Effects of fuel components and combustion particle physicochemical properties on toxicological responses of lung cells.
ABSTRACT: The physicochemical properties of combustion particles that promote lung toxicity are not fully understood, hindered by the fact that combustion particles vary based on the fuel and combustion conditions. Real-world combustion-particle properties also continually change as new fuels are implemented, engines age, and engine technologies evolve. This work used laboratory-generated particles produced under controlled combustion conditions in an effort to understand the relationship between different particle properties and the activation of established toxicological outcomes in human lung cells (H441 and THP-1). Particles were generated from controlled combustion of two simple biofuel/diesel surrogates (methyl decanoate and dodecane/biofuel-blended diesel (BD), and butanol and dodecane/alcohol-blended diesel (AD)) and compared to a widely studied reference diesel (RD) particle (NIST SRM2975/RD). BD, AD, and RD particles exhibited differences in size, surface area, extractable chemical mass, and the content of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some of these differences were directly associated with different effects on biological responses. BD particles had the greatest surface area, amount of extractable material, and oxidizing potential. These particles and extracts induced cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 enzyme mRNA in lung cells. AD particles and extracts had the greatest total PAH content and also caused CYP1A1 and 1B1 mRNA induction. The RD extract contained the highest relative concentration of 2-ring PAHs and stimulated the greatest level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) cytokine secretion. Finally, AD and RD were more potent activators of TRPA1 than BD, and while neither the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 nor the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) affected CYP1A1 or 1B1 mRNA induction, both inhibitors reduced IL-8 secretion and mRNA induction. These results highlight that differences in fuel and combustion conditions affect the physicochemical properties of particles, and these differences, in turn, affect commonly studied biological/toxicological responses.
Project description:Cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion-derived particles activate the calcium channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), causing irritation and inflammation in the respiratory tract. It was hypothesized that wood smoke particulate and select chemical constituents thereof would also activate TRPA1 in lung cells, potentially explaining the adverse effects of wood and other forms of biomass smoke on the respiratory system. TRPA1 activation was assessed using calcium imaging assays in TRPA1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells, mouse primary trigeminal neurons, and human adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells. Particles from pine and mesquite smoke were less potent agonists of TRPA1 than an equivalent mass concentration of an ethanol extract of diesel exhaust particles; pine particles were comparable in potency to cigarette smoke condensate, and mesquite particles were the least potent. The fine particulate (PM < 2.5 ?m) of wood smoke were the most potent TRPA1 agonists and several chemical constituents of wood smoke particulate, 3,5-ditert-butylphenol, coniferaldehyde, formaldehyde, perinaphthenone, agathic acid, and isocupressic acid, were TRPA1 agonists. Pine particulate activated TRPA1 in mouse trigeminal neurons and A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. TRPA1 activation by wood smoke particles occurred through the electrophile/oxidant-sensing domain (i.e., C621/C641/C665/K710), based on the inhibition of cellular responses when the particles were pretreated with glutathione; a role for the menthol-binding site of TRPA1 (S873/T874) was demonstrated for 3,5-ditert-butylphenol. This study demonstrated that TRPA1 is a molecular sensor for wood smoke particulate and several chemical constituents thereof, in sensory neurons and A549 cells, suggesting that TRPA1 may mediate some of the adverse effects of wood smoke in humans.
Project description:Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) causes pulmonary irritation and inflammation, which can exacerbate asthma and other diseases. These effects may arise from the activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). This study shows that a representative DEP can activate TRPA1-expressing pulmonary C-fibers in the mouse lung. Furthermore, DEP collected from idling vehicles at an emissions inspection station, the tailpipe of an on-road "black smoker" diesel truck, waste DEP from a diesel exhaust filter regeneration machine, and NIST SRM 2975 can activate human TRPA1 in lung epithelial cells to elicit different biological responses. The potency of the DEP, particle extracts, and selected chemical components was compared in TRPA1 over-expressing HEK-293 and human lung cells using calcium flux and other toxicologically relevant end-point assays. Emission station DEP was the most potent and filter DEP the least. Potency was related to the percentage of ethanol extractable TRPA1 agonists and was equivalent when equal amounts of extract mass was used for treatment. The DEP samples were further compared using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and principal component analysis as well as targeted analysis of known TRPA1 agonists. Activation of TRPA1 was attributable to both particle-associated electrophiles and non-electrophilic agonists, which affected the induction of interleukin-8 mRNA via TRPA1 in A549 and IMR-90 lung cells as well as TRPA1-mediated mucin gene induction in human lung cells and mucous cell metaplasia in mice. This work illustrates that not all DEP samples are equivalent, and studies aimed at assessing mechanisms of DEP toxicity should account for multiple variables, including the expression of receptor targets such as TRPA1 and particle chemistry.
Project description:Fine particulate matters less than 2.5?µm (PM2.5) in the ambient atmosphere are strongly associated with adverse health effects. However, it is unlikely that all fine particles are equally toxic in view of their different sizes and chemical components. Toxicity of fine particles produced from various combustion sources (diesel engine, gasoline engine, biomass burning (rice straw and pine stem burning), and coal combustion) and non-combustion sources (road dust including sea spray aerosols, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA)), which are known major sources of PM2.5, was determined. Multiple biological and chemical endpoints were integrated for various source-specific aerosols to derive toxicity scores for particles originating from different sources. The highest toxicity score was obtained for diesel engine exhaust particles, followed by gasoline engine exhaust particles, biomass burning particles, coal combustion particles, and road dust, suggesting that traffic plays the most critical role in enhancing the toxic effects of fine particles. The toxicity ranking of fine particles produced from various sources can be used to better understand the adverse health effects caused by different fine particle types in the ambient atmosphere, and to provide practical management of fine particles beyond what can be achieved only using PM mass which is the current regulation standard.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Air pollution, mainly from combustion, is one of the leading global health risk factors. A susceptible group is the more than 200 million people worldwide suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are few data on lung deposition of airborne particles in patients with COPD and none for combustion particles. OBJECTIVES: To determine respiratory tract deposition of diesel combustion particles in patients with COPD during spontaneous breathing. METHODS: Ten COPD patients and seven healthy subjects inhaled diesel exhaust particles generated during idling and transient driving in an exposure chamber. The respiratory tract deposition of the particles was measured in the size range 10-500 nm during spontaneous breathing. RESULTS: The deposited dose rate increased with increasing severity of the disease. However, the deposition probability of the ultrafine combustion particles (< 100 nm) was decreased in COPD patients. The deposition probability was associated with both breathing parameters and lung function, but could be predicted only based on lung function. CONCLUSIONS: The higher deposited dose rate of inhaled air pollution particles in COPD patients may be one of the factors contributing to their increased vulnerability. The strong correlations between lung function and particle deposition, especially in the size range of 20-30 nm, suggest that altered particle deposition could be used as an indicator respiratory disease.
Project description:Over the past decade, soy biodiesel (BD) has become a first alternative energy source that is economically viable and meets requirements of the Clean Air Act. Due to lower mass emissions and reduced hazardous compounds compared to diesel combustion emissions (CE), BD exposure is proposed to produce fewer adverse health effects. However, considering the broad use of BD and its blends in different industries, this assertion needs to be supported and validated by mechanistic and toxicological data. Here, adverse effects were compared in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation exposure (0, 50, 150, or 500 ?g/m3; 4 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 wk) to CE from 100% biodiesel (B100) and diesel (D100). Compared to D100, B100 CE produced a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins (carbonyls), an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reduction of protein thiols, a depletion of antioxidant gluthatione (GSH), a dose-related rise in the levels of biomarkers of tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) in lungs, and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, MPO) in both lungs and liver. Significant differences in the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interferon (IFN) ?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were detected in lungs and liver upon B100 and D100 CE exposures. Overall, the tissue damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokine response were more pronounced in mice exposed to BD CE. Further studies are required to understand what combustion products in BD CE accelerate oxidative and inflammatory responses.
Project description:The optical identification of bioaerosols in the atmosphere and its discrimination against combustion related particles is a major issue for real-time, field compatible instruments. In the present paper, we show that by embedding advanced pump-probe depletion spectroscopy schemes in a portable instrument, it is possible to discriminate amino acid containing airborne particles (bacteria, humic particles, etc.) from poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing combustion particles (Diesel droplets, soot, vehicle exhausts) with high selectivity. Our real-time, multi-modal device provides, in addition to the pump-probe depletion information, fluorescence spectra (over 32 channels), fluorescence lifetime and Mie scattering patterns of each individually flowing particle in the probed air.
Project description:Particle emissions and secondary aerosol formation from internal combustion engines deteriorate air quality and significantly affect human wellbeing and health. Both the direct particle emissions and the emissions of compounds contributing to secondary aerosol formation depend on choices made in selecting fuels, engine technologies, and exhaust aftertreatment (EAT). Here we study how catalytic EATs, particle filtration, and fuel choices affect these emissions concerning heavy-duty diesel engine. We observed that the most advanced EAT decreased the emissions of fresh exhaust particle mass as much as 98% (from 44.7 to 0.73 mg/kWh) and the formation of aged exhaust particle mass ?100% (from 106.2 to ?0 mg/kWh). The composition of emitted particles depended significantly on the EAT and oxidative aging. While black carbon typically dominated the composition of fresh exhaust particles, aged particles contained more sulfates and organics. The fuel choices had minor effects on the secondary aerosol formation, implicating that, in diesel engines, either the lubricant is a significant source of secondary aerosol precursors or the precursors are formed in the combustion process. Results indicate that the utilization of EAT in diesel engines would produce benefits with respect to exhaust burden on air quality, and thus their utilization should be promoted especially in geographical areas suffering from poor air quality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diesel exhaust is carcinogenic and exposure to diesel particles cause health effects. We investigated the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles designed to have varying physicochemical properties in order to attribute health effects to specific particle characteristics. Particles from three fuel types were compared at 13% engine intake O2 concentration: MK1 ultra low sulfur diesel (DEP13) and the two renewable diesel fuels hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO13) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME13). Additionally, diesel particles from MK1 ultra low sulfur diesel were generated at 9.7% (DEP9.7) and 17% (DEP17) intake O2 concentration. We evaluated physicochemical properties and histopathological, inflammatory and genotoxic responses on day 1, 28, and 90 after single intratracheal instillation in mice compared to reference diesel particles and carbon black. RESULTS:Moderate variations were seen in physical properties for the five particles: primary particle diameter: 15-22?nm, specific surface area: 152-222?m2/g, and count median mobility diameter: 55-103?nm. Larger differences were found in chemical composition: organic carbon/total carbon ratio (0.12-0.60), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content (1-27??g/mg) and acid-extractable metal content (0.9-16??g/mg). Intratracheal exposure to all five particles induced similar toxicological responses, with different potency. Lung particle retention was observed in DEP13 and HVO13 exposed mice on day 28 post-exposure, with less retention for the other fuel types. RME exposure induced limited response whereas the remaining particles induced dose-dependent inflammation and acute phase response on day 1. DEP13 induced acute phase response on day 28 and inflammation on day 90. DNA strand break levels were not increased as compared to vehicle, but were increased in lung and liver compared to blank filter extraction control. Neutrophil influx on day 1 correlated best with estimated deposited surface area, but also with elemental carbon, organic carbon and PAHs. DNA strand break levels in lung on day 28 and in liver on day 90 correlated with acellular particle-induced ROS. CONCLUSIONS:We studied diesel exhaust particles designed to differ in physicochemical properties. Our study highlights specific surface area, elemental carbon content, PAHs and ROS-generating potential as physicochemical predictors of diesel particle toxicity.
Project description:Few studies have examined multiple measures of white matter (WM) differences in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder (FR-BD). To investigate WM in the FR-BD group, we used three measures of WM structure and two methods of analysis. We used fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 25 youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder, defined as having both a parent with BD and mood dysregulation, and 16 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched healthy controls. We conducted a whole brain voxelwise analysis using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Subsequently, we conducted a complementary atlas-based, region-of-interest analysis using Diffeomap to confirm results seen in TBSS. When TBSS was used, significant widespread between-group differences were found showing increased FA, increased AD, and decreased RD in the FR-BD group in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, cingulate, superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and corpus callosum. Atlas-based analysis confirmed significant between-group differences, with increased FA and decreased RD in the FR-BD group in the SLF, cingulum, and SFOF. We found significant widespread WM tract aberrations in youth with familial risk for BD using two complementary methods of DTI analysis.
Project description:Inhaled irritants activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), resulting in cough, bronchoconstriction, and inflammation/edema. TRPA1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our hypothesis was that particulate materials activate TRPA1 via a mechanism distinct from chemical agonists and that, in a cohort of children with asthma living in a location prone to high levels of air pollution, expression of uniquely sensitive forms of TRPA1 may correlate with reduced asthma control. Variant forms of TRPA1 were constructed by mutating residues in known functional elements and corresponding to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in functional domains. TRPA1 activity was studied in transfected HEK-293 cells using allyl-isothiocynate, a model soluble electrophilic agonist; 3,5-ditert butylphenol, a soluble nonelectrophilic agonist and a component of diesel exhaust particles; and insoluble coal fly ash (CFA) particles. The N-terminal variants R3C and R58T exhibited greater, but not additive, activity with all three agonists. The ankyrin repeat domain-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms E179K and K186N exhibited decreased response to CFA. The predicted N-linked glycosylation site residues N747A and N753A exhibited decreased responses to CFA, which were not attributable to differences in cellular localization. The pore-loop residue R919Q was comparable to wild-type, whereas N954T was inactive to soluble agonists but not CFA. These data identify roles for ankyrin domain-4, cell surface N-linked glycans, and selected pore-loop domain residues in the activation of TRPA1 by insoluble particles. Furthermore, the R3C and R58T polymorphisms correlated with reduced asthma control for some children, which suggest that TRPA1 activity may modulate asthma, particularly among individuals living in locations prone to high levels of air pollution.