Development of an Injectable Slow-Release Metformin Formulation and Evaluation of Its Potential Antitumor Effects.
ABSTRACT: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug which possesses antiproliferative activity in cancer cells when administered at high doses, due to its unfavorable pharmacokinetics. The aim of this work was to develop a pharmacological tool for the release of metformin in proximity of the tumor, allowing high local concentrations, and to demonstrate the in vivo antitumor efficacy after a prolonged metformin exposition. A 1.2% w/w metformin thermoresponsive parenteral formulation based on poloxamers P407 and P124, injectable at room temperature and undergoing a sol-gel transition at body temperature, has been developed and optimized for rheological, thermal and release control properties; the formulation is easily scalable, and proved to be stable during a 1-month storage at 5?°C. Using NOD/SCID mice pseudo-orthotopically grafted with MDA-MB-231/luc+ human breast cancer cells, we report that multiple administrations of 100?mg of the optimized metformin formulation close to the tumor site cause tissue accumulation of the drug at levels significantly higher than those observed in plasma, and enough to exert antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Our results demonstrate that this formulation is endowed with good stability, tolerability, thermal and rheological properties, representing a novel tool to be pursued in further investigations for adjuvant cancer treatment.
Project description:The present study involves the development of Dipivefrin hydrochloride (DV) containing Poloxamers (P407 and P188)-Carbopol-934 (CP) based thermoresponsive-gels for the management of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Optimal formulation was evaluated for gelation temperature (Tgel), physicochemical and viscoelastic properties, in-vitro gel dissolution and drug release studies. The in-vivo safety, precorneal retention, ocular pharmacokinetics and efficacy in reducing IOP were also evaluated. Tgel of DV-containing thermoresponsive-gels were between 35.1 and 38.9 °C and it was Poloxamers and CP concentrations dependent. The optimal formulation (F8), composed of 20% P407, 5% P188 and 0.15% CP (w/v), had a Tgel of 35 °C. Its viscosity indicated good flow at room temperature and ability to convert to gel at ocular temperature and the rheology studies revealed favorable characteristics for its ocular use. In precorneal retention experiment, F8 indicated significantly higher area under concentrations curves as compared to DV-aqueous suspension (DV-AqS). In-vivo ocular pharmacokinetics indicated a significant improvement in ophthalmic bioavailability of epinephrine (active form of DV). F8 was non-irritant to the eyes and showed a successful, continuous and superior ability to reduce IOP compared to DV-AqS in rabbits. In conclusion, our developed system could be an appropriate substitute to the conventional DV eye preparations in the management of elevated IOP.
Project description:Neurodegenerative diseases are becoming prevalent as the population ages. Geniposide could inhibit oxidative stress, reduce apoptosis, protect neuron, and has been used for therapy of the neurodegenerative diseases. The bioavailability of geniposide by nasal route is greater than that by oral administration. However, mucociliary clearance is a rate-limiting factor for nasal route administration. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mucoadhesive, thermoreversible in situ nasal gel of geniposide. The poloxamers (P407, P188) and the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were used as thermoreversible and mucoadhesive polymers, respectively. Borneol was used as a permeation enhancer. The hydrogel was prepared with the cold method and optimized by the response surface methodology-central composite design. Gelation temperature, pH, clarity, gel strength, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro and ex vivo release kinetics of formulations were evaluated. The optimized amounts of poloxamer407 (P407), poloxamer188 (P188) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were determined to be 19.4-20.5%, 1.1-4.0% and 0.3-0.6% respectively. The second-order polynomial equation in terms of actual factors indicated a satisfactory correlation between the independent variables and the response (R2 = 0.9760). An ANOVA of the empirical second-order polynomial model indicated the model was significant (P<0.01). P407, P188, P407×P188, P4072 and P1882 were significant model terms. The effects of P407 on gelation temperature were greater than those of other independent variables. The pH values of all the formulations were found to be within 6.3-6.5 which was in the nasal physiological pH range 4.5-6.5. The drug content, gel strength, mucoadhesive strength of the optimized formulations were 97-101%, 25-50 sec and 4000-6000 dyn/cm2 respectively. The in vitro release kinetics of cumulative release of geniposide was fitted to the zero-order model. The ex vivo cumulative release kinetics of geniposide was fitted to the Weibull model. This study concludes that the release of geniposide is controlled by gel corrosion, and that the permeation of geniposide is time-dependent. The more residence time, mucoadhesive, thermoreversible in situ nasal gel of geniposide for neurodegenerative diseases is of compliance and potential application.
Project description:Local administration of vaginal probiotics, especially lactobacilli, has been recently proposed as an effective prevention strategy against candidosis recurrences, which affect 40-50% of women. In this context, the aim of the present work was the development of a mucoadhesive in situ gelling formulation for the vaginal administration of Lactobacillus gasseri. Mixtures of poloxamer 407 (P407) and methylcellulose (MC), two thermosensitive polymers, were prepared and subjected to rheological analyses for the assessment of their sol/gel transition temperature. The association of P407 (15% w/w) with MC (1.5% w/w) produced an increase in gelation extent at 37 °C even after dilution in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF). The presence of 0.5% w/w pectin (PEC) produced a reduction of vehicle pH and viscosity at 25 °C that is the vehicle resistance to flow during administration. The presence of a low concentration of xyloglucan (XYL) (0.25% w/w) increases the mucoadhesive properties and the capability to gelify at 37 °C of the formulation after dilution with SVF. A three-component (P407/MC/PEC; 3cM) and a four-component (P407/MC/PEC/XYL; 4cM) mixture were selected as promising candidates for the delivery of L. gasseri to the vaginal cavity. They were able to preserve L. gasseri viability and were cytocompatible towards the HeLa cell line.
Project description:The treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) has long been viewed as a problematic issue by the medical profession. Although a wide variety of complementary therapies have been introduced, they fail to combine the skin moisturizing and drug supply for AD patients. This study reports the development of a thermo-sensitive Poloxamer 407/Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel formulation with twin functions of moisture and drug supply for AD treatment. It was found that the presence of CMCs can appreciably improve the physical properties of P407 hydrogel, which makes it more suitable for tailored drug loading. The fabricated P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was also characterized in terms of surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), rheological properties by a rheometer, release profile in vitro by dialysis method and cytotoxicity test. More importantly, the findings from transdermal drug delivery behavior revealed that P407/CMCs showed desirable percutaneous performance. Additionally, analysis of cytotoxicity test suggested that P407/CMCs composite hydrogel is a high-security therapy for clinical trials and thus exhibits a promising way to treat AD with skin moisturizing and medication.
Project description:In this study, for the first time, we have reported a sustained transdermal drug delivery from thermoresponsive poloxamer depots formed within the skin micropores following microneedle (MN) application. Firstly, we have investigated the sol-gel phase transition characteristics of poloxamers (PF®127, P108, and P87) at physiological conditions. Rheological measurements were evaluated to confirm the critical gelation temperature (CGT) of the poloxamer formulations with or without fluorescein sodium (FS), as a model drug, at various concentrations. Optimized poloxamer formulations were subjected to in vitro release studies using a vial method. Secondly, polymeric MNs were fabricated using laser-engineered silicone micromolds from various biocompatible polymeric blends of Gantrez S-97, PEG 10000, PEG200, PVP K32, and PVP K90. The MN arrays were characterized for mechanical strength, insertion force determination, in situ dissolution kinetics, moisture content, and penetration depth. The optimized MN arrays with good mechanical strength and non-soluble nature were used to create micropores in the neonatal porcine skin. Microporation in neonatal porcine skin was confirmed by dye-binding study, skin integrity assessment, and histology study. Finally, the in vitro delivery of FS from optimized poloxamer formulations was conducted across non-porated vs microporated skin samples using vertical Franz diffusion cells. Results concluded that permeation of FS was sustained for 96 h across the MN-treated skin samples containing in situ forming depot poloxamer formulations compared to non-microporated skin which sustained the FS delivery for 72 h. Confocal microscopic images confirmed the distribution of higher florescence intensity of FS in skin tissues after permeation study in case of MN-treated skin samples vs intact skin samples.
Project description:The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel thermoresponsive polyisocyanopeptide (PIC)-based hydrogel as an injectable carrier for local drug delivery for periodontal applications. Three formulations of PIC gels, 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1% w/w, were prepared. As controls, commercially available poloxamer 407 (P407) gels of 20% and 26% w/w were used. Lipoxin A<sub>4</sub> (LXA<sub>4</sub>), a proresolving drug, was suspended into the gel solutions. The systems were evaluated regarding dynamic mechanical properties, injectability and stability, release and bioactivity of LXA<sub>4</sub>, and cytocompatibility. Results showed that the gelation temperatures of PIC and P407 gels were around 13°C to 23°C. PIC gels were less viscous and mechanically weaker than P407 gels due to the low polymer concentrations. However, PIC gels kept gel integrity for at least 2 wk when incubated with phosphate-buffered saline, whereas P407 gels were disintegrated totally within 1 wk. LXA<sub>4</sub> was chemically stable in both neutral and alkaline medium for over 1 mo. The release of LXA<sub>4</sub> from either 1% PIC or 26% P407 gels depicted an initial burst release followed by a sustained release for around 4?d. The extent of burst release was negatively correlated to the polymer concentration. LXA<sub>4</sub> remained bioactive after release from PIC gels. No cytotoxicity was observed for 1% PIC gel. However, 26% P407 inhibited periodontal ligament cell and gingival epithelial cell growth. In conclusion, the thermoresponsive PIC gel is a potential candidate for periodontal drug delivery.
Project description:Hydrogels are an interesting class of materials used in extrusion-based 3D printing, e.g., for drug delivery or tissue engineering. However, new hydrogel formulations for 3D printing as well as a detailed understanding of crucial formulation properties for 3D printing are needed. In this contribution, hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) and the charged monomers 3-sulfopropyl acrylate and [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride are formulated for 3D printing, together with Poloxamer 407 (P407). Chemical curing of formulations with PEG-DA and up to 5% (w/w) of the charged monomers was possible without difficulty. Through careful examination of the rheological properties of the non-cured formulations, it was found that flow properties of formulations with a high P407 concentration of 22.5% (w/w) possessed yield stresses well above 100 Pa together with pronounced shear thinning behavior. Thus, those formulations could be processed by 3D printing, as demonstrated by the generation of pyramidal objects. Modelling of the flow profile during 3D printing suggests that a plug-like laminar flow is prevalent inside the printer capillary. Under such circumstances, fast recovery of a high vicosity after material deposition might not be necessary to guarantee shape fidelity because the majority of the 3D printed volume does not face any relevant shear stress during printing.
Project description:A hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(<i>N</i>-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-pNIPAM) was synthesized as a polymeric nanogel platform for encapsulation and delivery of hydrophobic bioactive compounds using curcumin as a model drug. As demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques, the HA-pNIPAM was simply assembled into spherical nano-sized particles with the thermoresponsive behavior. The success of curcumin aqueous solubilization was confirmed by fluorescent spectroscopy. The resulting nanogel formulation enhanced the aqueous solubility and uptake into NIH-3T3 cells of curcumin. This nanogel formulation also demonstrates cytocompatibility against NIH-3T3 cells, which deems it safe as a delivery vehicle. Moreover, the formulation has a slight skin-protection effect using an artificial skin equivalence model. The curcumin-loaded HA-pNIPAM nanogel showed an anti-proliferative activity against MDA-MB-231, Caco-2, HepG2, HT-29, and TNF-?-induced hyperproliferation of keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The thermoresponsive HA-pNIPAM nanogel reported here could be further optimized as a platform for controlled-release systems to encapsulate pharmaceuticals for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Pleural empyema is an inflammatory condition characterized by accumulation of pus inside the pleural cavity, which is usually followed by bacterial pneumonia. During the disease process, the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in the purulent pleural effusion cause proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of extracellular matrix, which lead to fibrin deposition and fibrothorax. Urokinase instillation therapy through a chest drainage tube is frequently used for fibrinolysis in patients with empyema. However, urokinase treatment requires multiple instillation (2-3 times per day, for 4-8 days) and easily flows out from the chest drainage tube due to its high water solubility. In this in vitro study, we developed a thermo-responsive hydrogel based on poloxamer 407 (P407) combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) for optimal loading and release of urokinase. Our results show that the addition of HA to poloxamer gels provides a significantly more compact microstructure, with smaller pore sizes (**p < 0.001). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile revealed no influence on the micellization intensity of poloxamer gel by HA. The 25% poloxamer-based gel was significantly superior to the 23% poloxamer-based gel, with slower gel erosion when comparing the 16th hour residual gel weight of both gels (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001). The 25% poloxamer-HA gel also exhibited a superior urokinase release profile and longer release time. A Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study of the P407/HA hydrogel showed no chemical interactions between P407 and HA in the hydrogel system. The thermoresponsive P407/HA hydrogel may have a promising potential in the loading and delivery of hydrophilic drugs. On top of that, in vitro toxicity test of this combination demonstrates a lower toxicity.
Project description:Curcumin (Cur.) is a natural product isolated from the rhizome of <i>Curcuma longa,</i> with a variety of biological and pharmacological activities in food and pharmaceutical products. However, curcumin's poor solubility in water greatly limits its bioavailability and clinical applications. In this study, co-grinding curcumin with food additives produced a mixture, which was evaluated for the solubility in water, dissolution, material morphology, in vivo bioavailability, cell uptake and entry mechanism. We tested 9 food additives in total and found that poloxamers performed the best. The 2 co-grinding mixtures Cur./Kolliphor<sup>®</sup> P407 and Cur./Kolliphor<sup>®</sup> P188 with high drug loading at 65.5% significantly improved the curcumin aqueous solubility, subsequently increased its intestinal epithelial cell uptake and oral bioavailability. The relative bioavailabilities for the 2 co-grinding mixtures were 309% and 163%, respectively, compared with curcumin API. Co-grinding process has a broad application prospect and is suitable for industrial production.