Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher's knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment.To determine knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city.Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 565 primary school teachers in Gondar city using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. For processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used and variables which had a P value of <0.05 in the multivariable analysis were considered as statistically significant.A total of 565 study subjects were participated in this study with a mean age of 42.05 ± 12.01 years. Of these study participants 55.9% (95% CI: 51.9, 59.8) had good knowledge and 57.2% (95% CI: 52.9, 61.4) had favorable attitude towards refractive error. History of spectacle use [AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.43)], history of eye examination [AOR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.34)], training on eye health [AOR = 1.94 (95% CI; 1.09, 3.43)] and 11-20 years of experience [AOR = 2.53 (95% CI: 1.18, 5.43)] were positively associated with knowledge. Whereas being male [AOR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.37, 3.01)], older age [AOR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.07, 8.72)], 31-40 years of experience [AOR = 0.23 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.72)], private school type [AOR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.93)] and 5th -8th teaching category [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.24)] were associated with attitude.Knowledge and attitude of study subjects were low which needs training of teachers about the refractive error.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers.<h4>Results</h4>The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21%) for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%). The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate). The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to assess the factors associated with knowledge and attitude towards adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among health professionals at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. STUDY DESIGN:An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15 February to 15 March 2018. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with knowledge and attitude level of health professionals towards CPR. Variables with a p value less than <0.2 in the bivariable analysis were fitted into the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis, variables with a p value <0.05 were considered statistically significant. SETTING:University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 406 health professionals (physicians, nurses, anaesthetists, health officers and midwives) were included. RESULTS:Among the study participants, 25.1% (95% CI 21.2 to 29.3) had good knowledge and 60.8% (95% CI 55.9 to 65.5) had good attitude towards adult CPR. Work experience (adjusted OR (AOR): 5.02, 95%?CI 1.25 to 20.20), number of work settings (AOR: 6.52, 95%?CI 2.76 to 15.41), taking CPR training (AOR: 2.76, 95%?CI 1.40 to 5.42), exposure to cardiac arrest case (AOR: 2.16, 95%?CI 1.14 to 4.07) and reading CPR guidelines (AOR: 5.57, 95%?CI 2.76 to 11.20) were positively associated with good knowledge. Similarly, taking CPR training (AOR: 1.74, 95%?CI 1.42 to 1.53) and reading CPR guidelines (AOR: 2.74, 95%?CI 1.55 to 4.85) were positively associated with good attitude. CONCLUSIONS:The level of knowledge and attitude of health professionals towards adult CPR was suboptimal. Health professionals who were taking CPR training and reading CPR guidelines had good knowledge and attitude towards CPR. In addition, work experience, number of work settings and exposure to cardiac arrest case had a positive association with CPR knowledge. Thus, providing regular CPR training and work setting rotations is highly crucial.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess perceived work-related stress and associated factors among public secondary school teachers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. A self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered into Epi-info version 7.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. The associations between dependent and independent variables were assessed using a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values?<?0.05. RESULTS:The response rate was 96.4%. The overall prevalence of perceived work-related stress was 58.2%. Teaching experience <?5 years (AOR 2.03, 95% CI (1.10, 3.73), education level BSC/BED (AOR 1.66, 95% CI (1.07, 3.17), high job demand (AOR 1.61, 95% CI (1.29, 3.74), and poor relationships (AOR 1.88, 95% CI (1.07, 3.31) were significantly associated with work-related stress. In conclusion, the findings showed a high proportion of stress among participants. Therefore, we suggested a need to take action to balance job demand and teaching experience, offering the opportunity to upgrade their educational level and establish good relationships to ease the burden of stress factors related to work.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shoulder and neck pain are reported as the most common occupational-related health problem and cause of morbidity, absenteeism from work among school teachers worldwide. School teachers represent an occupational group, who are exposed and appears to have prevalent shoulder and/or neck pain due to their daily work tasks and the nature of work. There is a scant epidemiological study regarding shoulder and neck pain among school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was set out to assess the prevalence and associated factors of shoulder and/or neck pain among school teachers of Gondar town in North West Ethiopia. METHOD:An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to January 2017, a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to 848 primary and secondary school teachers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. To assess the burden of shoulder and/neck pain, data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and physical measures like height and weight were also measured during data collection. Independent variables which had significant association were identified using logistic regression model. RESULT:A total of 754 teachers participated, with a mean age of 42?±?9.73?years (88.9% response rate). Previous 12?months self-reported prevalence of shoulder and/ neck pain among school teachers was 57.3% with 95%CI (53.4-61.0%). Regular physical exercise (OR?=?0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.42), teaching experience (OR?=?2.85, 95% CI: 1.09-7.42), static head down posture (OR?=?2.26, 95% CI: 1.55-3.33), elevated arm over shoulder (OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 1.86-3.95), prolonged sitting (OR?=?1.50,95% CI: 1.02-2.23) and hypertension (OR?=?2.18, 95% CI: 1.24-3.82) were factors found to be significantly associated with shoulder and/neck pain. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:More than half of the study participants self-reported to have suffered shoulder and neck pain in the previous 12?months. Teaching experience, static head down posture, elevated arm over shoulder, and hypertension are likely to be significantly associated with shoulder and/ neck pain among school teachers in Ethiopia. Engaging in regular physical exercise has a protective effect against the shoulder and/or neck pain. Therefore, school authorities are recommended to provide facilities to enhance physical activity among school teachers and also provide adjustable board and classroom materials.
Project description:Injuries are very common and can occur at any point of time in a day. Unintended injuries in kindergarten children are the most common and need immediate life saving care which is known as first aid. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors of first aid among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study was conducted among kindergarten teachers. Data was collected using pretested, structured and self-administered questionnaire S1 File. The collected data was entered in to Epi Data version 3.1 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify association between kindergarten teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards first aid and different variables. Odds ratios with 95% CI and p<0.05 were computed to determine the presence of the association.One hundred and ninety-four teachers participated in the study with a response rate of 95%. Only 40% of the teachers were knowledgeable and 75% of them had positive attitude for first aid. Eighty percent of teachers encountered with children in need of first aid. Kindergarten teachers older than 35 years [AOR = 4.2, 95%CI: (1.02, 16.9)], five years' experience [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.6)], having previous first aid training [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.7)], source of first aid information and teachers serving in private kindergarten are associated with having knowledge of first aid. Long time experience, type of kindergarten, previous training, and exposure to children in need of first aid were positive association with attitude towards first aid.Low first aid knowledge and high positive attitude among kindergarten teachers. Having long time experience, being older age, previous first aid training, and serving in private kindergarten were positively associated with first aid knowledge and positive attitude. Creating awareness and including first aid courses in the kindergarten teachers' curriculum need to be considered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to assess the level of attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards complications of diabetes mellitus among type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS:An institution-based cross-sectional study was done on type 2 diabetes patients coming to the diabetes outpatient department at Addis Zemen District Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 402 patients. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to decide on factors related to practices and attitudes towards diabetes complications. AOR with 95% CI and p-value under 0.05 was considered to select significantly associated variables. RESULTS:Two-thirds of the study participants (65.2% (95% CI: 60.2, 69.4)) had a good attitude level while less than half of study participants (48.8% (95% CI: 44.0, 53.5)) had a good practice on diabetes complications. Educational status of read and write (AOR?=?2.32, 95% CI(1.26, 4.27)), primary school (AOR?=?4.31, 95% CI(2.06, 9.02)), high school and above (AOR?=?2.79, 95% CI (1.41, 5.50)), and urban residence (AOR?=?1.80, 95% CI (1.12 2.91)) were significant factors for good attitude while educational status of read and write (AOR?=?1.96, 95% CI (1.06, 3.61)), and high school and above (AOR?=?2.57, 95% CI (1.32, 5.02)) were associated with diabetes complication practices. CONCLUSIONS:A greater proportion of diabetes patients had a relatively good attitude but poor practice towards diabetes complication preventions. Residence was a contributing variable for a good attitude while the level of education was significantly associated with both practice and attitude. The current study suggests the need for structured educational programs about diabetes complications regularly to improve patient's attitudes and practice.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Sexual and reproductive health rights are the rights of all people regardless of their age, sex and other characteristics to make choices about their own sexuality and reproductive issues. However, little is known about the knowledge and attitude towards SRH rights in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess knowledge and attitude towards SRH rights and associated factors among Adet Tana Haik college students in northwest Ethiopia.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, about 59.6% students were knowledgeable and more than half (53.4%) had favorable attitude towards SRH rights. In this study, students attending third-year class (AOR?=?2.20;95% CI 1.29, 3.33), discussion with parents (AOR?=?3.35;95% CI 1.61, 6.96), respondent's mothers attended secondary/above school (AOR?=?3.01; 95% CI 1.28, 7.13), participation in RH clubs (AOR?=?1.72; 95% CI 1.09, 2.70) and favorable attitude towards SRH rights (AOR?=?2.41; 95% CI 1.56, 3.74) were significantly associated with knowledge of participants. On the other hand, knowledge of students (AOR?=?2.33; 95% CI 1.36, 7.07), participation in RH clubs (AOR?=?1.41;95% CI 1.09, 2.20) and discussion with parents (AOR?=?2.50; 95% CI 1.15, 5.47) were the predictors for the attitude of students towards SRH rights. Hence, strengthening women's education, encouraging discussions with parents and participation in RH clubs may improve the knowledge and attitude of students towards SRH rights.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Undernutrition among school age children has an impact on their health, cognition, and educational achievement. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of stunting and wasting among school age children in Gondar town, northwest, Ethiopia. METHODS:An institution-based cross-sectional study was done among school children aged 6-14 years. Data on socio-demographic, nutritional and dietary status of children were collected using structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to determine the status of stunting and wasting. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for further analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of stunting and wasting. Both crude odds and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI were used to measure the strength of associations. In the multivariable analysis, variables with < 0.05 p-values were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:A total of 523 school age children were with the median age of 12 (10-13 inter quartile range) years participated in the study. The overall prevalence of stunting and wasting among primary school children was 241(46.1%; 95% CI: 42.3, 50.3) and 47 (9%; 95% CI: 6.7, 11.7), respectively. Child age (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.80), public tab/yard water source (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.46, 3.39), DDS < 4 (AOR = 1.89 95%CI: 1.08, 3.30), tea drinking habit (AOR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.27, 0.80) and anemia (AOR = 1.72 95%CI: 1.05, 2.83) were significant predictors of stunting. Moreover, child age (AOR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.62, 9.44), maternal/care-givers' age ≤ 34 (AOR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.16, 0.71), maternal education (AOR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.15, 5.65), family poverty (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.93) and alcohol consumption (AOR = 2.93; 95%CI: 1.16, 7.42) were found significantly associated with wasting. CONCLUSION:Stunting and wasting were then major problems among school age children. Child age, water source for dinking, DDS < 4 and anemia resulted in stunting. On the other hand, child age, maternal education and age, family poverty and alcohol drinking were risk factors for wasting. Therefore, launching community based nutritional education programs, implementing school feeding and strengthening economic level of the communities are essential to reduce the problems.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In Ethiopia, the majority of married women practice predominantly short-acting contraceptive methods. Therefore this study aims to assess intention to use LAPMs and its determinants among short-acting users in Health Institutions of Aksum Town, North Ethiopia. RESULTS:Prevalence of intention to use LAPMs was 52.1% (95% CI 47.4-57.0). Good knowledge on LAPMs [AOR?=?2.15; 95% CI (1.29, 3.56)], positive attitude towards LAPMs [AOR?=?3.41; 95% CI (1.99, 5.85)], 18-24 years of age [AOR?=?3.18; 95% CI (1.30, 7.79)], being primary school in educational level [AOR?=?0.34; 95% CI (0.14, 0.78)], decision on the number of children jointly with partner [AOR?=?2.05; 95% CI (1.01, 4.18)], having more than two children [AOR?=?10.67; 95% CI (1.29, 88.31)], and no [AOR?=?10.21; 95% CI (3.10, 33.58)] and one [AOR?=?4.70; 95% CI (1.68, 13.13)] extra number of children desired were factors significantly associated with having intention to use LAPMs compared to their counterparts. The intention to use LAPMs was low. Therefore, appropriate information, education and communication strategies must be designed to raise awareness and change the negative attitude of the community on LAPMs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact of a Guide to Reading Biomedical English Literature course on new Chinese medical postgraduates. Keeping this gap in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the factors associated with course effectiveness using the teacher, postgraduate and organizational factors. METHODS:This study was conducted at Nanjing Medical University from December 2014 to December 2015. The participants were 440 new graduate students from different medical specialties. At baseline, each student was assessed for teacher factors, individual factors and organizational factors using a self-administered structured scored anonymous questionnaire. After that, Pearson chi-square analysis was conducted to evaluate the factors that impact teacher factors (knowledge level, teaching style, individualized teaching, logical teaching, heuristic teaching, literature difficulty, bilingual teaching), individual factors (gender, attitude toward studying, previewing literature, English literacy level) and course management (such as teaching objectives and assessment system) on this course. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the impact of the above factors on our outcome variables (knowledge level, teaching style, individualized teaching, heuristic teaching, study attitude, previewing literature, management). RESULTS:Nearly all of the participants (420 of 440, 95.5%) thought this course was helpful for learning to read scientific literature and understanding scientific research design. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the participants perception of the course as effective was associated with teachers' high knowledge level (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR?=?49.673; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI?=?4.28, 575.90). In addition, heuristic teaching was found to be significantly associated with a positive teaching effect of teaching (AOR?=?12.76; 95% CI?=?1.78, 91.64). Furthermore, the participants perception of the course as effective was associated with positive attitude toward studying (AOR?=?25.004; 95% CI?=?2.51, 249.09). Previewing literature was also associated with course effectiveness (AOR?=?0.02; 95% CI?=?0.04, 0.11). CONCLUSIONS:This study indicated that the course effectiveness of the Guide for Reading Biomedical English Literature was associated with i) teachers' knowledge, ii) heuristic teaching, iii) students' positive attitude, and iv) students' previewing literature.