A Glimpse into the Future: In 2020, Which Patients will Undergo TAVI or SAVR?
ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved into a safe and effective procedure to treat symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), with predictable and reproducible results. Rates of important complications such as vascular complications, strokes and paravalvular leaks are lower than ever, because of improved patient selection, systematic use of multidector computer tomography, increasing operator experience and device iteration. Accumulating data suggest that transfemoral TAVI with newer generation transcatheter heart valves and delivery systems is superior to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement among intermediate- and high-risk patients with severe symptomatic AS with regard to all-cause mortality and stroke. One can anticipate that by 2020, the majority of patients with severe symptomatic AS will undergo TAVI as first line therapy, regardless of surgical risk.
Project description:In an era where transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) indications and utilization are expanding beyond high-risk patients, paravalvular leak remains the intervention's Achilles heel. Effective reduction of paravalvular leak is important in order to ensure an optimal clinical outcome. We present here the first case report in which percutaneous valvular closure using Amplatzer plugs followed by a TAV-in-TAV intervention during the same procedure managed to resolve a severe paravalvular leak with haemodynamic instability, after TAVI for a bicuspid aortic stenosis.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been increasingly used in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis who are inoperable or at high risk. However it remains associated with the potential for serious complications. We report a case in which an Edwards Sapien (Edwards, Irvine, CA, USA) valve prosthesis dislocated to the left ventricular outflow tract with hemodynamic collapse 6 h following implantation. <Learning objective: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative method to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. Despite continuous improvements in operators' expertise and device technology, it remains associated with the potential for serious complications such as valve dislocation. Dislocation after TAVI is a life-threatening complication that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment.>.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement.
Project description:Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis carries a two year survival of only 50%. However many patients are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement as they are considered too high risk due to significant co-morbidities. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) offers a viable alternative for this high risk patient group, either by the femoral or apical route. This article reports a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following an apical approach TAVI in an elderly lady with severe aortic stenosis. To our knowledge pseduoaneuryms of the left ventricle have been reported infrequently in the literature and has yet to be established as a recognised complication of TAVI.
Project description:There has been no nation-wide data on the outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) after commercialization of TAVI in Korea. We report clinical features and outcomes of the first cohort of TAVI performed from Jun 2015 to Jun 2017 in Korea.The first cohort of Korean-TAVI (K-TAVI) registry includes 576 consecutive patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI from 17 Korean hospitals for 2 years.Most of TAVI procedures were performed for septuagenarians and octogenarians (90.8%) through transfemoral approach (98.3%). The rate of device success was 92.5% and permanent pacemaker was implanted in 5.6%. In successive years, incidences of paravalvular leakage (PVL) and major bleeding declined. Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score was 5.2 (3.0 to 9.0) and 34.7% of patients had high surgical risk (STS ?8). One-year all-cause death occurred in 8.9% and was significantly lower in low to intermediate risk one than in high risk (5.4% vs. 15.5%, p<0.001). The independent predictors of 1-year mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.087; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.036-1.141; p=0.001), moderate or severe PVL (HR, 4.631; 95% CI, 1.624-13.203; p=0.004) and end-stage renal disease (HR, 5.785; 95% CI, 2.717-12.316; p<0.001).K-TAVI registry showed favorable 1-year outcomes with decreasing complication rate over time in real-world Korean patients. Two-thirds of patients were low to intermediate surgical risk and showed a significantly lower mortality than the high-risk patients, suggesting the promising future on the expanded indications of TAVI.
Project description:Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a well-described treatment for symptomatic calcific severe aortic stenosis. However, TAVI technology is being increasingly used around the world to treat selected cases of severe aortic regurgitation (AR). One of the main limitations of using TAVI technology for AR is the lack of calcification, which is common in such cases. This makes anchoring of a TAVI prosthesis to the aortic annulus difficult and risks displacement or embolization. However, with the availability of recapturable and repositionable TAVI technologies, these limitations have been overcome to a large extent. This is the first Corevalve Evolut R device that was used in India and the first TAVI to treat AR in India.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) still presents complications: paravalvular leakage (PVL) and onset of conduction abnormalities leading to permanent pacemaker implantation. Our aim was testing a validated patient-specific computational framework for prediction of TAVI outcomes and possible complications. Twenty-eight TAVI patients (14 SapienXT and 14 CoreValve) were retrospectively selected. Pre-procedural CT images were post-processed to create 3D patient-specific implantation sites. The procedures were simulated with finite element analysis. Simulations' results were compared against post-procedural clinical fluoroscopy and echocardiography images. The computational model was in good agreement with clinical findings: the overall stent diameter difference was 2.6% and PVL was correctly identified with a post-processing algorithm in 83% of cases. Strains in the implantation site were studied to assess the risk of conduction system disturbance and were found highest in the patient who required pacemaker implantation. This study suggests that computational tool could support safe planning and broadening of TAVI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) is an alternative treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or at increased perioperative risk. Due to continually emerging evidence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing benefits and harms of TAVI, SAVR, medical therapy, and balloon aortic valvuloplasty. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2002 to June 6, 2017. We dually screened abstracts and full-text articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and propensity score-matched observational studies. Two investigators independently rated the risk of bias of included studies and determined the certainty of evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). If data permitted, we performed meta-analyses using random- and fixed-effects models. RESULTS:Out of 7755 citations, we included six RCTs (5862 patients) and 13 observational studies (6376 patients). In meta-analyses, patients treated with SAVR or TAVI had similar risks for mortality at 30?days (relative risk [RR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82 to 1.33) and 1 year (RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.13). TAVI had significantly lower risks for major bleeding but increased risks for major vascular complications, moderate or severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation, and new pacemaker implantation compared to SAVR. Comparing TAVI to medical therapy, mortality did not differ at 30?days but was significantly reduced at 1?year (RR 0.51; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.77). CONCLUSIONS:Given similar mortality risks but different patterns of adverse events, the choice between TAVI and SAVR remains an individual one.
Project description:To make assessment of paravalvular aortic leakage (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) more uniform the second Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) recently updated the echocardiographic criteria for mild, moderate and severe PVL. In the VARC recommendation the assessment of the circumferential extent of PVL in the short-axis view is considered critical. In this paper we will discuss our observational data on the limitations and difficulties of this particular view, that may potentially result in overestimation or underestimation of PVL severity.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been increasingly used in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for conventional open heart surgery. However, it might be associated with serious complications. We report a case with an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect as a rare complication following TAVI procedure. <<b>Learning objective:</b> To highlight a rare complication of iatrogenic ventricular septal defect (VSD) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure and its treatment with percutaneous interventional VSD closure.>.