The force-dependent mechanism of DnaK-mediated mechanical folding.
ABSTRACT: It is well established that chaperones modulate the protein folding free-energy landscape. However, the molecular determinants underlying chaperone-mediated mechanical folding remain largely elusive, primarily because the force-extended unfolded conformation fundamentally differs from that characterized in biochemistry experiments. We use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy, combined with molecular dynamics simulations, to study the effect that the Hsp70 system has on the mechanical folding of three mechanically stiff model proteins. Our results demonstrate that, when working independently, DnaJ (Hsp40) and DnaK (Hsp70) work as holdases, blocking refolding by binding to distinct substrate conformations. Whereas DnaK binds to molten globule-like forms, DnaJ recognizes a cryptic sequence in the extended state in an unanticipated force-dependent manner. By contrast, the synergetic coupling of the Hsp70 system exhibits a marked foldase behavior. Our results offer unprecedented molecular and kinetic insights into the mechanisms by which mechanical force finely regulates chaperone binding, directly affecting protein elasticity.
Project description:The role of bacterial Hsp40, DnaJ, is to co-chaperone the binding of misfolded or alternatively folded proteins to bacterial Hsp70, DnaK, which is an ATP-fuelled unfolding chaperone. In addition to its DnaK targeting activity, DnaJ has a weak thiol-reductase activity. In between the substrate-binding domain and the J-domain anchor to DnaK, DnaJ has a unique domain with four conserved CXXC motives that bind two Zn(2+) and partly contribute to polypeptide binding. Here, we deleted in DnaJ this Zn-binding domain, which is characteristic to type I but not of type II or III J-proteins. This caused a loss of the thiol-reductase activity and strongly reduced the ability of DnaJ to mediate the ATP- and DnaK-dependent unfolding/refolding of mildly oxidized misfolded polypeptides, an inhibition that was alleviated in the presence of thioredoxin or DTT. We suggest that in addition to their general ability to target misfolded polypeptide substrates to the Hsp70/Hsp110 chaperone machinery, Type I J-proteins carry an ancillary protein dithiol-isomerase function that can synergize the unfolding action of the chaperone, in the particular case of substrates that are further stabilized by non-native disulfide bonds. Whereas the unfoldase can remain ineffective without the transient untying of disulfide bonds by the foldase, the foldase can remain ineffective without the transient ATP-fuelled unfolding of wrong local structures by the unfoldase.
Project description:Hsp70 chaperones assist protein folding by ATP-controlled cycles of substrate binding and release. ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of the ATPase cycle that causes locking in of substrates into the substrate-binding cavity of Hsp70. This key step is strongly stimulated by DnaJ cochaperones. We show for the Escherichia coli Hsp70 homolog, DnaK, that stimulation by DnaJ requires the linked ATPase and substrate-binding domains of DnaK. Functional interaction with DnaJ is affected by mutations in an exposed channel located in the ATPase domain of DnaK. It is proposed that binding to this channel, possibly involving the J-domain, allows DnaJ to couple substrate binding with ATP hydrolysis by DnaK. Evolutionary conservation of the channel and the J-domain suggests conservation of the mechanism of action of DnaJ proteins.
Project description:Chaperones of the Hsp70 family bind to unfolded or partially folded polypeptides to facilitate many cellular processes. ATP hydrolysis and substrate binding, the two key molecular activities of this chaperone, are modulated by the cochaperone DnaJ. By using both genetic and biochemical approaches, we provide evidence that DnaJ binds to at least two sites on the Escherichia coli Hsp70 family member DnaK: under the ATPase domain in a cleft between its two subdomains and at or near the pocket of substrate binding. The lower cleft of the ATPase domain is defined as a binding pocket for the J-domain because (i) a DnaK mutation located in this cleft (R167H) is an allele-specific suppressor of the binding defect of the DnaJ mutation, D35N and (ii) alanine substitution of two residues close to R167 in the crystal structure, N170A and T173A, significantly decrease DnaJ binding. A second binding determinant is likely to be in the substrate-binding domain because some DnaK mutations in the vicinity of the substrate-binding pocket are defective in either the affinity (G400D, G539D) or rate (D526N) of both peptide and DnaJ binding to DnaK. Binding of DnaJ may propagate conformational changes to the nearby ATPase catalytic center and substrate-binding sites as well as facilitate communication between these two domains to alter the molecular properties of Hsp70.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, the molecular chaperones DnaK and DnaJ cooperate to assist the folding of newly synthesized or unfolded polypeptides. DnaK and DnaJ bind to hydrophobic motifs in these proteins and they also bind to each other. Together, this system is thought to be sufficiently versatile to act on the entire proteome, which creates interesting challenges in understanding the interactions between DnaK, DnaJ and their thousands of potential substrates. To address this question, we computationally predicted the number and frequency of DnaK- and DnaJ-binding motifs in the E. coli proteome, guided by free energy-based binding consensus motifs. This analysis revealed that nearly every protein is predicted to contain multiple DnaK- and DnaJ-binding sites, with the DnaJ sites occurring approximately twice as often. Further, we found that an overwhelming majority of the DnaK sites partially or completely overlapped with the DnaJ-binding motifs. It is well known that high concentrations of DnaJ inhibit DnaK-DnaJ-mediated refolding. The observed overlapping binding sites suggest that this phenomenon may be explained by an important balance in the relative stoichiometry of DnaK and DnaJ. To test this idea, we measured the chaperone-assisted folding of two denatured substrates and found that the distribution of predicted DnaK- and DnaJ-binding sites was indeed a good predictor of the optimal stoichiometry required for folding. These studies provide insight into how DnaK and DnaJ might cooperate to maintain global protein homeostasis.
Project description:DnaK is the major bacterial Hsp70, participating in DNA replication, protein folding, and the stress response. DnaK cooperates with the Hsp40 co-chaperone DnaJ and the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE. Under non-stress conditions, DnaK binds to the heat shock transcription factor σ(32)and facilitates its degradation. Oxidative stress results in temporary inactivation of DnaK due to depletion of cellular ATP and thiol modifications such as glutathionylation until normal cellular ATP levels and a reducing environment are restored. However, the biological significance of DnaK glutathionylation remains unknown, and the mechanisms by which glutathionylation may regulate the activity of DnaK are also unclear. We investigated the conditions under which Escherichia coli DnaK undergoesS-glutathionylation. We observed glutathionylation of DnaK in lysates of E. coli cells that had been subjected to oxidative stress. We also obtained homogeneously glutathionylated DnaK using purified DnaK in the apo state. We found that glutathionylation of DnaK reversibly changes the secondary structure and tertiary conformation, leading to reduced nucleotide and peptide binding ability. The chaperone activity of DnaK was reversibly down-regulated by glutathionylation, accompanying the structural changes. We found that interaction of DnaK with DnaJ, GrpE, or σ(32)becomes weaker when DnaK is glutathionylated, and the interaction is restored upon deglutathionylation. This study confirms that glutathionylation down-regulates the functions of DnaK under oxidizing conditions, and this down-regulation may facilitate release of σ(32)from its interaction with DnaK, thus triggering the heat shock response. Such a mechanism provides a link between oxidative stress and the heat shock response in bacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In 2004, we discovered an atypical protein in metagenomic data from marine thaumarchaeotal species. This protein, referred as DnaJ-Fer, is composed of a J domain fused to a Ferredoxin (Fer) domain. Surprisingly, the same protein was also found in Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants). Because J domain-containing proteins are known to interact with the major chaperone DnaK/Hsp70, this suggested that a DnaK protein was present in Thaumarchaeota. DnaK/Hsp70, its co-chaperone DnaJ and the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE are involved, among others, in heat shocks and heavy metal cellular stress responses. RESULTS: Using phylogenomic approaches we have investigated the evolutionary history of the DnaJ-Fer protein and of interacting proteins DnaK, DnaJ and GrpE in Thaumarchaeota. These proteins have very complex histories, involving several inter-domain horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explain the contemporary distribution of these proteins in archaea. These transfers include one from Cyanobacteria to Viridiplantae and one from Viridiplantae to Thaumarchaeota for the DnaJ-Fer protein, as well as independent HGTs from Bacteria to mesophilic archaea for the DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE system, followed by HGTs among mesophilic and thermophilic archaea. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the chimerical origin of the set of proteins DnaK, DnaJ, GrpE and DnaJ-Fer in Thaumarchaeota and suggest that the HGT of these proteins has played an important role in the adaptation of several archaeal groups to mesophilic and thermophilic environments from hyperthermophilic ancestors. Finally, the evolutionary history of DnaJ-Fer provides information useful for the relative dating of the diversification of Archaeplastida and Thaumarchaeota.
Project description:The DnaK/Hsp70 chaperone system and ClpB/Hsp104 collaboratively disaggregate protein aggregates and reactivate inactive proteins. The teamwork is specific: Escherichia coli DnaK interacts with E. coli ClpB and yeast Hsp70, Ssa1, interacts with yeast Hsp104. This interaction is between the middle domains of hexameric ClpB/Hsp104 and the DnaK/Hsp70 nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). To identify the site on E. coli DnaK that interacts with ClpB, we substituted amino acid residues throughout the DnaK NBD. We found that several variants with substitutions in subdomains IB and IIB of the DnaK NBD were defective in ClpB interaction in vivo in a bacterial two-hybrid assay and in vitro in a fluorescence anisotropy assay. The DnaK subdomain IIB mutants were also defective in the ability to disaggregate protein aggregates with ClpB, DnaJ and GrpE, although they retained some ability to reactivate proteins with DnaJ and GrpE in the absence of ClpB. We observed that GrpE, which also interacts with subdomains IB and IIB, inhibited the interaction between ClpB and DnaK in vitro, suggesting competition between ClpB and GrpE for binding DnaK. Computational modeling of the DnaK-ClpB hexamer complex indicated that one DnaK monomer contacts two adjacent ClpB protomers simultaneously. The model and the experiments support a common and mutually exclusive GrpE and ClpB interaction region on DnaK. Additionally, homologous substitutions in subdomains IB and IIB of Ssa1 caused defects in collaboration between Ssa1 and Hsp104. Altogether, these results provide insight into the molecular mechanism of collaboration between the DnaK/Hsp70 system and ClpB/Hsp104 for protein disaggregation.
Project description:The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays a vital role in cellular processes, including protein folding and assembly, and helps prevent aggregation under physiological and stress-related conditions. Although the structural changes undergone by full-length client proteins upon interaction with DnaK (i.e., Escherichia coli Hsp70) are fundamental to understand chaperone-mediated protein folding, these changes are still largely unexplored. Here, we show that multiple conformations of the SRC homology 3 domain (SH3) client protein interact with the ADP-bound form of the DnaK chaperone. Chaperone-bound SH3 is largely unstructured yet distinct from the unfolded state in the absence of DnaK. The bound client protein shares a highly flexible N terminus and multiple slowly interconverting conformations in different parts of the sequence. In all, there is significant structural and dynamical heterogeneity in the DnaK-bound client protein, revealing that proteins may undergo some conformational sampling while chaperone-bound. This result is important because it shows that the surface of the Hsp70 chaperone provides an aggregation-free environment able to support part of the search for the native state.
Project description:The 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) function as molecular chaperones through the allosteric coupling of their nucleotide- and substrate-binding domains, the structures of which are highly conserved. In contrast, the roles of the poorly structured, variable length C-terminal regions present on Hsp70s remain unclear. In many eukaryotic Hsp70s, the extreme C-terminal EEVD tetrapeptide sequence associates with co-chaperones via binding to tetratricopeptide repeat domains. It is not known whether this is the only function for this region in eukaryotic Hsp70s and what roles this region performs in Hsp70s that do not form complexes with tetratricopeptide repeat domains. We compared C-terminal sequences of 730 Hsp70 family members and identified a novel conservation pattern in a diverse subset of 165 bacterial and organellar Hsp70s. Mutation of conserved C-terminal sequence in DnaK, the predominant Hsp70 in Escherichia coli, results in significant impairment of its protein refolding activity in vitro without affecting interdomain allostery, interaction with co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE, or the binding of a peptide substrate, defying classical explanations for the chaperoning mechanism of Hsp70. Moreover, mutation of specific conserved sites within the DnaK C terminus reduces the capacity of the cell to withstand stresses on protein folding caused by elevated temperature or the absence of other chaperones. These features of the C-terminal region support a model in which it acts as a disordered tether linked to a conserved, weak substrate-binding motif and that this enhances chaperone function by transiently interacting with folding clients.
Project description:The conserved, ATP-dependent bacterial DnaK chaperones process client substrates with the aid of the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. However, in the absence of structural information, how these proteins communicate with each other cannot be fully delineated. For the study reported here, we solved the crystal structure of a full-length Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 GrpE homodimer in complex with a nearly full-length G. kaustophilus HTA426 DnaK that contains the interdomain linker (acting as a pseudo-substrate), and the N-terminal nucleotide-binding and C-terminal substrate-binding domains at 4.1-Å resolution. Each complex contains two DnaKs and two GrpEs, which is a stoichiometry that has not been found before. The long N-terminal GrpE α-helices stabilize the linker of DnaK in the complex. Furthermore, interactions between the DnaK substrate-binding domain and the N-terminal disordered region of GrpE may accelerate substrate release from DnaK. These findings provide molecular mechanisms for substrate binding, processing, and release during the Hsp70 chaperone cycle.