Prolonged length of stay in delayed cholecystectomy is not due to intraoperative or postoperative contributors.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Previous studies have reported that same-day laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis is superior to delayed elective cholecystectomy. Although this practice is ideal, it requires significant hospital resources, particularly for an underprivileged inner-city population at a large, municipal hospital. We sought to evaluate the implementation of same-day laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a large, municipal hospital and assess the possible benefits of decreasing preoperative length of stay (LOS), particularly its effect on operative time and length of stay in patients with acute cholecystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a retrospective chart review of patients treated for symptomatic gallstone disease between September 2012 and November 2013. Medical records were reviewed, and relevant data points were collected. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to assess the correlation between time to operation (<36 h [no delay] or >36 h [delay]) and the main outcomes (operative time and total length of stay). Inclusion criteria were patients age ?18 y who underwent same-admission cholecystectomy and had a diagnosis of cholecystitis on pathology. Eighty-eight patients met all inclusion criteria. RESULTS:The mean (standard deviation) preoperative LOS was 76.2 (±48.6) h, the mean operative time was 2.3 (±1.1) h, and the mean postoperative LOS was 60.3 (±60.1) h. The average total LOS was 136 (±79.8) h. Operative times and postoperative LOS were similar for patients in the delay and no delay groups. Patients with >36 h wait before surgery had a total length of stay twice as long as patients with <36 h wait (152 versus 83.3 h; P = 0.0005). These findings remained significant when adjusted for age, sex, radiologic findings, number of preoperative tests, and pathology. CONCLUSIONS:Increased preoperative LOS is not associated with a significant increase in operative time. However, it was associated with significantly increased length of stay. Further analysis is needed to explore the potential cost savings of decreasing preoperative LOS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although currently available evidence predominantly recommends early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for the treatment of acute cholecystitis, this strategy has not been widely adopted in Japan. Herein, we describe a hospital-based study of patients with acute cholecystitis in 9 Japanese teaching hospitals in order to evaluate the impact of different institutional strategies in treating acute cholecystitis on overall patient outcomes and medical resource utilization. METHODS: From an administrative database and chart review, we identified 228 patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis who underwent cholecystectomy between April 2001 and June 2003. In order to examine the relationship between hospitals' propensity to perform LC and patient outcomes and/or medical resource utilization, we divided the hospitals into three groups according to the observed to expected ratio of performing LC (LC propensity), and compared the postoperative complication rate, length of hospitalization (LOS), and medical charges. RESULTS: No hospital adopted the policy of early surgery, and the mean overall LOS among the subjects was 30.9 days. The use of laparoscopic surgery varied widely across the hospitals; the adjusted rates of LC to total cholecystectomies ranged from 9.5% to 77%. Although intra-operative complication rate was significantly higher among patients whom LC was initially attempted when compared to those whom OC was initially attempted (9.7% vs. 0%), there was no significant association between LC propensity and postoperative complication rates. Although the postoperative time to oral intake and postoperative LOS was significantly shorter in hospitals with high use of LC, the overall LOS did not differ among hospital groups with different LC propensities. Medical charges were not associated with LC propensity. CONCLUSION: Under the prevailing policy of delayed surgery, in terms of the postoperative complication rate and medical resource utilization, our study did not show the superiority of LC in treating acute cholecystitis patients. The timing of surgery and discharge was mainly determined by the institutional policy in Japan, rather than by the clinical course of the patient; however, considering the substantially less postoperative pain and shorter recovery time of LC compared to OC, LC should be actively applied for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. If the policy of early surgery were universally applied, the advantage of LC over OC may be more clearly demonstrated.
Project description:A comparative study of early vs delayed cholecystectomy was conducted on 51 patients who presented with acute cholecystitis. Ultrasonography was accurate in diagnosing all cases of acute cholecystitis. Twenty four patients were managed by early surgery performed between 24 and 72 hours of onset of symptoms. Twenty seven were managed by delayed cholecystectomy between 8 weeks and 6 months of the acute episode. Early surgery required a longer operating time (120 +/- 15 minutes vs 90 +/- 15 minutes), more skill and had a marginally higher operative blood loss (150 vs 100ml). Early surgery did not after the decision or outcome of bile duct exploration. There were no fatalities or major complications. The total hospital stay was reduced in the early surgery group (10 vs 18 days). The study confirms the advantage of early cholecystectomy for treatment of acute cholecystitis.
Project description:Cholecystectomy has been widely performed in the treatment of acute cholecystitis, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly adopted as the method of surgery over the past 15 years. Despite the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an elective treatment for symptomatic gallstones, acute cholecystitis was initially considered a contraindication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The reasons for it being considered a contraindication were the technical difficulty of performing it in acute cholecystitis and the development of complications, including bile duct injury, bowel injury, and hepatic injury. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now accepted as being safe for acute cholecystitis, when surgeons who are expert at the laparoscopic technique perform it. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been found to be superior to open cholecystectomy as a treatment for acute cholecystitis because of a lower incidence of complications, shorter length of postoperative hospital stay, quicker recuperation, and earlier return to work. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis has not become routine, because the timing and approach to the surgical management in patients with acute cholecystitis is still a matter of controversy. These Guidelines describe the timing of and the optimal surgical treatment of acute cholecystitis in a question-and-answer format.
Project description:Backgrounds/Aims:Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered as the standard treatment of acute cholecystitis. However, whether this procedure is desirable in elderly patients with acute cholecystitis is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of thorough preoperative assessment and consultation for complications on clinical outcomes in elderly patients over 65 and over 80 years. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 205 patients who were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis between January 2010 and April 2018. The patients were assigned to three groups: group A (aged <65 years), group B, (aged between 65 and 79 years), and group C (aged >79 years). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed after preoperative evaluation, such as echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and consultation about past history. Results:Significant differences were not found in the complication rate among the age groups. Open conversion was required in eight of the 114 patients in group A, seven of the 70 patients in group B, and one of the 21 patients in group C. However, no statistical significance was found. Moreover, no difference was noted in the start of the meal and the period from surgery to last visit, but hospital stay after surgery was longer in groups b and c. Conclusions:When sufficient preoperative assessment and treatment were performed, complication and conversion rates were not significantly different among the age groups. In extremely elderly patients, preoperative evaluation and elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were desirable.
Project description:Female gender has been identified as one of the risk factors closely linked to perioperative anxiety and a lower level of satisfaction. A successful preoperative anesthesia education may improve such negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative anesthesia education via an Anesthesia Service Platform (ASP) could reduce the anxiety levels in female patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, and accelerate rehabilitation. A total of 222 patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to the control group and the ASP group. Patients' baseline and post-intervention psychological status was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and General Well-Being Schedule. Pain management and recovery were assessed by VAS every 12 h for 48 h after surgery; length of stay (LOS) and postoperative analgesic consumption were also assessed. Patients in the control group experienced higher anxiety levels before surgery and had longer LOS than those in the ASP group. Patients in the ASP group had a higher general well-being score; however, they suffered more pain and consumed more analgesics after surgery. ASP is effective for preventing anxiety in female patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, improving patients' general well-being levels, and shortening their LOS, but negatively influences patients' postoperative pain levels.
Project description:Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be technically challenging in the obese. The primary aim of the trial was to establish whether following a Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) for two weeks pre-operatively reduces operation time. Secondary outcomes included perceived operative difficulty and length of hospital stay.A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial of consecutive patients with symptomatic gallstones and BMI >30 kg/m(2) 46 patients were randomized to a VLCD or normal diet for two weeks prior to LC. Food diaries were used to document dietary intake. The primary outcome measure was operation time. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, weight change operative complications, day case rates and perceived difficulty of operation.The VLCD was well tolerated and had significantly greater preoperative weight loss (3.48 kg vs. 0.98 kg; p < 0.0001). Median operative time was significantly reduced by 6 min in the VLCD group (25 vs. 31 min; p = 0.0096). There were no differences in post-operative complications, length of stay, or day case rates between the groups. Dissection of Calot's triangle was deemed significantly easier in the VLCD group.A two week VLCD prior to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in obese patients is safe, well tolerated and was shown to significantly reduce pre-operative weight and operative time.61630192. http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN61630192 Trial registration.
Project description:The administration of opioids is a central element in contemporary anesthetic techniques in Australia; however, opioids have a range of side effects. As an alternative, opioid-free anesthesia (OFA) is an emerging mode of anesthesia intended to avoid these side effects. This study is the first to publish the use of OFA in Australia and is conducted in a regional Queensland Health Service. The design will utilize a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to investigate the impact of OFA for patients having an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 40) or tubal ligation (n = 40). Participant outcomes to be measured include: Quality of Recovery (QoR-15); Oral Morphine Equivalent Daily Dose (OMEDD) at 24-h post-operatively; time to first opioid (TTFO) dose; post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV); Post Anesthetic Care Unit length of stay (PACU-LOS); and hospital length of stay (LOS). The findings may challenge the essentiality of opioids in the peri-operative period, which in turn would influence the future intra-operative management of surgical patients. Ultimately, a reduction in anesthesia-associated opioid use will support a more general decline in opioid use.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy.Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p?<?0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies. Both interventions would be compared with regard to in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, procedure-dependent complications, re-intervention, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay, re-admission, and cost of treatment. The review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.This systematic review aims at identifying and evaluating the clinical value of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis.PROSPERO CRD42015016205.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe ambulatory procedure in appropriately selected patients; however, day case rates remain low. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify interventions which are effective in reducing the length of stay (LOS) or improving the day case rate for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.<h4>Methods</h4>Comparative English-language studies describing perioperative interventions applicable to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in adult patients and their impact on LOS or day case rate were included.<h4>Results</h4>Quantitative data were available for meta-analysis from 80 studies of 10,615 patients. There were an additional 17 studies included for systematic review. The included studies evaluated 14 peri-operative interventions. Implementation of a formal day case care pathway was associated with a significantly shorter LOS (MD = 24.9 h, 95% CI, 18.7-31.2, p < 0.001) and an improved day case rate (OR = 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-8.1, p = 0.005). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, dexamethasone and prophylactic antibiotics were associated with smaller reductions in LOS.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Care pathway implementation demonstrated a significant impact on LOS and day case rates. A limited effect was noted for smaller independent interventions. In order to achieve optimal day case targets, a greater understanding of the effective elements of a care pathway and local barriers to implementation is required.
Project description:Several techniques are used for surgical treatment of gallstone disease with biliary duct calculi, but the safety and efficacy of these approaches have not been compared.To compare the efficacy and safety of 4 surgical approaches to gallstone disease with biliary duct calculi.MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI-Web of Science databases, articles published between 1950 and 2017 and searched from August 12, 2017, to September 14, 2017. Search terms used were LCBDE, LC, preoperative, ERCP, postoperative, period, cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic, retrograde, rendezvous, intraoperative, one-stage, two-stage, single-stage, gallstone, gallstones, calculi, stone, therapy, treatment, therapeutics, surgery, surgical, procedures, clinical trials as topic, random, and allocation in several logical combinations.Randomized clinical trials comparing at least 2 of the following strategies: preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (PreERCP) plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC); LC with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCDBE); LC plus intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (IntraERCP); and LC plus postoperative ERCP (PostERCP).A frequentist random-effects network meta-analysis was performed. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was used to show the probability that each approach would be the best for each outcome.Primary outcomes were the safety to efficacy ratio using overall mortality and morbidity rates as the main indicators of safety and the success rate as an indicator of efficacy. Secondary outcomes were acute pancreatitis, biliary leak, overall bleeding, operative time, length of hospital stay, total cost, and readmission rate.The 20 trials comprised 2489 patients (and 2489 procedures). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus IntraERCP had the highest probability of being the most successful (SUCRA, 87.2%) and safest (SUCRA, 69.7%) with respect to morbidity. All approaches had similar results regarding overall mortality. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus LCBDE was the most successful for avoiding overall bleeding (SUCRA, 83.3%) and for the shortest operative time (SUCRA, 90.2%) and least total cost (SUCRA, 98.9%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus IntraERCP was the best approach for length of hospital stay (SUCRA, 92.7%). Inconsistency was found in operative time (indirect estimate, 19.05; 95% CI, 2.44-35.66; P = .02) and total cost (indirect estimate, 17.06; 95% CI, 3.56-107.21; P = .04). Heterogeneity was observed for success rate (τ, 0.8), operative time (τ, >1), length of stay (τ, >1), and total cost (τ, >1).The combined LC and IntraERCP approach had the greatest odds to be the safest and appears to be the most successful. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus LBCDE appears to reduce the risk of acute pancreatitis but may be associated with a higher risk of biliary leak.