Association of Intensive Blood Pressure Control and Kidney Disease Progression in Nondiabetic Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Importance:The optimal blood pressure (BP) target remains debated in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective:To compare intensive BP control (<130/80 mm Hg) with standard BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) on major renal outcomes in patients with CKD without diabetes. Data Sources:Searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library for publications up to March 24, 2016. Study Selection:Randomized clinical trials that compared an intensive vs a standard BP target in nondiabetic adults with CKD, reporting changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), doubling of serum creatinine level, 50% reduction in GFR, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or all-cause mortality. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Random-effects meta-analyses for pooling effect measures. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses for exploring heterogeneity. Main Outcomes and Measures:Differences in annual rate of change in GFR were expressed as mean differences with 95% CIs. Differences in doubling of serum creatinine or 50% reduction in GFR, ESRD, composite renal outcome, and all-cause mortality were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs. Results:We identified 9 trials with 8127 patients and a median follow-up of 3.3 years. Compared with standard BP control, intensive BP control did not show a significant difference on the annual rate of change in GFR (mean difference, 0.07; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.29 mL/min/1.73 m2/y), doubling of serum creatinine level or 50% reduction in GFR (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76-1.29), ESRD (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.18), composite renal outcome (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81-1.21), or all-cause mortality (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.66-1.37). Nonblacks and patients with higher levels of proteinuria showed a trend of lower risk of kidney disease progression with intensive BP control. Conclusions and Relevance:Targeting BP below the current standard did not provide additional benefit for renal outcomes compared with standard treatment during a follow-up of 3.3 years in patients with CKD without diabetes. However, nonblack patients or those with higher levels of proteinuria might benefit from the intensive BP-lowering treatments.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:The established chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression end point of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration (corresponding to a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] of ?57% or greater) is a late event. OBJECTIVE:To characterize the association of decline in estimated GFR with subsequent progression to ESRD with implications for using lesser declines in estimated GFR as potential alternative end points for CKD progression. Because most people with CKD die before reaching ESRD, mortality risk also was investigated. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION:Individual meta-analysis of 1.7 million participants with 12,344 ESRD events and 223,944 deaths from 35 cohorts in the CKD Prognosis Consortium with a repeated measure of serum creatinine concentration over 1 to 3 years and outcome data. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Transfer of individual participant data or standardized analysis of outputs for random-effects meta-analysis conducted between July 2012 and September 2013, with baseline estimated GFR values collected from 1975 through 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:End-stage renal disease (initiation of dialysis or transplantation) or all-cause mortality risk related to percentage change in estimated GFR over 2 years, adjusted for potential confounders and first estimated GFR. RESULTS:The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of ESRD and mortality were higher with larger estimated GFR decline. Among participants with baseline estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the adjusted HRs for ESRD were 32.1 (95% CI, 22.3-46.3) for changes of ?57% in estimated GFR and 5.4 (95% CI, 4.5-6.4) for changes of ?30%. However, changes of ?30% or greater (6.9% [95% CI, 6.4%-7.4%] of the entire consortium) were more common than changes of ?57% (0.79% [95% CI, 0.52%-1.06%]). This association was strong and consistent across the length of the baseline period (1 to 3 years), baseline estimated GFR, age, diabetes status, or albuminuria. Average adjusted 10-year risk of ESRD (in patients with a baseline estimated GFR of 35 mL/min/1.73 m2) was 99% (95% CI, 95%-100%) for estimated GFR change of ?57%, was 83% (95% CI, 71%-93%) for estimated GFR change of ?40%, and was 64% (95% CI, 52%-77%) for estimated GFR change of ?30% vs 18% (95% CI, 15%-22%) for estimated GFR change of 0%. Corresponding mortality risks were 77% (95% CI, 71%-82%), 60% (95% CI, 56%-63%), and 50% (95% CI, 47%-52%) vs 32% (95% CI, 31%-33%), showing a similar but weaker pattern. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Declines in estimated GFR smaller than a doubling of serum creatinine concentration occurred more commonly and were strongly and consistently associated with the risk of ESRD and mortality, supporting consideration of lesser declines in estimated GFR (such as a 30% reduction over 2 years) as an alternative end point for CKD progression.
Project description:Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) regression is considered as an infrequent renal outcome, limited to early stages, and associated with higher mortality. However, prevalence, prognosis and the clinical correlates of CKD regression remain undefined in the setting of nephrology care. This is a multicenter prospective study in 1418 patients with established CKD (eGFR: 60-15 ml/min/1.73m²) under nephrology care in 47 outpatient clinics in Italy from a least one year. We defined CKD regressors as a ?GFR ?0 ml/min/1.73 m2/year. ?GFR was estimated as the absolute difference between eGFR measured at baseline and at follow up visit after 18-24 months, respectively. Outcomes were End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and overall-causes Mortality.391 patients (27.6%) were identified as regressors as they showed an eGFR increase between the baseline visit in the renal clinic and the follow up visit. In multivariate regression analyses the regressor status was not associated with CKD stage. Low proteinuria was the main factor associated with CKD regression, accounting per se for 48% of the likelihood of this outcome. Lower systolic blood pressure, higher BMI and absence of autosomal polycystic disease (PKD) were additional predictors of CKD regression. In regressors, ESRD risk was 72% lower (HR: 0.28; 95% CI 0.14-0.57; p<0.0001) while mortality risk did not differ from that in non-regressors (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.73-1.83; p = 0.540). Spline models showed that the reduction of ESRD risk associated with positive ?GFR was attenuated in advanced CKD stage. CKD regression occurs in about one-fourth patients receiving renal care in nephrology units and correlates with low proteinuria, BP and the absence of PKD. This condition portends better renal prognosis, mostly in earlier CKD stages, with no excess risk for mortality.
Project description:Obesity is an independent risk factor for development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits of intentional weight loss in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration.We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and conference proceedings for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined various surgical and nonsurgical interventions (diet, exercise, and/or antiobesity agents) in adult patients with CKD. Results were summarized using random-effects model.Thirteen studies were included. In patients with CKD, body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly (weighted mean difference [WMD] -3.67 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.56 to -0.78) at the end of the study period with nonsurgical interventions. This was associated with a significant decrease in proteinuria (WMD -1.31 g/24 h; 95% CI -2.11 to -0.51) and systolic BP with no further decrease in GFR during a mean follow-up of 7.4 mo. In morbidly obese individuals (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) with glomerular hyperfiltration (GFR >125 ml/min), surgical interventions decreased BMI, which resulted in a decrease in GFR (WMD -25.56 ml/min; 95% CI -36.23 to -14.89), albuminuria, and systolic BP.In smaller, short-duration studies in patients with CKD, nonsurgical weight loss interventions reduce proteinuria and BP and seem to prevent further decline in renal function. In morbidly obese individuals with glomerular hyperfiltration, surgical interventions normalize GFR and reduce BP and microalbuminuria. Larger, long-term studies to analyze renal outcomes such as development of ESRD are needed.
Project description:The magnitude of decline in renal function that should be tolerated during intensive BP lowering and its association with risk of ESRD are unclear. To determine whether the acute declines in kidney function in the intensive BP lowering arm of two trials in CKD associated with higher risk of ESRD, we performed a retrospective study of 899 African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) and 761 Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Trial participants previously randomized to strict versus usual BP control. The predictor was the percentage decline in eGFR (<5%, 5% to <20%, or ?20%) between randomization and months 3 and 4 of the trial (time to achieve BP goals). ESRD was the outcome of interest. Compared with a <5% eGFR decline in the usual BP arm, a 5% to <20% eGFR decline during intensive BP lowering did not associate with a higher risk of ESRD in the AASK (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84 to 1.68) or the MDRD Trial (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.40). However, a 5% to <20% eGFR decline in the usual BP arm associated with higher risk of ESRD in AASK (aHR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.57) and MDRD Trial (aHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.11). A ?20% eGFR decline associated with higher risk of ESRD in both strict and usual BP arms. Thus, acute eGFR declines ?20% during intensive BP lowering identified a subset of patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes.
Project description:The African American Study of Kidney Disease Trial identified risk factors for CKD progression and suggested that GFR level may modify the association between these risk factors and CKD progression or death.Enrollment in the African American Study of Kidney Disease Trial occurred between June of 1995 and September of 2001, with median follow-up of 48.6 months. Among 1094 patients with hypertensive kidney disease in the trial, this study tested whether the association between six previously identified risk factors for CKD progression (or death) and a composite clinical outcome (progression of CKD, ESRD, or death) depends on level of GFR. Multivariate Cox regression was used to control for other baseline risk factors.After controlling for baseline risk factors, only proteinuria was more closely associated with the composite clinical outcome at lower levels of GFR (P value for interaction term=0.002); increased hazards of the clinical composite outcome associated with a doubling of proteinuria ranged from 30% (95% confidence interval=21%-39%) with a GFR of 50 to 55% (95% confidence interval=40%-72%) with a GFR of 25.The magnitude of the association between proteinuria and CKD progression, ESRD, or death in the African American Study of Kidney Disease Trial cohort depends on the level of GFR; proteinuria is a stronger independent predictor of the composite clinical outcome at lower levels of GFR. This finding reinforces that African Americans with proteinuria and lower GFR represent a population at particularly high risk for adverse outcomes.
Project description:CKD progresses more rapidly to ESRD among African Americans compared with Caucasians. Disordered mineral metabolism is more severe among African Americans with CKD, which might partially explain the accelerated progression of their kidney disease. Here, using data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a subset of 420 participants followed for a median of 4 years. We also examined the association of baseline levels of mineral metabolites with risk for ESRD or death in 809 participants. FGF23, PTH, and phosphate levels rose over time; participants with faster rates of decline in measured GFR had the greatest increases in these parameters (P<0.01 for each). Higher baseline levels of FGF23, PTH, and phosphate each associated with increased risk for ESRD or death independent of GFR. FGF23 exhibited a dose-response relationship with outcomes (HR=1.30 per doubling, 95% CI=1.15-1.47; HR=2.24 for highest compared with lowest quartile, 95% CI=1.39-3.60), whereas PTH and phosphate showed nonlinear relationships. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/ml) was present in 95% of participants, but lower levels did not independently associate with outcomes. Using death-censored ESRD as the outcome produced qualitatively similar results. In conclusion, abnormalities of mineral metabolism worsen with progressive CKD and associate with higher risk for ESRD among African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.
Project description:The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the clinical outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).A literature search was performed from inception through February 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odds ratios or hazard ratios comparing the clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with CKD or ESRD and those without CKD or ESRD were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.Nineteen studies (a case-control and 18 cohort studies) with 116,875 patients assessing clinical outcomes of CDI were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled RR of severe or complicated CDI in CKD patients was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.00-2.28). The risk of recurrent CDI is significant higher in patients with a pooled RR of 2.73 (95% CI: 1.36-5.47). The pooled RR of mortality risk of CDI in patients with CKD, ESRD and CKD or ESRD were 1.76 (95% CI: 1.26-2.47), 1.58 (1.37-1.83) and 1.76 (1.32-2.34) respectively.This meta-analysis demonstrates poor outcomes of CDI including severe and recurrent CDI in CKD patients. History of CKD and ESRD are both associated with increased mortality risk in patients with CDI.
Project description:Vascular disease, a common condition in CKD, is a risk factor for mortality and ESRD. Optimal patient care requires accurate estimation and ordering of these competing risks.This is a prospective cohort study of screened (n=885) and randomized participants (n=837) in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (original study enrollment, 1989-1992), evaluating the association of vascular disease with ESRD and pre-ESRD mortality using standard survival analysis and competing risk regression.The method of analysis resulted in markedly different estimates. Cumulative incidence by standard analysis (censoring at the competing event) implied that, with vascular disease, the 15-year incidence was 66% and 51% for ESRD and pre-ESRD death, respectively. A more accurate representation of absolute risk was estimated with competing risk regression: 15-year incidence was 54% and 29% for ESRD and pre-ESRD death, respectively. For the association of vascular disease with pre-ESRD death, estimates of relative risk by the two methods were similar (standard survival analysis adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.20; competing risk regression adjusted subhazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.14). In contrast, the hazard and subhazard ratios differed substantially for other associations, such as GFR and pre-ESRD mortality.When competing events exist, absolute risk is better estimated using competing risk regression, but etiologic associations by this method must be carefully interpreted. The presence of vascular disease in CKD decreases the likelihood of survival to ESRD, independent of age and other risk factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetically determined renal disease. In affected patients, renal function may progressively decline up to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and approximately 10% of those with ESRD are affected by ADPKD. The somatostatin analog octreotide long-acting release (octreotide-LAR) slows renal function deterioration in patients in early stages of the disease. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of octreotide-LAR in ADPKD patients at high risk of ESRD because of later-stage ADPKD. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We did an internally funded, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial to assess octreotide-LAR in adults with ADPKD with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 15-40 ml/min/1.73 m2. Participants were randomized to receive 2 intramuscular injections of 20 mg octreotide-LAR (n = 51) or 0.9% sodium chloride solution (placebo; n = 49) every 28 days for 3 years. Central randomization was 1:1 using a computerized list stratified by center and presence or absence of diabetes or proteinuria. Co-primary short- and long-term outcomes were 1-year total kidney volume (TKV) (computed tomography scan) growth and 3-year GFR (iohexol plasma clearance) decline. Analyses were by modified intention-to-treat. Patients were recruited from 4 Italian nephrology units between October 11, 2011, and March 20, 2014, and followed up to April 14, 2017. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Compared to placebo, octreotide-LAR reduced median (95% CI) TKV growth from baseline by 96.8 (10.8 to 182.7) ml at 1 year (p = 0.027) and 422.6 (150.3 to 695.0) ml at 3 years (p = 0.002). Reduction in the median (95% CI) rate of GFR decline (0.56 [-0.63 to 1.75] ml/min/1.73 m2 per year) was not significant (p = 0.295). TKV analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and baseline TKV. Over a median (IQR) 36 (24 to 37) months of follow-up, 9 patients on octreotide-LAR and 21 patients on placebo progressed to a doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD (composite endpoint) (hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI] adjusted for age, sex, baseline serum creatinine, and baseline TKV: 0.307 [0.127 to 0.742], p = 0.009). One composite endpoint was prevented for every 4 treated patients. Among 63 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, 3 on octreotide-LAR and 8 on placebo progressed to ESRD (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.121 [0.017 to 0.866], p = 0.036). Three patients on placebo had a serious renal cyst rupture/infection and 1 patient had a serious urinary tract infection/obstruction, versus 1 patient on octreotide-LAR with a serious renal cyst infection. The main study limitation was the small sample size. CONCLUSIONS:In this study we observed that in later-stage ADPKD, octreotide-LAR slowed kidney growth and delayed progression to ESRD, in particular in CKD stage 4. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01377246; EudraCT: 2011-000138-12.
Project description:CONTEXT:The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation more accurately estimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation using the same variables, especially at higher GFR, but definitive evidence of its risk implications in diverse settings is lacking. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate risk implications of estimated GFR using the CKD-EPI equation compared with the MDRD Study equation in populations with a broad range of demographic and clinical characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A meta-analysis of data from 1.1 million adults (aged ? 18 years) from 25 general population cohorts, 7 high-risk cohorts (of vascular disease), and 13 CKD cohorts. Data transfer and analyses were conducted between March 2011 and March 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:All-cause mortality (84,482 deaths from 40 cohorts), cardiovascular mortality (22,176 events from 28 cohorts), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (7644 events from 21 cohorts) during 9.4 million person-years of follow-up; the median of mean follow-up time across cohorts was 7.4 years (interquartile range, 4.2-10.5 years). RESULTS:Estimated GFR was classified into 6 categories (?90, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, and <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) by both equations. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, 24.4% and 0.6% of participants from general population cohorts were reclassified to a higher and lower estimated GFR category, respectively, by the CKD-EPI equation, and the prevalence of CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) was reduced from 8.7% to 6.3%. In estimated GFR of 45 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) by the MDRD Study equation, 34.7% of participants were reclassified to estimated GFR of 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m(2) by the CKD-EPI equation and had lower incidence rates (per 1000 person-years) for the outcomes of interest (9.9 vs 34.5 for all-cause mortality, 2.7 vs 13.0 for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.5 vs 0.8 for ESRD) compared with those not reclassified. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.74-0.86) for all-cause mortality, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65-0.82) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.49 (95% CI, 0.27-0.88) for ESRD. Similar findings were observed in other estimated GFR categories by the MDRD Study equation. Net reclassification improvement based on estimated GFR categories was significantly positive for all outcomes (range, 0.06-0.13; all P < .001). Net reclassification improvement was similarly positive in most subgroups defined by age (<65 years and ?65 years), sex, race/ethnicity (white, Asian, and black), and presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. The results in the high-risk and CKD cohorts were largely consistent with the general population cohorts. CONCLUSION:The CKD-EPI equation classified fewer individuals as having CKD and more accurately categorized the risk for mortality and ESRD than did the MDRD Study equation across a broad range of populations.