown with cathepsin L knock-out BM-DCs. High or low dose CT (CThi, CTlo) or cAMP treatment of BM-DCs, but not other stimuli such as LPS or TNF, induced mRNA of both isoforms of CTLA-2α and CTLA-2β. CThi-, CTlo- or cAMP-DCs display a mature phenotype (MHC IIhi, costimulationhi). Importantly, only CThi DCs secreted IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. Consequently, CThi DCs instructed Th17 cell polarization while, CTlo- or cAMP-DCs induced TGF-β-dependent FoxP3+ iTreg conversion but little or no Th17 cells. iTreg conversion could be reduced by blocking of CTLA-2 with siRNAs and in accordance, addition of recombinant CTLA-2α increased the conversion towards iTreg in vitro. Injection of CTlo- or cAMP-DCs exerted MOG peptide-specific protective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Together, we identified CTlo- or cAMP-induced CTLA-2 production by BM-DCs as a tool to enhance their iTreg induction in vitro and in vivo. These findings point to CTLA-2 as a novel mediator of immune evasion by cholera bacteria and its potential use to treat autoimmune diseases. Overall design: total samples analysed are 6
Project description:Despite their common ability to activate intracellular signaling through CD80/CD86 molecules, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-Ig and CD28-Ig bias the downstream response in opposite directions, the latter promoting immunity, and CTLA-4-Ig tolerance, in dendritic cells (DCs) with opposite but flexible programs of antigen presentation. Nevertheless, in the absence of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), CD28-Ig-and the associated, dominant IL-6 response-become immunosuppressive and mimic the effect of CTLA-4-Ig, including a high functional expression of the tolerogenic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Here we show that forced SOCS3 expression antagonized CTLA-4-Ig activity in a proteasome-dependent fashion. Unrecognized by previous studies, IDO appeared to possess two tyrosine residues within two distinct putative immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, VPY(115)CEL and LLY(253)EGV. We found that SOCS3-known to interact with phosphotyrosine-containing peptides and be selectively induced by CD28-Ig/IL-6-would bind IDO and target the IDO/SOCS3 complex for ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. This event accounted for the ability of CD28-Ig and IL-6 to convert otherwise tolerogenic, IDO-competent DCs into immunogenic cells. Thus onset of immunity in response to antigen within an early inflammatory context requires that IDO be degraded in tolerogenic DCs. In addition to identifying SOCS3 as a candidate signature for mouse DC subsets programmed to direct immunity, this study demonstrates that IDO undergoes regulatory proteolysis in response to immunogenic stimuli.
Project description:Reinforcing defective tolerogenic processes slows progression of autoimmune (AI) diseases and has potential to promote drug-free disease remission. Previously, we reported that DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) and cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) slow progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, by activating the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) signaling adaptor to stimulate interferon type 1 (IFN-I) production, which induced dendritic cells to express indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and acquire immune regulatory phenotypes. Here, we show that therapeutic responses to DNPs depend on DNA sensing via cyclic GAMP synthase (cGAS) and interactions between Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligands. To investigate how increased tryptophan (Trp) metabolism by IDO promotes therapeutic responses mice were co-treated at EAE onset with DNPs and drugs that inhibit kynurenine aminotransferase-II (KatII) or 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase (HAAO) activity downstream of IDO in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. DNP and KatII or HAAO inhibitor co-treatments suppressed EAE progression more effectively than DNPs, while KatII inhibition had no significant therapeutic benefit and HAAO inhibition attenuated but did not prevent EAE progression. Moreover, therapeutic responses to co-treatments were durable as EAE progression did not resume after co-treatment. Thus, using STING agonists to boost IDO activity and manipulating the Kyn pathway downstream of IDO is an effective strategy to enhance tolerogenic responses that overcome autoimmunity to suppress EAE progression.
Project description:Increased pain sensitivity is a comorbidity associated with many clinical diseases, though the underlying causes are poorly understood. Recently, chronic pain hypersensitivity in rodents treated to induce chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues was linked to enhanced tryptophan catabolism in brain mediated by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Here we show that acute influenza A virus (IAV) and chronic murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV) infections, which stimulate robust IDO expression in lungs and lymphoid tissues, induced acute or chronic pain hypersensitivity, respectively. In contrast, virus-induced pain hypersensitivity did not manifest in mice lacking intact IDO1 genes. Spleen IDO activity increased markedly as MuLV infections progressed, while IDO1 expression was not elevated significantly in brain or spinal cord (CNS) tissues. Moreover, kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan catabolite made by cells expressing IDO, incited pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient mice and Kyn potentiated pain hypersensitivity due to MuLV infection. MuLV infection stimulated selective IDO expression by a discreet population of spleen cells expressing both B cell (CD19) and dendritic cell (CD11c) markers (CD19+ DCs). CD19+ DCs were more susceptible to MuLV infection than B cells or conventional (CD19neg) DCs, proliferated faster than B cells from early stages of MuLV infection and exhibited mature antigen presenting cell (APC) phenotypes, unlike conventional (CD19neg) DCs. Moreover, interactions with CD4 T cells were necessary to sustain functional IDO expression by CD19+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes from MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice induced pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient recipient mice, while selective in vivo depletion of DCs alleviated pain hypersensitivity in MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice and led to rapid reduction in splenomegaly, a hallmark of MuLV immune pathogenesis. These findings reveal critical roles for CD19+ DCs expressing IDO in host responses to MuLV infection that enhance pain hypersensitivity and cause immune pathology. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis elevated IDO activity in non-CNS due to virus infections causes pain hypersensitivity mediated by Kyn. Previously unappreciated links between host immune responses to virus infections and pain sensitivity suggest that IDO inhibitors may alleviate heightened pain sensitivity during infections.
Project description:Although much is known on the transcriptional profiles of dendritic cells (DCs) during maturation, the molecular switches critical for the acquisition of a tolerogenic program by DCs are still obscure. In the present study, we explored the gene expression pattern of CD8+ DCs purified from the mouse spleen and treated with interferon (IFN)-gamma. The cytokine, indeed, potentiates the tolerogenic potential of this DC subset via induction of the immunosuppressive tryptophan catabolism mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). By comparing the expression of the IFN-gamma-modulated genes in IDO+ versus IDO- murine DCs, we found a consistent and selective association of the IDO-competent phenotype with the down-modulation of the Tyrobp gene, encoding the adapter molecule DAP12. IFN-gamma-mediated down-modulation of this gene involved IFN consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP), a transcription factor also known as IRF-8. While silencing of Tyrobp conferred IDO functional competence on IDO- DCs, silencing of Icsbp1 in IDO+ cells completely abolished IDO expression and function. In parallel, silencing of TYROBP conferred IDO competence on human IDO- DCs while silencing of IRF8 impaired IDO expression and activity in human IDO+ DCs. Therefore, the same small set of molecular switches controls IDO competence in murine and human DCs. Experiment Overall Design: Labeled cRNA extracted from a a total of 8 samples was hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip MG-U74Av2 which contains 12,488 probe sets . The 4 control samples included 2 replicates each of RNA extracted from cells incubated in medium for 4 and 16 hours. Treated samples included 2 replicates each of RNA extracted from cells incubated in IFN-gammas for 4 and 16 hours.