Variations in household microclimate affect outdoor-biting behaviour of malaria vectors.
ABSTRACT: Background: Mosquito behaviours including the degree to which they bite inside houses or outside is a crucial determinant of human exposure to malaria. Whilst seasonality in mosquito vector abundance is well documented, much less is known about the impact of climate on mosquito behaviour. We investigated how variations in household microclimate affect outdoor-biting by malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus. Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled indoors and outdoors weekly using human landing catches at eight households in four villages in south-eastern Tanzania, resulting in 616 trap-nights over 12 months. Daily temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were recorded. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) were used to test associations between mosquito abundance and the microclimatic conditions. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to investigate the influence of microclimatic conditions on the tendency of vectors to bite outdoors (proportion of outdoor biting). Results: An. arabiensis abundance peaked during high rainfall months (February-May), whilst An. funestus density remained stable into the dry season (May-August) . Across the range of observed household temperatures, a rise of 1 ºC marginally increased nightly An. arabiensis abundance (~11%), but more prominently increased An. funestus abundance (~66%). The abundance of An. arabiensis and An. funestus showed strong positive associations with time-lagged rainfall (2-3 and 3-4 weeks before sampling). The degree of outdoor biting in An. arabiensis was significantly associated with the relative temperature difference between indoor and outdoor environments, with exophily increasing as temperature inside houses became relatively warmer. The exophily of An. funestus did not vary with temperature differences. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that malaria vector An. arabiensis shifts the location of its biting from indoors to outdoors in association with relative differences in microclimatic conditions. These environmental impacts could give rise to seasonal variation in mosquito biting behaviour and degree of protection provided by indoor-based vector control strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Effective malaria surveillance requires detailed assessments of mosquitoes biting indoors, where interventions such as insecticide-treated nets work best, and outdoors, where other interventions may be required. Such assessments often involve volunteers exposing their legs to attract mosquitoes [i.e., human landing catches (HLC)], a procedure with significant safety and ethical concerns. Here, an exposure-free, miniaturized, double-net trap (DN-Mini) is used to assess relationships between indoor-outdoor biting preferences of malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and their physiological ages (approximated by parity and insemination states). METHODS:The DN-Mini is made of UV-resistant netting on a wooden frame and PVC base. At 100 cm?×?60 cm?×?180 cm, it fits indoors and outdoors. It has a protective inner chamber where a volunteer sits and collects host-seeking mosquitoes entrapped in an outer chamber. Experiments were conducted in eight Tanzanian villages using DN-Mini to: (a) estimate nightly biting and hourly biting proportions of mosquitoes indoors and outdoors; (b) compare these proportions to previous estimates by HLC in same villages; and, (c) compare distribution of parous (proxy for potentially infectious) and inseminated mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. RESULTS:More than twice as many An. arabiensis were caught outdoors as indoors (p?<?0.001), while An. funestus catches were marginally higher indoors than outdoors (p?=?0.201). Anopheles arabiensis caught outdoors also had higher parity and insemination proportions than those indoors (p?<?0.001), while An. funestus indoors had higher parity and insemination than those outdoors (p?=?0.04). Observations of indoor-biting and outdoor-biting proportions, hourly biting patterns and overall species diversities as measured by DN-Mini, matched previous HLC estimates. CONCLUSIONS:Malaria vectors that are behaviourally adapted to bite humans outdoors also have their older, potentially infectious sub-populations concentrated outdoors, while those adapted to bite indoors have their older sub-populations concentrated indoors. Here, potentially infectious An. arabiensis more likely bite outdoors than indoors, while potentially infectious An. funestus more likely bite indoors. These observations validate previous evidence that even outdoor-biting mosquitoes regularly enter houses when young. They also demonstrate efficacy of DN-Mini for measuring indoor-outdoor biting behaviours of mosquitoes, their hourly biting patterns and epidemiologically relevant parameters, e.g., parity and insemination status, without exposure to volunteers. The trap is easy-to-use, easy-to-manufacture and affordable (prototypes cost?~?100 US$/unit).
Project description:Background: Despite high coverage of indoor interventions like insecticide-treated nets, mosquito-borne infections persist, partly because of outdoor-biting, early-biting and insecticide-resistant vectors. Push-pull systems, where mosquitoes are repelled from humans and attracted to nearby lethal targets, may constitute effective complementary interventions. Methods: A partially randomized cross-over design was used to test efficacy of push-pull in four experimental huts and four local houses, in an area with high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania. The push-pull system consisted of 1.1% or 2.2% w/v transfluthrin repellent dispensers and an outdoor lure-and-kill device (odour-baited mosquito landing box). Matching controls were set up without push-pull. Adult male volunteers collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them outdoors, but collections were also done indoors using exit traps in experimental huts and by volunteers in the local houses. The collections were done hourly (1830hrs-0730hrs) and mosquito catches compared between push-pull and controls. An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus s.l. were assessed by PCR to identify sibling species, and ELISA to detect Plasmodium falciparum and blood meal sources. Results: Push-pull in experimental huts reduced outdoor-biting for An. arabiensis and Mansonia species by 30% and 41.5% respectively. However, the reductions were marginal and insignificant for An. funestus (12.2%; p>0.05) and Culex (5%; p>0.05). Highest protection against all species occurred before 2200hrs. There was no significant difference in number of mosquitoes inside exit traps in huts with or without push-pull. In local households, push-pull significantly reduced indoor and outdoor-biting of An. arabiensis by 48% and 25% respectively, but had no effect on other species. Conclusion: This push-pull system offered modest protection against outdoor-biting An. arabiensis, without increasing indoor mosquito densities. Additional experimentation is required to assess how transfluthrin-based products affect mosquito blood-feeding and mortality in push-pull contexts. This approach, if optimised, could potentially complement existing malaria interventions even in areas with high pyrethroid resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding the interactions between increased insecticide resistance and resting behaviour patterns of malaria mosquitoes is important for planning of adequate vector control. This study was designed to investigate the resting behavior, host preference and rates of Plasmodium falciparum infection in relation to insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in different ecologies of western Kenya. METHODS:Anopheles mosquito collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons in Kisian (lowland site) and Bungoma (highland site), both in western Kenya using pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), mechanical aspiration (Prokopack) for indoor collections, clay pots, pit shelter and Prokopack for outdoor collections. WHO tube bioassay was used to determine levels of phenotypic resistance of indoor and outdoor collected mosquitoes to deltamethrin. PCR-based molecular diagnostics were used for mosquito speciation, genotype for knockdown resistance mutations (1014S and 1014F) and to determine specific host blood meal origins. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine mosquito sporozoite infections. RESULTS:Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the most predominant species (75%, n = 2706) followed by An. funestus s.l. (25%, n = 860). An. gambiae s.s hereafter (An. gambiae) accounted for 91% (95% CI: 89-93) and An. arabiensis 8% (95% CI: 6-9) in Bungoma, while in Kisian, An. arabiensis composition was 60% (95% CI: 55-66) and An. gambiae 39% (95% CI: 34-44). The resting densities of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus were higher indoors than outdoor in both sites (An. gambiae s.l; F1, 655 = 41.928, p < 0.0001, An. funestus; F1, 655 = 36.555, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for indoor and outdoor resting An. gambiae s.l F1 progeny was 37% (95% CI: 34-39) vs 67% (95% CI: 62-69) respectively in Bungoma. In Kisian, the mortality rate was 67% (95% CI: 61-73) vs 76% (95% CI: 71-80) respectively. The mortality rate for F1 progeny of An. funestus resting indoors in Bungoma was 32% (95% CI: 28-35). The 1014S mutation was only detected in indoor resitng An. arabiensis. Similarly, the 1014F mutation was present only in indoor resting An. gambiae. The sporozoite rates were highest in An. funestus followed by An. gambiae, and An. arabiensis resting indoors at 11% (34/311), 8% (47/618) and 4% (1/27) respectively in Bungoma. Overall, in Bungoma, the sporozoite rate for indoor resting mosquitoes was 9% (82/956) and 4% (8/190) for outdoors. In Kisian, the sporozoite rate was 1% (1/112) for indoor resting An. gambiae. None of the outdoor collected mosquitoes in Kisian tested positive for sporozoite infections (n = 73). CONCLUSION:The study reports high indoor resting densities of An. gambiae and An. funestus, insecticide resistance, and persistence of malaria transmission indoors regardless of the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These findings underline the difficulties of controlling malaria vectors resting and biting indoors using the current interventions. Supplemental vector control tools and implementation of sustainable insecticide resistance management strategies are needed in western Kenya.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many subsistence farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania regularly relocate to distant farms in river valleys to tend to crops for several weeks or months each year. While there, they live in makeshift semi-open structures, usually far from organized health systems and where insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) do not provide adequate protection. This study evaluated the potential of a recently developed technology, eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent transfluthrin, for protecting migratory rice farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes. METHODS:In the first test, eave ribbons (0.1 m?×?24 m each) treated with 1.5% transfluthrin solution were compared to untreated ribbons in 24 randomly selected huts in three migratory communities over 48 nights. Host-seeking mosquitoes indoors and outdoors were monitored nightly (18.00-07.00 h) using CDC light traps and CO2-baited BG malaria traps, respectively. The second test compared efficacies of eave ribbons treated with 1.5% or 2.5% transfluthrin in 12 huts over 21 nights. Finally, 286 farmers were interviewed to assess perceptions about eave ribbons, and their willingness to pay for them. RESULTS:In the two experiments, when treated eave ribbons were applied, the reduction in indoor densities ranged from 56 to 77% for Anopheles arabiensis, 36 to 60% for Anopheles funestus, 72 to 84% for Culex, and 80 to 98% for Mansonia compared to untreated ribbons. Reduction in outdoor densities was 38 to 77% against An. arabiensis, 36 to 64% against An. funestus, 63 to 88% against Culex, and 47 to 98% against Mansonia. There was no difference in protection between the two transfluthrin doses. In the survey, 58% of participants perceived the ribbons to be effective in reducing mosquito bites. Ninety per cent were willing to pay for the ribbons, the majority of whom were willing to pay but less than US$2.17 (5000 TZS), one-third of the current prototype cost. CONCLUSIONS:Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons can protect migratory rice farmers, living in semi-open makeshift houses in remote farms, against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes. The technology is acceptable to users and could potentially complement ITNs. Further studies should investigate durability and epidemiological impact of eave ribbons, and the opportunities for improving affordability to users.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Odour baited resting boxes are simple, reliable and important tools for sampling malaria vector mosquitoes in surveillance and control programmes in different parts of Africa. To optimize the use of cow urine baited resting boxes for sampling An. arabiensis, a community-based study was conducted in Mabogini hamlet in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme area.<h4>Method</h4>Experimental designs using 3 by 3 Latin square were conducted for twenty days to evaluate the following: i) the effect of different parameters in the sampling of mosquitoes using odour baited resting boxes; ii) the performance of odour baited traps under indoor and outdoor conditions and the effect of people sleeping indoors on mosquito density; iii) the effect of position in the placement of traps on collection of mosquitoes; and, iv) the efficiency of the trap outdoors at three different distances from the house wall. One extra house served as the sentinel house to monitor species abundance using a CDC-miniature light trap.<h4>Results</h4>8581 mosquitoes were sampled by odour baited resting boxes of which, 8051 (93.82%) were An. arabiensis and 530 (6.18%) Cx. quinquefasciatus. The light trap collected 12,420 mosquitoes, of which 9442 (76.02%) were An. arabiensis, 126 (1.01%) An. funestus group, 230 (1.85%) An. rufipes and 2622 (21.11%) Cx. quinquefasciatus. The best height for outdoor mosquitoes sampling was 15 cm and 220 cm while indoors was 105 cm. The difference in mosquito collection between different outdoor and indoor heights was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The optimal outdoor location of odour baited resting boxes from the wall of the house was 3 m.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results of these studies demonstrate an optimal method for sampling during surveillance and control programmes in rural villages of highlands and arid areas of Africa using inexpensive baits and boxes.
Project description:Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Cameroon; however, despite reports on the adaptation of anopheline species to urban habitats, there is still not enough information on malaria transmission pattern in urban settings. In the frame of a larval control trial in the city of Yaoundé, we conducted baseline surveys to assess malaria transmission dynamics in this city. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using CDC light traps and human landing catches from March 2017 to March 2018 in 30 districts of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Mosquitoes were sorted by genus and identified to the species level using PCR. The TaqMan method and ELISA were used to determine mosquito infection status to Plasmodium. Bioassays were conducted to assess female Anopheles gambiae susceptibility to insecticides. Results: A total of 218,991 mosquitoes were collected. The main malaria vectors were An. gambiae s.l. (n=6154) and An. funestus s.l. (n=229). Of the 1476 An. gambiae s.l. processed by PCR, 92.19% were An. coluzzii and 7.81% An. gambiae. An. funestus s.l. was composed of 93.01% (173/186) An. funestus and 4.84% (13/186) An. leesoni. The average biting rate of anopheline was significantly high outdoor than indoor (P=0.013). Seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and biting rate was recorded. The infection rate by Plasmodium falciparum was 2.13% (104/4893 mosquitoes processed). The annual entomological inoculation rate was found to vary from 0 to 92 infective bites/man/year (ib/m/y). Malaria transmission risk was high outdoor (66.65 ib/m/y) compared to indoor (31.14 ib/m/y). An. gambiae s.l. was found highly resistant to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin. High prevalence of the West Africa kdr allele 1014F was recorded and this was not found to influence An. gambiae s.l. infection status. Conclusion: The study suggests high malaria transmission occurring in the city of Yaoundé and call for immediate actions to improve control strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vector control through long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a major component of the Tanzania national malaria control strategy. In mainland Tanzania, IRS has been conducted annually around Lake Victoria basin since 2007. Due to pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, use of pyrethroids for IRS was phased out and from 2014 to 2017 pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) was sprayed in regions of Kagera, Geita, Mwanza, and Mara. Entomological surveillance was conducted in 10 sprayed and 4 unsprayed sites to determine the impact of IRS on entomological indices related to malaria transmission risk. METHODS:WHO cone bioassays were conducted monthly on interior house walls to determine residual efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl CS. Indoor CDC light traps with or without bottle rotator were hung next to protected sleepers indoors and also set outdoors (unbaited) as a proxy measure for indoor and outdoor biting rate and time of biting. Prokopack aspirators were used indoors to capture resting malaria vectors. A sub-sample of Anopheles was tested by PCR to determine species identity and ELISA for sporozoite rate. RESULTS:Annual IRS with Actellic® 300CS from 2015 to 2017 was effective on sprayed walls for a mean of 7 months in cone bioassay. PCR of 2016 and 2017 samples showed vector populations were predominantly Anopheles arabiensis (58.1%, n?=?4,403 IRS sites, 58%, n?=?2,441 unsprayed sites). There was a greater proportion of Anopheles funestus sensu stricto in unsprayed sites (20.4%, n?=?858) than in sprayed sites (7.9%, n?=?595) and fewer Anopheles parensis (2%, n?=?85 unsprayed, 7.8%, n?=?591 sprayed). Biting peaks of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) followed periods of rainfall occurring between October and April, but were generally lower in sprayed sites than unsprayed. In most sprayed sites, An. gambiae s.l. indoor densities increased between January and February, i.e., 10-12 months after IRS. The predominant species An. arabiensis had a sporozoite rate in 2017 of 2.0% (95% CI 1.4-2.9) in unsprayed sites compared to 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3) in sprayed sites (p?=?0.003). Sporozoite rates were also lower for An. funestus collected in sprayed sites. CONCLUSION:This study contributes to the understanding of malaria vector species composition, behaviour and transmission risk following IRS around Lake Victoria and can be used to guide malaria vector control strategies in Tanzania.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits. METHODS:Five experimental huts were constructed inside a 110 m long, screened tunnel, in which 1000 Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Eave ribbons treated with 0.25 g/m2 transfluthrin were fitted to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 huts, achieving 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% coverage, respectively. Volunteers sat near each hut and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors to sleep under untreated bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (indoor-biting). Caged mosquitoes kept inside the huts were monitored for 24 h-mortality. Separately, eave ribbons, UV-LED mosquito traps (Mosclean) or both the ribbons and traps were fitted, each time leaving the central hut unfitted to represent non-user households and assess communal protection. Biting risk was measured concurrently in all huts, before and after introducing interventions. RESULTS:Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons provided 83% and 62% protection indoors and outdoors respectively to users, plus 57% and 48% protection indoors and outdoors to the non-user. Protection for users remained constant, but protection for non-users increased with eave ribbons coverage, peaking once 80% of huts were fitted. Mortality of mosquitoes caged inside huts with eave ribbons was 100%. The UV-LED traps increased indoor exposure to users and non-users, but marginally reduced outdoor-biting. Combining the traps and eave ribbons did not improve user protection relative to eave ribbons alone. CONCLUSION:Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons protect both users and non-users against malaria mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. The mosquito-killing property of transfluthrin can magnify the communal benefits by limiting unwanted diversion to non-users, but should be validated in field trials against pyrethroid-resistant vectors. Benefits of the UV-LED traps as an intervention alone or alongside eave ribbons were however undetectable in this study. These findings extend the evidence that transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons could complement ITNs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Monitoring densities of adult mosquito populations is a major challenge in efforts to evaluate the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases, and their response to vector control interventions. In the case of malaria, collection of outdoor-resting Anophelines is rarely incorporated into surveillance and control, partially due to the lack of standardized collection tools. Such an approach, however, is increasingly important to investigate possible changes in mosquito behaviour in response to the scale up of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying. In this study we evaluated the Sticky Resting Box (SRB) - i.e. a sticky variant of previously investigated mosquito Resting Box, which allows passive collection of mosquitoes entering the box - and compared its performance against traditional methods for indoor and outdoor resting mosquito sampling. METHODS: Daily collections were carried out in two neighbouring villages of Burkina Faso during rainy season 2011 and dry season 2012 by SRB located indoors and outdoors, and by Back-Pack aspiration inside houses (BP) and in ad hoc built outdoor pit-shelters (PIT). RESULTS: Overall, almost 20,000 Culicidae specimens belonging to 16 species were collected and morphologically identified. Malaria vectors included Anopheles coluzzii (53%), An. arabiensis (12%), An. gambiae s.s. (2.0%) and An. funestus (4.5%). The diversity of species collected in the two villages was similar for SRB and PIT collections outdoors, and significantly higher for SRB than for BP indoors. The population dynamics of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes, as obtained by SRB-collections was significantly correlated with those obtained by the traditional methods. The predicted mean estimates of An. gambiae s.l. specimens/sampling-unit/night-of-collections was 6- and 5-times lower for SRB than for BP indoors and PIT outdoors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the daily performance of SRB in terms of number of malaria vectors/trap was lower than that of traditionally used approaches for in- and outdoor collections. However, unlike these methods, SRB could be set up to collect mosquitoes passively over at least a week. This makes SRB a promising tool for passively monitoring anopheline resting populations, with data presented here providing guidance for how to set up SRB-based collections to acquire information comparable to those obtained with other methods.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies.<h4>Methods</h4>The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO(2) alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified.<h4>Results</h4>Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO(2) elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of medical, veterinary and agricultural significance.