Morphology-driven downscaling of Streptomyces lividans to micro-cultivation.
ABSTRACT: Actinobacteria are prolific producers of secondary metabolites and industrially relevant enzymes. Growth of these mycelial micro-organisms in small culture volumes is challenging due to their complex morphology. Since morphology and production are typically linked, scaling down culture volumes requires better control over morphogenesis. In larger scale platforms, ranging from shake flasks to bioreactors, the hydrodynamics play an important role in shaping the morphology and determining product formation. Here, we report on the effects of agitation on the mycelial morphology of Streptomyces lividans grown in microtitre plates. Our work shows that at the appropriate agitation rates cultures can be scaled down to volumes as small as 100 µl while maintaining the same morphology as seen in larger scale platforms. Using image analysis and principal component analysis we compared the morphologies of the cultures; when agitated at 1400-1600 rpm the mycelial morphology in micro-cultures was similar to that obtained in shake flasks, while product formation was also maintained. Our study shows that the morphology of actinobacteria in micro-cultures can be controlled in a similar manner as in larger scale cultures by carefully controlling the mixing rate. This could facilitate high-throughput screening and upscaling.
Project description:High-throughput analyses that are central to microbial systems biology and ecophysiology research benefit from highly homogeneous and physiologically well-defined cell cultures. While attention has focused on the technical variation associated with high-throughput technologies, biological variation introduced as a function of cell cultivation methods has been largely overlooked. This study evaluated the impact of cultivation methods, controlled batch or continuous culture in bioreactors versus shake flasks, on the reproducibility of global proteome measurements in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Variability in dissolved oxygen concentration and consumption rate, metabolite profiles, and proteome was greater in shake flask than controlled batch or chemostat cultures. Proteins indicative of suboxic and anaerobic growth (e.g., fumarate reductase and decaheme c-type cytochromes) were more abundant in cells from shake flasks compared to bioreactor cultures, a finding consistent with data demonstrating that "aerobic" flask cultures were O2 deficient due to poor mass transfer kinetics. The work described herein establishes the necessity of controlled cultivation for ensuring highly reproducible and homogenous microbial cultures. By decreasing cell to cell variability, higher quality samples will allow for the interpretive accuracy necessary for drawing conclusions relevant to microbial systems biology research.
Project description:The application of microparticle-enhanced cultivation (MPEC) is an attractive method to control mycelial morphology, and thus enhance the production of metabolites and enzymes in the submerged cultivations of filamentous fungi. Unfortunately, most literature data deals with the spore-agglomerating species like aspergilli. Therefore, the detailed quantitative study of the morphological evolution of four different fungal species (Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium rubens, Chaetomium globosum, and Mucor racemosus) based on the digital analysis of microscopic images was presented in this paper. In accordance with the current knowledge, these species exhibit different mechanisms of agglomerates formation. The standard submerged shake flask cultivations (as a reference) and MPEC involving 10 ?m aluminum oxide microparticles (6 g·L-1 ) were performed. The morphological parameters, including mean projected area, elongation, roughness, and morphology number were determined for the mycelial objects within the first 24 hr of growth. It occurred that heretofore observed and widely discussed effect of microparticles on fungi, namely the decrease in pellet size, was not observed for the species whose pellet formation mechanism is different from spore agglomeration. In the MPEC, C. globosum developed core-shell pellets, and M. racemosus, a nonagglomerative species, formed the relatively larger, compared to standard cultures, pellets with distinct cores.
Project description:HEK293 transient expression systems are used to quickly generate proteins for research and pre-clinical studies. With the aim of engineering a high-producing host that grows and transfects robustly in bioreactors, we deleted the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Bak in an HEK293 cell line. The HEK293 Bax Bak double knock-out (HEK293 DKO) cell line exhibited resistance to apoptosis and shear stress. HEK293 DKO cells sourced from 2 L seed train bioreactors were most productive when a pH setpoint of 7.0, a narrow pH deadband of ±0.03, and a DO setpoint of 30% were used. HEK293 DKO seed train cells cultivated for up to 60 days in a 35 L bioreactor showed similar productivities to cells cultivated in shake flasks. To optimize HEK293 DKO transfection cultures, we first evaluated different pH and agitation parameters in ambr15 microbioreactors before scaling up to 10 L wavebag bioreactors. In ambr15 microbioreactors with a pH setpoint of 7.0, a wide pH deadband of ±0.3, and an agitation of 630 rpm, HEK293 DKO transient cultures yielded antibody titers up to 650 mg/L in 7 days. The optimal ambr15 conditions prompted us to operate the 10 L wavebag transfection without direct pH control to mimic the wide pH deadband ranges. The HEK293 DKO transfection process produces high titers at all scales tested. Combined, our optimized HEK293 DKO 35 L bioreactor seed train and 10 L high titer transient processes support efficient, large-scale recombinant protein production for research studies.
Project description:The heat-inducible expression system has been widely used to produce recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. However, the rise in temperature affects cell growth, activates the bacterial Heat-Shock Response (HSR), and promotes the formation of insoluble protein aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs). In this work, we evaluate the effect of the culture scale (shake flasks and bioreactors) and induction temperature (39 and 42 °C) on the kinetic behavior of thermoinducible recombinant E. coli ATCC 53606 producing rESAT-6 (6-kDa early-secretory antigenic target from Mycobacterium tuberculosis), compared with cultures grown at 30 °C (without induction). Also, the expression of the major E. coli chaperones (DnaK and GroEL) was analyzed. We found that almost twice maximum biomass and rESAT-6 production were obtained in bioreactors (~?3.29 g/L of biomass and ~?0.27 g/L of rESAT-6) than in shake flasks (~?1.41 g/L of biomass and ~?0.14 g/L of rESAT-6) when induction was carried out at 42 °C, but similar amounts of rESAT-6 were obtained from cultures induced at 39 °C (~?0.14 g/L). In all thermo-induced conditions, rESAT-6 was trapped in IBs. Furthermore, DnaK was preferably expressed in the soluble fraction, while GroEL was present in IBs. Importantly, IBs formed at 39 °C, in both shake flasks and bioreactors, were more susceptible to degradation by proteinase-K, indicating a lower amyloid content compared to IBs formed at 42 °C. Our work presents evidence that the culture scale and the induction temperature modify the E. coli metabolic response, expression of chaperones, and structure of the IBs during rESAT-6 protein production in a thermoinducible system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Streptomyces, understanding the switch from primary to secondary metabolism is important for maximizing the production of secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, as well as for optimizing recombinant glycoprotein production. Differences in Streptomyces lividans bacterial aggregation as well as recombinant glycoprotein production and O-mannosylation have been reported due to modifications in the shake flask design. We hypothetized that such differences are related to the metabolic switch that occurs under oxygen-limiting conditions in the cultures. RESULTS:Shake flask design was found to affect undecylprodigiosin (RED, a marker of secondary metabolism) production; the RED yield was 12 and 385 times greater in conventional normal Erlenmeyer flasks (NF) than in baffled flasks (BF) and coiled flasks (CF), respectively. In addition, oxygen transfer rates (OTR) and carbon dioxide transfer rates were almost 15 times greater in cultures in CF and BF as compared with those in NF. Based on these data, we obtained respiration quotients (RQ) consistent with aerobic metabolism for CF and BF, but an RQ suggestive of anaerobic metabolism for NF. CONCLUSION:Although the metabolic switch is usually related to limitations in phosphate and nitrogen in Streptomyces sp., our results reveal that it can also be activated by low OTR, dramatically affecting recombinant glycoprotein production and O-mannosylation and increasing RED synthesis in the process.
Project description:Talaromyces albobiverticillius 30548 is a marine-derived pigment producing filamentous fungus, isolated from the La Réunion island, in the Indian Ocean. The objective of this study was to examine and optimize the submerged fermentation (SmF) process parameters such as initial pH (4-9), temperature (21-27 °C), agitation speed (100-200 rpm), and fermentation time (0-336 h), for maximum production of pigments (orange and red) and biomass, using the Box-Behnken Experimental Design and Response Surface Modeling (BBED and RSM). This methodology allowed consideration of multifactorial interactions between a set of parameters. Experiments were carried out based on the BBED using 250 mL shake flasks, with a 100 mL working volume of potato dextrose broth (PDB). From the experimental data, mathematical models were developed to predict the pigments and biomass yields. The individual and interactive effects of the process variables on the responses were also investigated (RSM). The optimal conditions for maximum production of pigments and biomass were derived by the numerical optimization method, as follows-initial pH of 6.4, temperature of 24 °C, agitation speed of 164 rpm, and fermentation time of 149 h, respectively.
Project description:A key challenge for bioprocess engineering is the identification of the optimum process conditions for the production of biochemical and biopharmaceutical compounds using prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cell factories. Shake flasks and bench-scale bioreactor systems are still the golden standard in the early stage of bioprocess development, though they are known to be expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive as well as lacking the throughput for efficient production optimizations. To bridge the technological gap between bioprocess optimization and upscaling, we have developed a microfluidic bioreactor array to reduce time and costs, and to increase throughput compared with traditional lab-scale culture strategies. We present a multifunctional microfluidic device containing 12 individual bioreactors (Vt ?=?15?µl) in a 26?mm?×?76?mm area with in-line biosensing of dissolved oxygen and biomass concentration. Following initial device characterization, the bioreactor lab-on-a-chip was used in a proof-of-principle study to identify the most productive cell line for lactic acid production out of two engineered yeast strains, evaluating whether it could reduce the time needed for collecting meaningful data compared with shake flasks cultures. Results of the study showed significant difference in the strains' productivity within 3 hr of operation exhibiting a 4- to 6-fold higher lactic acid production, thus pointing at the potential of microfluidic technology as effective screening tool for fast and parallelizable industrial bioprocess development.
Project description:A single cycle of strain improvement was performed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB and 15 genotypes influencing erythromycin production were found. Genotypes generated by transposon mutagenesis appeared in the screen at a frequency of ~3%. Mutations affecting central metabolism and regulatory genes were found, as well as hydrolases, peptidases, glycosyl transferases and unknown genes. Only one mutant retained high erythromycin production when scaled-up from micro-agar plug fermentations to shake flasks. This mutant had a knockout of the cwh1 gene (SACE_1598), encoding a cell-wall-associated hydrolase. The cwh1 knockout produced visible growth and morphological defects on solid medium. This study demonstrated that random transposon mutagenesis uncovers strain improvement-related genes potentially useful for strain engineering.
Project description:Streptomycetes are filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of bioactive natural products and industrial enzymes. Their mycelial lifestyle typically results in high heterogeneity in bioreactors, with morphologies ranging from fragments and open mycelial mats to dense pellets. There is a strong correlation between morphology and production in submerged cultures, with small and open mycelia favouring enzyme production, while most antibiotics are produced mainly in pellets. Here we describe SParticle, a Streptomyces Particle analysis method that combines whole slide imaging with automated image analysis to characterize the morphology of submerged grown Streptomyces cultures. SParticle allows the analysis of over a thousand particles per hour, offering a high throughput method for the imaging and statistical analysis of mycelial morphologies. The software is available as a plugin for the open source software ImageJ and allows users to create custom filters for other microbes. Therefore, SParticle is a widely applicable tool for the analysis of filamentous microorganisms in submerged cultures.
Project description:Ethylene is an important plant hormone that controls many physiological processes in plants. Conventional methods for detecting ethylene include gas chromatographs or optical mid-infrared sensors, which are expensive and, in the case of gas chromatographs, are hardly suitable for automated parallelized online measurement. Electrochemical ethylene sensors are cheap but often suffer from poor resolution, baseline drifting, and target gas oxidation. Thus, measuring ethylene at extremely low levels is challenging.This report demonstrates the integration of electrochemical ethylene sensors into a respiration activity monitoring system (RAMOS) that measures, in addition to the oxygen transfer rate, the ethylene transfer rate in eight parallel shake flasks. A calibration method is presented that is not prone to baseline drifting and considers target gas oxidation at the sensor. In this way, changes in ethylene transfer rate as low as 4 nmol/L/h can be resolved. In confirmatory experiments, the overall accuracy of the method was similar to that of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) measurements. The RAMOS-based ethylene determination method was exemplified with parsley suspension-cultured cells that were primed for enhanced defense by pretreatment with salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or 4-chlorosalicylic acid and challenged with the microbial pattern Pep13. Ethylene release into the headspace of the shake flask was observed upon treatment with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate was further enhanced, in case of salicylic acid and 4-chlorosalicylic acid, upon Pep13 challenge.A conventional RAMOS device was modified for simultaneous measurement of the ethylene transfer rate in eight parallel shake flasks at nmol/L/h resolution. For the first time electrochemical sensors are used to provide a medium-throughput method for monitoring ethylene release by plants. Currently, this can only be achieved by costly laser-based detection systems and automated gas chromatographs. The new method is particularly suitable for plant cell suspension cultures. However, the method may also be applicable to intact plants, detached leaves or other plant tissues. In addition, the general principle of the technology is likely extendable to other volatiles or gases as well, such as nitric oxide or hydrogen peroxide.