Coevolving MAPK and PID phosphosites indicate an ancient environmental control of PIN auxin transporters in land plants.
ABSTRACT: Plant growth flexibly adapts to environmental conditions, implying cross-talk between environmental signalling and developmental regulation. Here, we show that the PIN auxin efflux carrier family possesses three highly conserved putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) sites adjacent to the phosphorylation sites of the well-characterised AGC kinase PINOID, which regulates the polar localisation of PINs and directional auxin transport, thereby underpinning organ growth. The conserved sites of PIN1 are phosphorylated in vitro by two environmentally activated MAPKs, MPK4 and MPK6. In contrast to AGC kinases, MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of PIN1 at adjacent sites leads to a partial loss of the plasma membrane localisation of PIN1. MAPK-mediated modulation of PIN trafficking may participate in environmental adjustment of plant growth.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in regulating plant development and plant architecture. The directional auxin distribution within tissues depends on PIN transporters that are polarly localized on the plasma membrane. The PIN polarity and the resulting auxin flow directionality are mediated by the antagonistic actions of PINOID kinase and protein phosphatase 2A. However, the contribution of the PIN phosphorylation to the polar PIN sorting is still unclear. Here, we identified an evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation site within the central hydrophilic loop of PIN proteins that is important for the apical and basal polar PIN localizations. Inactivation of the phosphorylation site in PIN1(Ala) resulted in a predominantly basal targeting and increased the auxin flow to the root tip. In contrast, the outcome of the phosphomimic PIN1(Asp) manipulation was a constitutive, PINOID-independent apical targeting of PIN1 and an increased auxin flow in the opposite direction. Furthermore, the PIN1(Asp) functionally replaced PIN2 in its endogenous expression domain, revealing that the phosphorylation-dependent polarity regulation contributes to functional diversification within the PIN family. Our data suggest that PINOID-independent PIN phosphorylation at one single site is adequate to change the PIN polarity and, consequently, to redirect auxin fluxes between cells and provide the conceptual possibility and means to manipulate auxin-dependent plant development and architecture.
Project description:Root gravitropism allows plants to establish root systems and its regulation depends on polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINOID (PID) and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) act antagonistically on reversible phosphorylation of PINs. This regulates polar PIN distribution and auxin transport. Here we show that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1At regulates root gravitropism. Downregulation of Pin1At suppresses root agravitropic phenotypes of pp2aa and 35S:PID, while overexpression of Pin1At affects root gravitropic responses and enhances the pp2aa agravitropic phenotype. Pin1At also affects auxin transport and polar localization of PIN1 in stele cells, which is mediated by PID and PP2A. Furthermore, Pin1At catalyses the conformational change of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of PIN1. Thus, Pin1At mediates the conformational dynamics of PIN1 and affects PID- and PP2A-mediated regulation of PIN1 polar localization, which correlates with the regulation of root gravitropism.
Project description:The directional distribution of the phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development. Directional auxin transport is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. We have previously shown that efficient PIN1-mediated auxin efflux requires activation through phosphorylation at the four serines S1-S4 in Arabidopsis thaliana The Brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and the BFA-insensitive PINOID (PID) phosphorylate and activate PIN1 through phosphorylation at all four phosphosites. PID, but not D6PK, can also induce PIN1 polarity shifts, seemingly through phosphorylation at S1-S3. The differential effects of D6PK and PID on PIN1 polarity had so far been attributed to their differential phosphosite preference for the four PIN1 phosphosites. We have mapped PIN1 phosphorylation at S1-S4 in situ using phosphosite-specific antibodies. We detected phosphorylation at PIN1 phosphosites at the basal (rootward) as well as the apical (shootward) plasma membrane in different root cell types, in embryos, and shoot apical meristems. Thereby, PIN1 phosphorylation at all phosphosites generally followed the predominant PIN1 distribution but was not restricted to specific polar sides of the cells. PIN1 phosphorylation at the basal and apical plasma membrane was differentially sensitive to BFA treatments, suggesting the involvement of different protein kinases or trafficking mechanisms in PIN1 phosphorylation control. We conclude that phosphosite preferences are not sufficient to explain the differential effects of D6PK and PID on PIN1 polarity, and suggest that a more complex model is needed to explain the effects of PID.
Project description:Intercellular distribution of the plant hormone auxin largely depends on the polar subcellular distribution of the plasma membrane PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PIN polarity switches in response to different developmental and environmental signals have been shown to redirect auxin fluxes mediating certain developmental responses. PIN phosphorylation at different sites and by different kinases is crucial for PIN function. Here we investigate the role of PIN phosphorylation during gravitropic response. Loss- and gain-of-function mutants in PINOID and related kinases but not in D6PK kinase as well as mutations mimicking constitutive dephosphorylated or phosphorylated status of two clusters of predicted phosphorylation sites partially disrupted PIN3 phosphorylation and caused defects in gravitropic bending in roots and hypocotyls. In particular, they impacted PIN3 polarity rearrangements in response to gravity and during feed-back regulation by auxin itself. Thus PIN phosphorylation, besides regulating transport activity and apical-basal targeting, is also important for the rapid polarity switches in response to environmental and endogenous signals.
Project description:Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. <i>In vitro</i> phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes.
Project description:The protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous and highly conserved enzyme, the activity of which is vital for eukaryotic cells. We recently demonstrated that CK2 modulates salicylic acid (SA) homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana, and that functional interplay between CK2 and SA sustains transcriptional expression of PIN-FORMED (PIN) genes. In this work, we show that CK2 also plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of PINOID (PID), an AGC protein kinase that modulates the apical/basal localization of auxin-efflux transporters. We show that PID transcription is up-regulated by auxin and by SA and that CK2 is involved in both pathways. On the one hand, CK2 activity is required for proteosome-dependent degradation of AXR3, a member of the AUX/IAA family of auxin transcriptional repressors that must be degraded to activate auxin-responsive gene expression. On the other hand, the role of CK2 in SA homeostasis and, indirectly, in SA-driven PID transcription, was confirmed by using Arabidopsis NahG transgenic plants, which cannot accumulate SA. In conclusion, our results evidence a role for CK2 as a functional link in the negative cross-talk between auxin- and SA-signaling.
Project description:Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin is controlled by PIN- and ABCB/PGP-efflux catalysts. PIN polarity is regulated by the AGC protein kinase, PINOID (PID), while ABCB activity was shown to be dependent on interaction with the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified PID as a valid partner in the interaction with TWD1. In-vitro and yeast expression analyses indicated that PID specifically modulates ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux in an action that is dependent on its kinase activity and that is reverted by quercetin binding and thus inhibition of PID autophosphorylation. Triple ABCB1/PID/TWD1 co-transfection in tobacco revealed that PID enhances ABCB1-mediated auxin efflux but blocks ABCB1 in the presence of TWD1. Phospho-proteomic analyses identified S634 as a key residue of the regulatory ABCB1 linker and a very likely target of PID phosphorylation that determines both transporter drug binding and activity. In summary, we provide evidence that PID phosphorylation has a dual, counter-active impact on ABCB1 activity that is coordinated by TWD1-PID interaction.
Project description:Auxin is an essential regulator for plant development. To elucidate the mechanisms by which auxin regulates plant development, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant naked pins in yuc mutants 1 (npy1) that develops pin-like inflorescences and fails to initiate any flowers in yuc1 yuc4, a background that is defective in auxin biosynthesis. The phenotypes of npy1 yuc1 yuc4 triple mutants closely resemble those of Arabidopsis mutants pin-formed1 (pin1), pinoid (pid), and monopteros (mp), which are defective in either auxin transport or auxin signaling. NPY1 belongs to a large family of proteins and is homologous to NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3), a BTB/POZ protein that regulates phototropic responses along with the protein kinase PHOT1 (Phototropin 1). We demonstrate that NPY1 works with the protein kinase PID, which is homologous to PHOT1, to regulate auxin-mediated plant development. The npy1 pid double mutants fail to form any cotyledons, a phenotype that is also observed in yuc1 yuc4 pid triple mutants. Interestingly, both auxin-regulated organogenesis and phototropic responses require an auxin response factor (ARF). Disruption of ARF7/NPH4 leads to nonphototropic hypocotyls and arf5/mp forms pin-like inflorescences. Whereas the PHOT1/NPH3 pathway is regulated by light, our data suggest that the PID/NPY1 pathway may be regulated by auxin synthesized by the YUC flavin monooxygenases. Our findings put YUCs, PID, and NPY1 into a genetic framework for further dissecting the mechanisms of auxin action in plant development.
Project description:The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.
Project description:The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.