Biphilic Organophosphorus-Catalyzed Intramolecular Csp2-H Amination: Evidence for a Nitrenoid in Catalytic Cadogan Cyclizations.
ABSTRACT: A small-ring phosphacycloalkane (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane, 3) catalyzes intramolecular C-N bond forming heterocyclization of o-nitrobiaryl and -styrenyl derivatives in the presence of a hydrosilane terminal reductant. The method provides scalable access to diverse carbazole and indole compounds under operationally trivial homogeneous organocatalytic conditions, as demonstrated by 17 examples conducted on 1 g scale. In situ NMR reaction monitoring studies support a mechanism involving catalytic PIII/PV?O cycling, where tricoordinate phosphorus compound 3 represents the catalytic resting state. For the catalytic conversion of o-nitrobiphenyl to carbazole, the kinetic reaction order was determined for phosphetane catalyst 3 (first order), substrate (first order), and phenylsilane (zeroth order). For differentially 5-substituted 2-nitrobiphenyls, the transformation is accelerated by electron-withdrawing substituents (Hammett factor ? = +1.5), consistent with the accrual of negative charge on the nitro substrate in the rate-determining step. DFT modeling of the turnover-limiting deoxygenation event implicates a rate-determining (3 + 1) cheletropic addition between the phosphetane catalyst 3 and 2-nitrobiphenyl substrate to form an unobserved pentacoordinate spiro-bicyclic dioxazaphosphetane, which decomposes via (2 + 2) cycloreversion giving 1 equiv of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] and 2-nitrosobiphenyl. Experimental and computational investigations into the C-N bond forming event suggest the involvement of an oxazaphosphirane (2 + 1) adduct between 3 and 2-nitrosobiphenyl, which evolves through loss of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] to give the observed carbazole product via C-H insertion in a nitrene-like fashion.
Project description:Experimental, spectroscopic, and computational studies are reported that provide an evidence-based mechanistic description of an intermolecular reductive C-N coupling of nitroarenes and arylboronic acids catalyzed by a redox-active main-group catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane P-oxide, i.e., 1·[O]). The central observations include the following: (1) catalytic reduction of 1·[O] to PIII phosphetane 1 is kinetically fast under conditions of catalysis; (2) phosphetane 1 represents the catalytic resting state as observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy; (3) there are no long-lived nitroarene partial-reduction intermediates observable by 15N NMR spectroscopy; (4) the reaction is sensitive to solvent dielectric, performing best in moderately polar solvents (viz. cyclopentylmethyl ether); and (5) the reaction is largely insensitive with respect to common hydrosilane reductants. On the basis of the foregoing studies, new modified catalytic conditions are described that expand the reaction scope and provide for mild temperatures (T ? 60 °C), low catalyst loadings (?2 mol%), and innocuous terminal reductants (polymethylhydrosiloxane). DFT calculations define a two-stage deoxygenation sequence for the reductive C-N coupling. The initial deoxygenation involves a rate-determining step that consists of a (3+1) cheletropic addition between the nitroarene substrate and phosphetane 1; energy decomposition techniques highlight the biphilic character of the phosphetane in this step. Although kinetically invisible, the second deoxygenation stage is implicated as the critical C-N product-forming event, in which a postulated oxazaphosphirane intermediate is diverted from arylnitrene dissociation toward heterolytic ring opening with the arylboronic acid; the resulting dipolar intermediate evolves by antiperiplanar 1,2-migration of the organoboron residue to nitrogen, resulting in displacement of 1·[O] and formation of the target C-N coupling product upon in situ hydrolysis. The method thus described constitutes a mechanistically well-defined and operationally robust main-group complement to the current workhorse transition-metal-based methods for catalytic intermolecular C-N coupling.
Project description:We report that a regioselective reductive transposition of primary allylic bromides is catalyzed by a biphilic organophosphorus (phosphetane) catalyst. Spectroscopic evidence supports the formation of a pentacoordinate (?(5)-P) hydridophosphorane as a key reactive intermediate. Kinetics experiments and computational modeling are consistent with a unimolecular decomposition of the ?(5)-P hydridophosphorane via a concerted cyclic transition structure that delivers the observed allylic transposition and completes a novel P(III)/P(V) redox catalytic cycle. These results broaden the growing repertoire of reactions catalyzed within the P(III)/P(V) redox couple and suggest additional opportunities for organophosphorus catalysis in a biphilic mode.
Project description:The carbon-carbon double bond of unsaturated carbonyl compounds was readily reduced by using a phosphetane oxide catalyst in the presence of a simple organosilane as the terminal reductant and water as the hydrogen source. Quantitative hydrogenation was observed when 1.0?mol?% of a methyl-substituted phosphetane oxide was employed as the catalyst. The procedure is highly selective towards activated double bonds, tolerating a variety of functional groups that are usually prone to reduction. In total, 25 alkenes and two alkynes were hydrogenated to the corresponding alkanes in excellent yields of up to 99?%. Notably, less active poly(methylhydrosiloxane) could also be utilized as the terminal reductant. Mechanistic investigations revealed the phosphane as the catalyst resting state and a protonation/deprotonation sequence as the crucial step in the catalytic cycle.
Project description:A method for the annulation of amines and carboxylic acids to form pharmaceutically relevant azaheterocycles via organophosphorus PIII/PV redox catalysis is reported. The method employs a phosphetane catalyst together with a mild bromenium oxidant and terminal hydrosilane reductant to drive successive C-N and C-C bond-forming dehydration events via the serial action of a catalytic bromophosphonium intermediate. These results demonstrate the capacity of PIII/PV redox catalysis to enable iterative redox-neutral transformations in complement to the common reductive driving force of the PIII/PV couple.
Project description:While chemoselectivities in Pd<sup>0</sup> -catalyzed coupling reactions are frequently non-intuitive and a result of a complex interplay of ligand/catalyst, substrate, and reaction conditions, we herein report a general method based on Pd<sup>I</sup> that allows for an a priori predictable chemoselective Csp2 -Csp2 coupling at C-Br in preference to C-OTf and C-Cl bonds, regardless of the electronic or steric bias of the substrate. The C-C bond formations are extremely rapid (<5?min at RT) and are catalyzed by an air- and moisture-stable Pd<sup>I</sup> dimer under open-flask conditions.
Project description:A main group-catalyzed method for the synthesis of aryl- and heteroarylamines by intermolecular C-N coupling is reported. The method employs a small-ring organophosphorus-based catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane) and a terminal hydrosilane reductant (phenylsilane) to drive reductive intermolecular coupling of nitro(hetero)arenes with boronic acids. Applications to the construction of both Csp2-N (from arylboronic acids) and Csp3-N bonds (from alkylboronic acids) are demonstrated; the reaction is stereospecific with respect to Csp3-N bond formation. The method constitutes a new route from readily available building blocks to valuable nitrogen-containing products with complementarity in both scope and chemoselectivity to existing catalytic C-N coupling methods.
Project description:C-H bond functionalization offers strategically novel approaches to complex organic compounds. However, many C-H functionalization reactions suffer from poor compatibility with Lewis basic functional groups, especially amines, which are often essential for biological activity. This study describes a systematic examination of the substrate scope of catalytic hydroarylation in the context of complex amino coumarin synthesis. The choice of substrates was guided by the design and development of the next generation of fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs), neuroimaging probes we recently introduced for optical imaging of neurotransmission in the brain. Comparison of two mild protocols using catalytic PtCl(4) or Au(PPh(3))Cl/AgSbF(6)revealed that each method has a broad and mutually complementary substrate scope. The relatively less active platinum system out-performed the gold catalyst with indole substrates lacking substitution at the C-3 position and provided higher regioselectivity in the case of carbazole-based substrates. On the other hand, the more active gold catalyst demonstrated excellent functional group tolerance, and the ability to catalyze the formation of strained, helical products. The development of these two protocols offers enhanced substrate scope and provides versatile synthetic tools required for the structure-activity examination of FFN neuroimaging probes as well as for the synthesis of complex coumarins in general.
Project description:A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic, computational, and kinetic studies has been used to elucidate the key mechanistic aspects of the previously reported enantioselective iminium ion trapping of photochemically generated carbon-centered radicals. The process, which provides a direct way to forge quaternary stereocenters with high fidelity, relies on the interplay of two distinct catalytic cycles: the aminocatalytic electron-relay system, which triggers the stereoselective radical trap upon iminium ion formation, and the photoredox cycle, which generates radicals under mild conditions. Critical to reaction development was the use of a chiral amine catalyst, bearing a redox-active carbazole unit, which could rapidly reduce the highly reactive and unstable intermediate generated upon radical interception. The carbazole unit, however, is also involved in another step of the electron-relay mechanism: the transiently generated carbazole radical cation acts as an oxidant to return the photocatalyst into the original state. By means of kinetic and spectroscopic studies, we have identified the last redox event as being the turnover-limiting step of the overall process. This mechanistic framework is corroborated by the linear correlation between the reaction rate and the reduction potential of the carbazole unit tethered to the aminocatalyst. The redox properties of the carbazole unit can thus be rationally tuned to improve catalytic activity. This knowledge may open a path for the mechanistically driven design of the next generation of electron-relay catalysts.
Project description:A method for electrophilic sulfenylation by organophosphorus-catalyzed deoxygenative O-atom transfer from sulfonyl chlorides is reported. This C-S bond-forming reaction is catalyzed by a readily available small-ring phosphine (phosphetane) in conjunction with a hydrosilane terminal reductant to afford a general entry to sulfenyl electrophiles, including valuable trifluoromethyl, perfluoroalkyl, and heteroaryl derivatives that are otherwise difficult to access. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the twofold deoxygenation of the sulfonyl substrate proceeds by the intervention of an off-cycle resting state thiophosphonium ion. The catalytic method represents an operationally simple protocol using a stable phosphine oxide as a precatalyst and exhibits broad functional-group tolerance.
Project description:The catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate was investigated for the first time in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane. During catalytic reaction, a new ruthenium(II) species is formed from the reduction of ruthenium(III) and characterized using UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), H NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The most likely structure suggested for the ruthenium(II) species is -[Ru(NMe)(acac)H]. Mercury poisoning experiment indicates that the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane is homogeneous catalysis. The kinetics of the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane starting with Ru(acac) were studied depending on the catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and temperature. The hydrogen generation was found to be first-order with respect to catalyst concentration and zero-order regarding the substrate concentration. Evaluation of the kinetic data provides the activation parameters for the dehydrogenation reaction: the activation energy = 85 ± 2 kJ·mol, the enthalpy of activation ∆ = 82 ± 2 kJ·mol and the entropy of activation; ∆ = −85 ± 5 J·mol·K. The ruthenium(II) catalyst formed from the reduction of ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate provides 1700 turnovers over 100 hours in hydrogen generation from the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine borane before deactivation at 60 °C.