Objectively Measured Baseline Physical Activity Patterns in Women in the mPED Trial: Cluster Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Determining patterns of physical activity throughout the day could assist in developing more personalized interventions or physical activity guidelines in general and, in particular, for women who are less likely to be physically active than men.The aims of this report are to identify clusters of women based on accelerometer-measured baseline raw metabolic equivalent of task (MET) values and a normalized version of the METs ?3 data, and to compare sociodemographic and cardiometabolic risks among these identified clusters.A total of 215 women who were enrolled in the Mobile Phone Based Physical Activity Education (mPED) trial and wore an accelerometer for at least 8 hours per day for the 7 days prior to the randomization visit were analyzed. The k-means clustering method and the Lloyd algorithm were used on the data. We used the elbow method to choose the number of clusters, looking at the percentage of variance explained as a function of the number of clusters.The results of the k-means cluster analyses of raw METs revealed three different clusters. The unengaged group (n=102) had the highest depressive symptoms score compared with the afternoon engaged (n=65) and morning engaged (n=48) groups (overall P<.001). Based on a normalized version of the METs ?3 data, the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) evening peak group (n=108) had a higher body mass index (P=.03), waist circumference (P=.02), and hip circumference (P=.03) than the MVPA noon peak group (n=61).Categorizing physically inactive individuals into more specific activity patterns could aid in creating timing, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity interventions for women. Further research is needed to confirm these cluster groups using a large national dataset.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280812; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01280812 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6vVyLzwft).
Project description:In this study, we investigate the associations of objectively measured waking (sedentary, light physical activity [LPA] and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]) and sleep duration and quality characteristics with cardiometabolic risk among older women. Participants from the Healthy Women Study 2010-11 follow-up visit (n = 136, age = 73 ± 2 years, white = 91.9%) concurrently wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and Actiwatch-2 for seven days. A composite cardiometabolic risk score was calculated by transforming metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and summing z-scores. Multivariable regression models were fitted to relate waking and sleep estimates with the MetS z-score after adjustment for covariates. Compositional data analysis was used to predict the MetS z-score when fixed durations of time were reallocated from one characteristic to another. MVPA (per 10 min/day increase; ? = -7.80, P < 0.01), LPA (per 30 min/day increase; ? = -0.29, P = 0.04), and sleep efficiency (? = -0.10, P = 0.04) were inversely associated with MetS z-score, while sedentary time (per 30 min/day increase; ? = 0.34, P = 0.01) was positively associated with MetS z-score. Reallocation of 5 min from MVPA to sleep, sedentary, or LPA resulted in the greatest predicted change in MetS z-score. On average, the reallocation of 5 min from MVPA to other characteristics predicted an 11% increase in triglycerides, 6% decrease in HDL-C, and 5% increase in waist circumference. Lastly, reallocating 30 min of sedentary time to LPA was associated with a modestly lower predicted MetS z-score. This study suggests that MVPA is the most important contributor of MetS and that maintaining MVPA and increasing LPA may be beneficial for reducing cardiometabolic risk among older women.
Project description:When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).Cross-sectional study of 509 men and 567 women aged 70-77. Accelerometer assessed MPA, VPA and MVPA were analyzed using absolute and relative thresholds. Meeting the PA-recommendation was defined as amounting ?150 min/week in MPA/MVPA or 75 min/week in VPA, respectively. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated waist circumference, fasting glucose, hypertension, triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol or diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension medication.Higher proportion of the population met the recommendation when PA was assessed with relative compared to absolute thresholds: VPA (72.4% vs. 1.7%) and MVPA (75.2% vs. 33.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that men and women not meeting the relative-MVPA or VPA recommendation had higher likelihood of MetS (Men: MVPA OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.08-220.127.116.11, 95%CI: 1.23-2.67 and Women: MVPA OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.36-3.31; VPA OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.29-2.95), compared to men and women meeting the relative MVPA or VPA recommendation. There was no significant association between MetS and absolute MVPA, MPA or VPA recommendations in the fully adjusted model.The association between meeting/not meeting the PA recommendation and MetS differed with method. Not meeting relative MVPA and VPA recommendation was associated with significantly higher likelihood for presence of MetS. Since relative intensity is part of the current PA recommendation, it should be considered when assessing population PA and associated health risks in the older adults.Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01931111 (Date of trial registration: July 19, 2013).
Project description:The aims of this report were 1) to describe the duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the proportion of participants meeting the recommended criterion of at least 150 min of MVPA per week as measured by the 7 Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire (7D-PAR) and accelerometer among women who were enrolled in the mPED trial; 2) to assess the level of agreement of the two measures using a Bland-Altman plot; and 3) to describe the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of meeting the guidelines by calculating the percentage of women meeting the physical activity recommendation by the 7D-PAR who also met this recommendation based on data from the accelerometer.Baseline data on duration of MVPA from the mPED trial were analyzed for 215 women. Among the women who met the recommended criterion by the 7D-PAR (self-report), we calculated the proportion of individuals who also met it by the accelerometer (objective measure). A Bland Altman Plot was used to assess concordance between the two measures.The mean age was 52.4 (±11.2) years; 54.4 % were white; and 48.8 % were single or divorced. While median MVPA was 160 min/week by the 7D-PAR, it was only 24 min/week in the accelerometer. A total of 117 women met the 150-min criterion by the 7D-PAR. Of these, only 18 also met the criterion by the objective measure (PPV 15.4 %, 95 % CI 9.4-23.2 %). Among the 98 women who did not meet the criterion by the 7D-PAR, none met it by the accelerometer (NPV 100 %). A Bland Altman plot showed the mean difference of +145 min between the two measures with a 95 % limit of agreement at + 471 to -181 min.The large discrepancy between the self-reported and objective measures of MVPA meeting the 150-min criterion suggests that self-reported physical activity measures should be used with caution in intervention studies. While our data suggest that self-report could be used to identify a physically inactive sample, it would be likely to over-estimate the proportions of women who become active in one or both arms of trials of interventions promoting MVPA.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280812.
Project description:Importance:Mobile phone applications (apps) and activity trackers allow researchers to remotely deliver an intervention and monitor physical activity but have not been rigorously evaluated for longer periods. Objective:To determine whether a mobile phone-based physical activity education app, in conjunction with brief in-person counseling, increases and then maintains levels of physical activity. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this parallel randomized clinical trial, community-dwelling physically inactive women recruited between May 2011 and April 2014 were randomized in equal proportions into the control (n?=?69), regular (n?=?71), and plus (n?=?70) groups. Data were analyzed using intention to treat from September 16, 2016, through June 30, 2018. Interventions:The regular and plus groups were instructed to use the app on their mobile phone and an accelerometer every day for 3 months and attend brief in-person counseling. During the 6-month maintenance period, the plus group continued to use the app and accelerometer, while the regular group stopped using the app but continued using the accelerometer. The control group used the accelerometer throughout. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary and secondary outcomes were daily accelerometer-measured total steps and time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results:The 210 participants had a mean (SD) age of 52.4 (11.0) years. At baseline, the mean (SD) daily total steps by accelerometer in the control, regular, and plus groups were 5384 (2920), 5063 (2526), and 5837 (3235), respectively. During the 3-month intervention period, daily steps and MVPA increased in the combined regular and plus groups compared with the control group (between-group differences, 2060 steps per day; 95% CI, 1296-2825 steps per day; P?<?.001 and 18.2 min/d MVPA; 95% CI, 10.9-25.4 min/d MVPA; P?<?.001). During the subsequent 6-month maintenance period, mean activity level remained higher in the combined plus and regular groups than among controls (between-group difference, 1360 steps per day; 95% CI, 694-2026 steps per day; P?<.?001), but trends in total daily steps and MVPA were similar in the plus and regular groups. Conclusions and Relevance:In this trial, the intervention groups substantially increased their physical activity. However, use of both the app and accelerometer for an additional 6 months after the initial 3-month intervention did not help to maintain increases in physical activity compared with continued use of the accelerometer alone. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01280812.
Project description:Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults.This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013.Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance.Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06-4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1-2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47-5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5-4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93-8.29) cm lower in those performing ?4 hours/week.The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was stronger when physical activity was assessed by accelerometer compared with questionnaire, suggesting that physical activity might be more important for adiposity than previously estimated.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Reducing sedentary time and increasing lifestyle activities, including light-intensity activity, may be an option to help prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether objectively measured light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time is associated with MetS, independent of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). METHODS: The participants in this cross-sectional study were 483 middle-aged Japanese adults, aged 30-64 years. The participants were divided into those with or without MetS according to the Japanese criteria for MetS. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure light-intensity lifestyle activity [1.6-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and sedentary time (?1.5 METs). Logistic regression was used to predict MetS from the levels of light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time with age, sex, smoking, calorie intake, accelerometer wear time, and MVPA as covariates. RESULTS: The odds ratios (OR) for MetS in the highest and middle tertiles of light-intensity lifestyle activity were 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24 to 0.81] and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.89) relative to the lowest tertile, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, calorie intake, accelerometer wear time and MVPA (Ptrend?=?0.012). Sedentary time was also associated with the risk of MetS (Ptrend?=?0.018). Among participants in the highest tertile of sedentary time, the risk of MetS was 2.27-times greater than that in the lowest tertile (95% CI: 1.25 to 4.11). The risk of MetS was not significantly increased in subjects in the middle tertile of sedentary time. CONCLUSIONS: We found that light-intensity lifestyle activity and sedentary time were significantly associated with the risk of MetS, independent of MVPA. The results of our study suggest that public health messages and guidelines should be refined to include increases in light-intensity lifestyle activity and/or decreases in sedentary time, alongside promoting MVPA, to prevent MetS.
Project description:Background:International guidelines for physical activity recommend at least 150?min per week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for adults, including those with cardiac disease. There is yet to be consensus on the most appropriate way to categorise raw accelerometer data into behaviourally relevant metrics such as intensity, especially in chronic disease populations. Therefore the aim of this study was to estimate acceleration values corresponding to inactivity and MVPA during daily living activities of patients with heart failure (HF), via calibration with oxygen consumption (VO2) and to compare these values to previously published, commonly applied PA intensity thresholds which are based on healthy adults. Methods:Twenty-two adults with HF (mean age 71?±?14?years) undertook a range of daily living activities (including laying down, sitting, standing and walking) whilst measuring PA via wrist- and hip-worn accelerometers and VO2 via indirect calorimetry. Raw accelerometer output was used to compute PA in units of milligravity (mg). Energy expenditure across each of the activities was converted into measured METs (VO2/resting metabolic rate) and standard METs (VO2/3.5?ml/kg/min). PA energy costs were also compared with predicted METs in the compendium of physical activities. Location specific activity intensity thresholds were established via multilevel mixed effects linear regression and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. A leave-one-out method was used to cross-validate the thresholds. Results:Accelerometer values corresponding with intensity thresholds for inactivity (<?1.5METs) and MVPA (?3.0METs) were?>?50% lower than previously published intensity thresholds for both wrists and waist accelerometers (inactivity: 16.7 to 18.6?mg versus 45.8?mg; MVPA: 43.1 to 49.0?mg versus 93.2 to 100?mg). Measured METs were higher than both standard METs (34-35%) and predicted METs (45-105%) across all standing and walking activities. Conclusion:HF specific accelerometer intensity thresholds for inactivity and MVPA are lower than previously published thresholds based on healthy adults, due to lower resting metabolic rate and greater energy expenditure during daily living activities for HF patients. Trial registration:Clinical trials.gov NCT03659877, retrospectively registered on September 6th 2018.
Project description:Self-reported physical activity measures continue to be validated against accelerometers; however, the absence of standardized, accelerometer moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) definitions has made comparisons across studies difficult. Furthermore, recent accelerometer models assess accelerations in three axes, instead of only the vertical axis, but validation studies have yet to take incorporate triaxial data.Participants (n = 10 115) from the Women's Health Study wore a hip-worn accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) for seven days during waking hours (2011-2014). Women then completed a physical activity questionnaire. We compared self-reported with accelerometer-assessed MVPA, using four established cutpoints for MVPA: three using only vertical axis data (760, 1041 and 1952 counts per minute (cpm)) and one using triaxial data (2690 cpm).According to self-reported physical activity, 66.6% of women met the US federal physical activity guidelines, engaging in ?150 minutes per week of MVPA. The percent of women who met guidelines varied widely depending on the accelerometer MVPA definition (760 cpm: 50.0%, 1041 cpm: 33.0%, 1952 cpm: 13.4%, and 2690 cpm: 19.3%).Triaxial count data do not substantially reduce the difference between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed MVPA.
Project description:Whether amount of time spent in sedentary activities influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly, and to what extent such an influence is independent of physical activity behavior, remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes in a sample of elderly community-dwelling women.Metabolic risk outcomes including waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs). Accelerometers were used to retrieve daily sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, daily time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and total amount of accelerometer counts. Multivariate regression models were used to examine influence of physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes including a clustered metabolic risk score.When based on isotemporal substitution modeling, replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with a corresponding time block of either LPA or sedentary activities was associated with an increase in clustered metabolic risk score (? = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05), and an increase in waist circumference (? = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01). All associations indicated between sedentary time and metabolic risk outcomes were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts was adjusted for.Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of physical activity rather than amount of sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of physical activity with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The minimal physical activity intensity that would confer health benefits among adolescents is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of accelerometer-derived light-intensity (split into low and high) physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The study is based on 1,731 adolescents, aged 12-19 years from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Low light-intensity activity (100-799 counts/min), high light-intensity activity (800 counts/min to <4 METs) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity (? 4 METs, Freedson age-specific equation) were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were measured. Triglycerides, LDL- cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessments of ?-cell function (HOMA-%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) were also measured in a fasting sub-sample (n=807). RESULTS: Adjusted for confounders, each additional hour/day of low light-intensity activity was associated with 0.59 (95% CI: 1.18-0.01) mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure. Each additional hour/day of high light-intensity activity was associated with 1.67 (2.94-0.39) mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure and 0.04 (0.001-0.07) mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol. Each additional hour/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity was associated with 3.54 (5.73-1.35) mmHG lower systolic blood pressure, 5.49 (1.11-9.77)% lower waist circumference, 25.87 (6.08-49.34)% lower insulin, and 16.18 (4.92-28.53)% higher HOMA-%S. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent in low light-intensity physical activity and high light-intensity physical activity had some favorable associations with biomarkers. Consistent with current physical activity recommendations for adolescents, moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity had favorable associations with many cardiometabolic biomarkers. While increasing MVPA should still be a public health priority, further studies are needed to identify dose-response relationships for light-intensity activity thresholds to inform future recommendations and interventions for adolescents.