Socioeconomic Status and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: NIPPON DATA2010.
ABSTRACT: The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors remains unknown in a general Japanese population.Of 8,815 participants from 300 randomly selected areas throughout Japan, 2,467 participants who were free of cardiovascular disease and who provided information on SES in the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan 2010 were enrolled in this cross-sectional analysis. SES was classified according to the employment status, length of education, marital and living statuses, and equivalent household expenditure (EHE). Outcomes were ignorance of each cardiovascular risk factor (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, arrhythmia, and smoking) and insufficient knowledge (number of correct answers <4 out of 6).A short education and low EHE were significantly associated with a greater ignorance of most cardiovascular risk factors. A short education (<10 years) was also associated with insufficient knowledge of overall cardiovascular risk factors: age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (OR) were 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-2.45) relative to participants with ?13 years of education. Low EHE was also associated with insufficient knowledge (age- and sex-adjusted OR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.51 for the lowest quintile vs the upper 4 quintiles). These relationships remained significant, even after further adjustments for regular exercise, smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and low HDL cholesterol.Participants with a short education and low EHE were more likely to have less knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors.
Project description:A lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be related to the intake of unhealthy food; however, this relationship has not been examined in detail. This study was undertaken to examine relationships among food group intakes and SES in a representative Japanese population.This was a cross-sectional study using the baseline data of NIPPON DATA2010, which is a prospective cohort study of the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. A total of 2,898 participants were included in the baseline survey in 2010. The effects of age (<65 years and ?65 years), equivalent household expenditure (EHE), and education attainment on food group intakes (gram per 1,000 kcal) were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance.When EHE was lower, cereal intake was higher in men and women. Among men, fish, milk, and alcohol intakes were reduced with lower EHE. Among women, vegetable intake was reduced with lower EHE. In men and women, cereal intake was higher with lower education attainment. In contrast, meat intake was reduced with lower education attainment.Lower SES was associated with a higher cereal intake and lower vegetable, fish, meat, and milk intakes in a representative Japanese population. Socioeconomic discrepancies need to be considered in order to promote healthier dietary habits.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lower social economic status (SES) is related to an elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk. A pro-active primary prevention CV screening approach in general practice (GP) might be effective in a region with a low mean SES. This approach, supported by a regional GP laboratory, was investigated on feasibility, attendance rate and proportion of persons identified with an elevated risk. METHODS: In a region with a low mean SES, men and women aged ? 50/55 years, respectively, were invited for cardiovascular risk profiling, based on SCORE 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease and additional risk factors (family history, weight and end organ damage). Screening was performed by laboratory personnel, at the GP practice. Treatment advice was based on Dutch GP guidelines for cardiovascular risk management. Response rates were compared to those in five other practices, using the same screening method. RESULTS: 521 persons received invitations, 354 (68%) were interested, 33 did not attend and 43 were not further analysed because of already known diabetes/cardiovascular disease. Eventually 278 risk profiles were analysed, of which 60% had a low cardiovascular risk (SCORE-risk <5%). From the 40% participants with a SCORE-risk ? 5%, 60% did not receive medication yet for hypertension/hypercholesterolemia. In the other five GPs response rates were comparable to the currently described GP. CONCLUSION: Screening in GP in a low SES area, performed by a laboratory service, was feasible, resulted in high attendance, and identification and treatment advice of many new persons at risk for cardiovascular disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans. METHODS:Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR) or an extensive health education program (EHE) for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR) and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes. RESULTS:Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001) and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002). However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001) but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42); the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04). The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors. CONCLUSION:In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education) and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high-risk population suggest hypotheses that telomerase gene expression may either be a biomarker for reduced BP or a mechanism by which stress reduction and lifestyle modification reduces BP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00681200.
Project description:Although socioeconomic status (SES) may affect food and nutrient intakes, few studies have reported on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intakes among individuals with various SESs in Japan. We investigated associations of SES with Na and K intake levels using urinary specimens in a representative Japanese population.This was a cross-sectional study of 2,560 men and women (the NIPPON DATA2010 cohort) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan in 2010. Casual urine was used to calculate estimated excretion in 24-hour urinary Na (E24hr-Na) and K (E24hr-K). The urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio was calculated from casual urinary electrolyte values. An analysis of covariance was performed to investigate associations of aspects of SES, including equivalent household expenditure (EHE), educational attainment, and job category, with E24hr-Na, E24hr-K, and the Na/K ratio for men and women separately. A stratified analysis was performed on educational attainment and the job category for younger (<65 years) and older (?65 years) participants.In men and women, average E24hr-Na was 176.2 mmol/day and 172.3, average E24hr-K was 42.5 and 41.3, and the average Na/K ratio was 3.61 and 3.68, respectively. Lower EHE was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and lower E24hr-K in men and women. A shorter education was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and younger men, and lower E24hr-K in older men and women.Lower EHE and a shorter education were associated with a lower K intake and higher Na/K ratio estimated from casual urine specimens in Japanese men and women.
Project description:Most studies on socioeconomic inequalities in oral health have not considered the effects of behavioral and biological factors and age differences. Furthermore, the nationwide status of inequalities remains unclear in Japan.We analyzed data from 2,089 residents aged ?40 years throughout Japan. The lowest quartile of the number of remaining teeth for each 10-year age category was defined as poor oral health. Behavioral and biological factors included smoking status, obesity, diabetes mellitus, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the use of dental devices. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of educational attainment and equivalent household expenditure (EHE) with oral health, and stratified analyses by age category were also conducted (40-64 years and ?65 years).Lower education and lower EHE were significantly associated with an increased risk of poor oral health after adjusting for age, sex, employment status, marital and living statuses, and EHE/education; the odds ratio for junior high school education compared with ?college education was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-2.49), and the odds ratio of the lowest compared with the highest EHE quartile was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.43-2.56). Further adjustments for behavioral and biological factors attenuated but did not eliminate these associations. EHE was significantly associated with oral health among elderly adults only, with a significant interaction by age category.Those with a lower education and those with lower EHE had a significantly higher risk of poor oral health, even after adjustments for behavioral and biological factors.
Project description:Compared to coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, the relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) is less well established. We examined the association between SES and incidence of hospitalization with PAD and explored whether this association can be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors and healthcare access.A total of 12 517 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1989) with no prior PAD were examined. Individual-level SES was assessed from household income (low <$12 000/year, medium $12 000 to $24 999/year, and high ?$25 000/year [double to approximate to values in 2016]) and educational attainment (<high school, high school, and >high school), and area-level SES from area deprivation index (quintiles). During a median follow-up of 23.6 (Interquartile range 19.6-24.5) years, 433 participants had a hospitalization with PAD. In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the demographically adjusted hazard ratio was 2.42 (1.81-3.23) for low household income, 2.08 (1.60-2.69) for low educational attainment, and 2.18 (1.35-3.53) for most deprived neighborhoods, compared to their high-SES counterparts. After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and heath care access, the associations were attenuated but remained significant, particularly for income and education. Results were consistent when stratified by race (P-values for interaction >0.2 for all SES parameters).Low individual- and area-level SES are strong predictors of hospitalization with PAD, in part due to increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and poor access to care in these groups. Additional risk factors may also need to be identified and acted on to eliminate SES disparities in PAD hospitalization.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate if socioeconomic status (SES) is predictive of cardiovascular risk factors among Swedish adolescents. Identify the most important SES variable for the development of each cardiovascular risk factor. Investigate at what age SES inequality in overweight and obesity occurs. DESIGN:Longitudinal follow-up of a prospective birth cohort. SETTING:All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study includes data from children born between October 1997 and October 1999 in five counties of south east Sweden. PARTICIPANTS:A regional ABIS-study subsample from three major cities of the region n=298 adolescents aged 16-18 years, and prospective data from the whole ABIS cohort for overweight and obesity status at the ages 2, 5, 8 and 12 years (n=2998-7925). OUTCOME MEASURES:Blood pressure above the hypertension limit, overweight/obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force definition, low high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or borderline-high low-density lipoproteins according to National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel on cholesterol levels in children. RESULTS:For three out of four cardiovascular risk outcomes (elevated blood pressure, low HDL and overweight/obesity), there were increased risk in one or more of the low SES groups (p<0.05). The best predictor was parental occupational class (Swedish socioeconomic classification index) for elevated blood pressure (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve 0.623), maternal educational level for overweight (area under the ROC curve 0.641) and blue-collar city of residence for low HDL (area under the ROC curve 0.641). SES-related differences in overweight/obesity were found at age 2, 5 and 12 and for obesity at age 2, 5, 8 and 12 years (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Even in a welfare state like Sweden, SES inequalities in cardiovascular risks are evident already in childhood and adolescence. Intervention programmes to reduce cardiovascular risk based on social inequality should start early in life.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate a possible physiological mechanism underlying links between low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and poor adult health by (a) testing whether childhood SES is prospectively related to cardiovascular responses to laboratory stress in adulthood, and (b) by determining whether psychological resources buffer cardiovascular reactivity and promote better recovery from stress. METHOD:Participants (n = 246; 55% Black; mean age = 32 years) were from a population-based sample of men in Pittsburgh, PA. Childhood SES was measured through the Hollingshead index (parental education and occupation) across 10 waves between the ages of 6 and 16. In adulthood, cardiovascular measures, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), and high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), were taken during and following standardized laboratory psychological stressors. Participants completed measures of optimism, purpose in life, self-esteem, positive affect, and self-mastery, which were combined into a psychological resource factor. RESULTS:Lower childhood SES predicted higher HR and SBP at recovery, independent of age, race, body mass index, current smoking, task demand, and current SES. Psychological resources moderated the association between childhood SES and SBP. Lower childhood SES predicted SBP recovery only among men with fewer psychological resources. CONCLUSIONS:Psychological resources may buffer the relation between low childhood SES and cardiovascular recovery from stress. This buffering may improve adult health to the extent that cardiovascular recovery contributes to the risk of low childhood SES for subsequent disease. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:A consistent association has been reported between low socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular events (CE), whereas the association between SES and cerebrovascular events (CBVD) is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES (measured using education) and CE/CBVD in a cohort study, as well as to investigate lifestyle and clinical risk factors, to help to clarify the mechanisms by which SES influences CE/CBVD.We searched for diagnoses of CE and CBVD in the clinical records of 47,749 members of the EPICOR cohort (average follow-up time: 11 years). SES was determined by the relative index of inequality (RII).A total of 1,156 CE and 468 CBVD were found in the clinical records. An increased risk of CE was observed in the crude Cox model for the third tertile of RII compared to the first tertile (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.61). The increased risk persisted after adjustment for lifestyle risk factors (HR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.02-1.38), clinical risk factors (HR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.17-1.56), and after full adjustment (HR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.01-1.37). Structural equation model showed that lifestyle rather than clinical risk factors are involved in the mechanisms by which education influences CE. No significant association was found between education and CBVD. A strong relationship was observed between education and diabetes at baseline.The most important burden of inequality in CE incidence in Italy is due to lifestyle risk factors.
Project description:Long-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is linked with cardiovascular disease, and disadvantaged status may increase susceptibility to air pollution-related health effects. In addition, there are concerns that this association may be partially explained by confounding by socioeconomic status (SES).We examined the roles that individual- and neighborhood-level SES (NSES) play in the association between PM2.5 exposure and cardiovascular disease.The study population comprised 51,754 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. PM2.5 concentrations were predicted at participant residences using fine-scale regionalized universal kriging models. We assessed individual-level SES and NSES (Census-tract level) across several SES domains including education, occupation, and income/wealth, as well as through an NSES score, which captures several important dimensions of SES. Cox proportional-hazards regression adjusted for SES factors and other covariates to determine the risk of a first cardiovascular event.A 5 ?g/m3 higher exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.26]. Adjustment for SES factors did not meaningfully affect the risk estimate. Higher risk estimates were observed among participants living in low-SES neighborhoods. The most and least disadvantaged quartiles of the NSES score had HRs of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.61) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.07), respectively.Women with lower NSES may be more susceptible to air pollution-related health effects. The association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease was not explained by confounding from individual-level SES or NSES. Citation: Chi GC, Hajat A, Bird CE, Cullen MR, Griffin BA, Miller KA, Shih RA, Stefanick ML, Vedal S, Whitsel EA, Kaufman JD. 2016. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and the association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Environ Health Perspect 124:1840-1847;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP199.