The potential of microRNAs as human prostate cancer biomarkers: A meta-analysis of related studies.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is a very important kind of male malignancies. When PC evolves into a stage of hormone resistance or metastasis, the fatality rate is very high. Currently, discoveries and advances in miRNAs as biomarkers have opened the potential for the diagnosis of PC, especially early diagnosis. miRNAs not only can noninvasively or minimally invasively identify PC, but also can provide the data for optimization and personalization of therapy. Moreover, miRNAs have been shown to play an important role to predict prognosis of PC. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to integrate the currently published expression profile data of miRNAs in PC, and evaluate the value of miRNAs as biomarkers for PC. All of relevant records were selected via electronic databases: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and CNKI based on the assessment of title, abstract, and full text. we extracted mean?±?SD or fold change of miRNAs expression levels in PC versus BPH or normal controls. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS), were also calculated to detect the relationship between high miRNAs expression and PC prognosis. Selected 104 articles were published in 2007-2017. According to the inclusion criteria, 104 records were included for this meta-analysis. The pooled or stratified analyze showed 10 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-18a, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-141, miR-182, miR-183, miR-200a/b, miR-301a, and miR-375) and 14 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-1, miR-23b/27b, miR-30c, miR-99b, miR-139-5p, miR-152, miR-187, miR-204, miR-205, miR-224, miR-452, miR-505, and let-7c) had relatively good diagnostic and predictive potential to discriminate PC from BPH/normal controls. Furthermore, high expression of miR-32 and low expression of let-7c could be used to differentiate metastatic PC from local/primary PC. Additional interesting findings were that the expression profiles of five miRNAs (miR-21, miR-30c, miR-129, miR-145, and let-7c) could predict poor RFS of PC, while the evaluation of miR-375 was associated with worse OS. miRNAs are important regulators in PC progression. Our results indicate that miRNAs are suitable for predicting the different stages of PC. The detection of miRNAs is an effective way to control patient's prognosis and evaluate therapeutic efficacy. However, large-scale detections based on common clinical guidelines are still necessary to further validate our conclusions, due to the bias induced by molecular heterogeneity and differences in study design and detection methods.
Project description:Global microRNA (miRNA) profile may predict prostate cancer (PCa) behaviors. In this study, we examined global miRNA expression by miRNA profiling as well as specific miRNA expression levels in PCa epithelium and stroma by in situ hybridization (ISH) and correlated with various clinicopathological features. We first performed comprehensive miRNA profiling on 27 macrodissected cases of PCa by miRNA microarray. A total of 299 miRNAs were significantly dysregulated in high grade and advanced stage PCa. We demonstrated that PCa can be readily classified into high grade/stage and low-grade/stage groups by its global miRNA expression profile. Next, we examined the expression of several selected dysregulated miRNAs, including let-7c, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-30c, and miR-219, in PCa by ISH. The levels of miRNA expression in epithelial and stromal cells were scored semiquantitatively and compared with clinicopathological features, including age, race, Gleason score, stage, PSA recurrence, metastasis, hormone resistance and survival. We found that the expression of miR-30c and miR-219 were significantly down-regulated in PCa. miR-21 and miR-30c were significantly down-regulated in PCa in African Americans compared to Caucasian Americans. In addition, down-regulation of let-7c, miR-21, miR-30c, and miR-219 are associated with metastatic disease. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-30c and let-7c are significantly associated with androgen-dependent PCa. In PCa stromal cells, let-7c downregulation is significantly associated with extraprostatic extension. Our data suggest that selected miRNAs may serve as potential biomarkers to predict cancer progression.
Project description:Aberrant microRNA expression is associated with tumor development. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of miR-30c in the development of prostate cancer. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to compare miR-30c expression in LNCaP, DU145, PC-3 and RWPE-1 cell lines. Lentivirus expressing miR-30c was used to create stable overexpression cell lines to investigate the effects of miR-30c overexpression on cell proliferation, migration and invasion, which were determined in the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 by MTT, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assays. Effects of miR-30c on KRAS were examined by western blot analysis. miR-30c expression was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the PC-3 cell line compared with LNCaP, DU145 and RWPE-1 cell lines. miR-30c overexpression in PC-3 inhibited tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, KRAS protein expression was downregulated in miR-30c overexpression cell lines compared with the negative control (NC) group (P<0.05). The present results demonstrated that overexpression of miR-30c inhibits prostate cancer cell line proliferation, migration and invasion, which was possibly caused by downregulation of KRAS protein by miR-30c. The data implicate miR-30c in the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
Project description:Long non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the development and progression of cancer. However, the mechanisms of lncRNAs in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection?induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. The study aimed to reveal the roles of lncRNAs for HBV?HCC based on the hypothesis of competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). The lncRNA (GSE27462), miRNA (GSE76903) and mRNA (GSE121248) expression profiles were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs), genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DEMs) were identified using the LIMMA or EdgeR package, respectively. The ceRNA network was constructed based on interaction pairs between miRNAs and mRNAs/lncRNAs. The functions of DEGs in the ceRNA network were predicted using the DAVID database, which was overlapped with the known HCC pathways of Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) to construct the HCC?related ceRNA network. The prognosis values [overall survival, (OS); recurrence?free survival (RFS)] of genes were validated using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data with Cox regression analysis. The present study screened 38 DELs, 127 DEMs and 721 DEGs. A ceRNA network was constructed among 17 DELs, 12 DEMs and 173 DEGs, including the FAM138B?hsa?miR?30c?CCNE2/RRM2 and SSTR5?AS1?hsa?miR?15b?5p?CA2 ceRNA axes. Function enrichment analysis revealed the genes in the ceRNA network that participated in the p53 signaling pathway [cyclin E2 (CCNE2), ribonucleotide reductase M2 subunit (RRM2)] and nitrogen metabolism [carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2)], which were also included in the pathways of the CTD. Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that six RNAs (2 DELs: FAM138B, SSTR5?AS1; 2 DEMs: hsa?miR?149, hsa?miR?7; 2 DEGs: CCNE2, RRM2) were significantly associated with OS; while seven RNAs (1 DEL: LINC00284; 3 DEMs: hsa?miR?7, hsa?miR?15b, hsa?miR?30c?2; and 3 DEGs: RRM2, CCNE2, CA2) were significantly associated with RFS. In conclusion, FAM138B?hsa?miR?30c?CCNE2/RRM2 and the SSTR5?AS1?hsa?miR?15b?5p?CA2 ceRNA axes may be important mechanisms for HBV?related HCC.
Project description:Existing tumor markers for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) cannot detect the presence of pure teratoma. Serum miRNAs have strong performance detecting other subtypes of TGCT. Previous reports suggest high levels of miR-375 expression in teratoma tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of serum miRNA, including miR-375, in detecting the presence of teratoma at postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND). We prospectively collected presurgical serum from 40 TGCT patients undergoing PC-RPLND (21 with teratoma at RPLND and 19 with no evidence of disease). We examined the utility of serum miR-375-3p and miR-375-5p by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and searched for other putative serum miRNAs with small RNA sequencing. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and univariate analyses were utilized to evaluate test characteristics and predictors of teratoma. Both serum miR-375-3p and miR-375-5p exhibited poor performance (miR-375-3p: 86% sensitivity, 32% specificity, AUC: 0.506; miR-375-5p: 55% sensitivity, 67% specificity, AUC: 0.556). Teratoma at orchiectomy was the only predictor of PC-RPLND teratoma. Small RNA sequencing identified three potentially discriminatory miRNAs, but further validation demonstrated no utility. Our results confirm prior reports that serum miR-375 cannot predict teratoma, and suggest that there may not exist a predictive serum miRNA for teratoma.
Project description:Over the latest decade, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) has received more attention. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that may serve a role as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Certain miRNAs regulate the apoptosis pathway by influencing pro- or anti-apoptotic genes. We hypothesized that increases in the expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1) genes, which have been reported in various types of cancer tissues, may be due to the downregulation of certain miRNAs. The present study aimed to identify miRNAs that target BCL2 and BCL2L1 anti-apoptotic genes in prostate cancer (PCa) clinical tissue samples. Certain candidate miRNAs were selected bioinformatically and their expression in PCa samples was analyzed and compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue samples. The candidate miRNAs that targeted BCL2 and BCL2L1 genes were searched in online databases (miRWalk, microRNA.org, miRDB and TargetScan). A total of 12 miRNAs that target the 3'-untranslated region of the aforementioned genes and/or for which downregulation of their expression has previously been reported in cancer tissues. A total of 30 tumor tissue samples from patients with PCa and 30 samples tissues from patients with BPH were obtained and were subjected to reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for expression analysis of 12 candidate miRNAs, and the BCL2 and BCL2L1 genes. Additionally, expression of 3 finally selected miRNAs and genes was evaluated in prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Among 12 miRNA candidates, the expression of miR-1266, miR-185 and miR-30c-2 was markedly downregulated in PCa tumor tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, downregulation of these miRNAs was associated with upregulation of the BCL2 and BCL2L1 genes. An inverse association between three miRNAs (miR-1266, miR-185 and miR-30c-2) and two anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2 and BCL2L1) may be considered for interventional miRNA therapy of PCa.
Project description:Dysregulation of miRNAs has a fundamental role in the initiation, development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The potential of miRNA in gene therapy and diagnostic applications is well documented. To further improve miRNAs' ability to distinguish between PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients, nine miRNA (-21, -27b, -93, -141, -205, -221, -182, -375 and let-7a) with the highest reported differentiation power were chosen and for the first time used in comparative studies of serum and prostate tissue samples. Spearman correlations and response operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were applied to assess the capability of the miRNAs present in serum to discriminate between PCa and BPH patients. The present study clearly demonstrates that miR-93 and miR-375 could be taken into consideration as single blood-based non-invasive molecules to distinguish PCa from BPH patients. We indicate that these two miRNAs have six common, PCa-related, target genes (CCND2, MAP3K2, MXI1, PAFAH1B1, YOD1, ZFYVE26) that share the molecular function of protein binding (GO:0005515 term). A high diagnostic value of the new serum derived miR-182 (AUC = 0.881, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.816-0.946, p < 0.0001, sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 79%, respectively) is also described.
Project description:Early detection of prostate cancer (PC) is paramount as localized disease is generally curable, while metastatic PC is generally incurable. There is a need for improved, minimally invasive biomarkers as current diagnostic tools are inaccurate, leading to extensive overtreatment while still missing some clinically significant cancers. Consequently, we profiled the expression levels of 92 selected microRNAs by RT-qPCR in plasma samples from 753 patients, representing multiple stages of PC and non-cancer controls. First, we compared plasma miRNA levels in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or localized prostate cancer (LPC), versus advanced prostate cancer (APC). We identified several dysregulated microRNAs with a large overlap of 59 up/down-regulated microRNAs between BPH versus APC and LPC versus APC. Besides identifying several novel PC-associated dysregulated microRNAs in plasma, we confirmed the previously reported upregulation of miR-375 and downregulation of miR-146a-5p. Next, by randomly splitting our dataset into a training and test set, we identified and successfully validated a novel four microRNA diagnostic ratio model, termed <i>bCaP</i> (miR-375*miR-33a-5p/miR-16-5p*miR-409-3p). Combined in a model with prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination status, and age, <i>bCaP</i> predicted the outcomes of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies (negative vs. positive) with greater accuracy than PSA alone (Training: area under the curve (AUC), model = 0.84; AUC, PSA = 0.63. Test set: AUC, model = 0.67; AUC, PSA = 0.56). It may be possible in the future to use this simple and minimally invasive <i>bCaP</i> test in combination with existing clinical parameters for a more accurate selection of patients for prostate biopsy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) is a non-coding small RNA of a type of 18~24 nucleotide-regulated gene that has been discovered in recent years. It mainly degrades the target gene mRNA or inhibits its translation process through the complete or incomplete bindings with 3'UTR of target genes, followed by the regulation of individual development, apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and other life activities through the post-transcriptional regulation. Among many miRNAs, the microRNA family, miR-30, plays diverse roles in these key process of neoplastic transformation, metastasis, and clinical outcomes in different cancer progression. As key member of miR-30, miR-30c is regulated by oncogenic transcription factors and cancer progression related genes. Recently, numerous studies have demonstrated that the aberrant expression of miR-30c was significantly associated with the majority of human cancer progression. In this review, the diverse roles of miR-30c in different cancer progression such as the cellular and molecular mechanisms, the potential applications in clinics were summarized to speculate the benefits of miR-30c over-expression in cancer treatment and prognosis.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm among men. Since it often resembles benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), biomarkers with a higher differential value than PSA are required. Epigenetic biomarkers in liquid biopsies, especially miRNA, could address this challenge. The absolute expression of miR-375-3p, miR-182-5p, miR-21-5p, and miR-148a-3p were quantified in blood plasma and seminal plasma of 65 PCa and 58 BPH patients by digital droplet PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of these microRNAs were determined using ROC curve analysis. The higher expression of miR-182-5p and miR-375-3p in the blood plasma of PCa patients was statistically significant as compared to BPH (<i>p</i> = 0.0363 and 0.0226, respectively). Their combination achieved a specificity of 90.2% for predicting positive or negative biopsy results, while PSA cut-off of 4 µg/L performed with only 1.7% specificity. In seminal plasma, miR-375-3p, miR-182-5p, and miR-21-5p showed a statistically significantly higher expression in PCa patients with PSA >10 µg/L compared to ones with PSA ≤10 µg/L. MiR-182-5p and miR-375-3p in blood plasma show higher performance than PSA in discriminating PCa from BPH. Seminal plasma requires further investigation as it represents an obvious source for PCa biomarker identification.
Project description:MiRNAs play a relevant role in PC (prostate cancer) by the regulation in the expression of several pathways' AR (androgen receptor), cellular cycle, apoptosis, MET (mesenchymal epithelium transition), or metastasis. Here, we report the role of several miRNAs' expression patterns, such as miR-93-5p, miR-23c, miR-210-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-592, miR-141, miR-375, and miR-130b, with relevance in processes like cell proliferation and MET. Using Trizol<sup>®</sup> extraction protocol and TaqMan™ specific probes for amplification, we performed miRNAs' analysis of 159 PC fresh tissues and 60 plasmas from peripheral blood samples. We had clinical data from all samples including PSA, Gleason, TNM, and D'Amico risk. Moreover, a bioinformatic analysis in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) was included to analyze the effect of the most relevant miRNAs according to aggressiveness in an extensive cohort (<i>n</i> = 531). We found that miR-210-3p, miR-23c, miR-592, and miR-93-5p are the most suitable biomarkers for PC aggressiveness and diagnosis, respectively. In fact, according with our results, miR-93-5p seems the most promising non-invasive biomarker for PC. To sum up, miR-210-3p, miR-23c, miR-592, and miR-93-5p miRNAs are suggested to be potential biomarkers for PC risk stratification that could be included in non-invasive strategies such as liquid biopsy in precision medicine for PC management.