Delineation of the visual pathway in paediatric optic pathway glioma patients using probabilistic tractography, and correlations with visual acuity.
ABSTRACT: Radiological biomarkers which correlate with visual function are needed to improve the clinical management of optic pathway glioma (OPG) patients. Currently, these are not available using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. The aim of this study was to determine whether diffusion MRI could be used to delineate the entire optic pathway in OPG patients, and provide imaging biomarkers within this pathway which correlate with a patient's visual acuity (VA).Multi-shell diffusion MRI data were acquired in a cohort of paediatric OPG patients, along with VA measurements in each eye. Diffusion MRI data were processed using constrained spherical deconvolution and probabilistic fibre tractography, to delineate the white matter bundles forming the optic pathway in each patient. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in the optic nerves, tracts, and radiations, and correlated against each patient's VA.In the optic nerves, median FA significantly correlated with VA (R2adj = 0.31, p = 0.0082), with lower FA associated with poorer vision. In the optic radiations, both lower FA and higher ADC were significantly associated with poorer vision (R2adj = 0.52, p = 0.00075 and R2adj = 0.50, p = 0.0012 respectively). No significant correlations between VA and either FA or ADC were found in the optic tracts.Multi-shell diffusion MRI provides in vivo delineation of the optic pathway in OPG patients, despite the presence of tumour invasion. This technique provides imaging biomarkers which are sensitive to microstructural damage to the underlying white matter in this pathway, which is not always visible on conventional MRI.
Project description:Background:Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are low-grade tumors of the white matter of the visual system with a highly variable clinical course. The aim of the study was to generate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based predictive model of OPG tumor progression using advanced image analysis and machine learning techniques. Methods:We performed a retrospective case-control study of OPG patients managed between 2009 and 2015 at an academic children's hospital. Progression was defined as radiographic tumor growth or vision decline. To generate the model, optic nerves were manually highlighted and optic radiations (ORs) were segmented using diffusion tractography tools. For each patient, intensity distributions were obtained from within the segmented regions on all imaging sequences, including derivatives of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A machine learning algorithm determined the combination of features most predictive of progression. Results:Nineteen OPG patients with progression were matched to 19 OPG patients without progression. The mean time between most recent follow-up and most recently analyzed MRI was 3.5 ± 1.7 years. Eighty-three MRI studies and 532 extracted features were included. The predictive model achieved an accuracy of 86%, sensitivity of 89%, and specificity of 81%. Fractional anisotropy of the ORs was among the most predictive features (area under the curve 0.83, P < 0.05). Conclusions:Our findings show that image analysis and machine learning can be applied to OPGs to generate a MRI-based predictive model with high accuracy. As OPGs grow along the visual pathway, the most predictive features relate to white matter changes as detected by DTI, especially within ORs.
Project description:Trans-synaptic degeneration could exacerbate neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to assess whether anterograde trans-synaptic degeneration could be identified in the primary visual pathway in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess the optic radiations in 15 patients with previous optic nerve inflammation and 9 healthy volunteers. A probabilistic atlas of the optic radiations was created from healthy diffusion tractography data. Lengthwise profiles for DTI parameters (axial [?(||) ], radial [?(?) ] and mean diffusivity [MD], fractional anisotropy [FA] and the angle of deviation of the principal eigenvector [?]) were analyzed for patients and controls. Patients also underwent multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) assessments to characterize the latency and amplitude of cortical potentials. Correlations were performed between mfVEP latency and amplitude in the left and right visual hemi-fields and DTI parameters in the contra-lateral optic radiations. Patients displayed a significant decrease in ?(||) within the body of both optic radiations, which significantly correlated with loss of mfVEP amplitude. Abnormal ?(?) and FA were detected bilaterally throughout the optic radiations in patients but the abnormality was not associated with amplitude reduction or latency prolongation of the mfVEP. An abnormal ? value was observed in the left optic radiations of patients, and the ? value in the body of the optic radiations also correlated with mfVEP amplitude loss. The assocation between bilateral DTI abnormalities within the optic radiations and loss of afferent electrical activity could indicate anterograde trans-synaptic degeneration occurs following optic neuritis.
Project description:Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a valuable tool for assessing presumptive white matter alterations in human disease and animal models. The current study used DTI to examine the effects of selective neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus on major white matter tracts and anatomically related brain regions in macaque monkeys. Two years postlesion, structural MRI, and DTI sequences were acquired for each subject. Volumetric assessment revealed a substantial reduction in the size of the hippocampus in experimental subjects, averaging 72% relative to controls, without apparent damage to adjacent regions. DTI images were processed to yield measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), parallel diffusivity (lADC), and perpendicular diffusivity (tADC), as well as directional color maps. To evaluate potential changes in major projection systems, a region of interest (ROI) analysis was conducted including the corpus callosum, fornix, temporal stem, cingulum bundle, ventromedial prefrontal white matter, and optic radiations. Lesion-related abnormalities in the integrity of the fiber tracts examined were limited to known hippocampal circuitry, including the fornix and ventromedial prefrontal white matter. These findings are consistent with the notion that hippocampal damage results in altered interactions with multiple memory-related brain regions, including portions of the prefrontal cortex.
Project description:Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are present in 20% of children with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) but are less frequently observed in adults. Our goal was to determine the natural history of OPGs in children and adults with NF1.We analyzed the features of OPGs and other intracranial lesions on 1775 head MRI scans of 562 unselected adults and children with NF1 collected between 2003 and 2015. 52 (9.3%) of 562 patients in this study had an OPG diagnosed on their MRI. The median age at first scan with an OPG present was 12.7 years. Of the 52 OPG patients, the intraorbital optic nerves were affected in 29 patients (56%), the prechiasmatic optic nerves were affected in 32 patients (62%), the optic chiasm was affected in 17 patients (33%) and the optic radiations were affected in 19 patients (37%). 29 patients had two or more areas affected. One patient had a newly-appearing OPG, and 1 patient showed progression. The rate of progression over 5 years was 2.4% (95% CI: 0.4% to 16%). Four patients showed partial regression of their OPGs, but we observed no case of complete regression during this study. The rate of regression over 5 years was 8.9% (95% confidence intervals: 2.8% to 26%). We found the presence of UBOs and the presence of OPGs in individual patients to be highly associated (p?=?0.0061).OPGs are more common in older adults with NF1 than previously thought. The occurrences of unidentified bright objects (UBOs) and asymptomatic OPGs are associated with each other. This suggests the possibility that OPGs that remain asymptomatic may differ pathogenically from those that become symptomatic.
Project description:Background:Surgery is a key approach for achieving seizure freedom in children with focal onset epilepsy. However, the resection can affect or be in the vicinity of the optic radiations. Multi-shell diffusion MRI and tractography can better characterize tissue structure and provide guidance to help minimize surgical related deficits. Whilst in adults tractography has been used to demonstrate that damage to the optic radiations leads to postoperative visual field deficits, this approach has yet to be properly explored in children. Objective:To demonstrate the capabilities of multi-shell diffusion MRI and tractography in characterizing microstructural changes in children with epilepsy pre- and post-surgery affecting the occipital, parietal or temporal lobes. Methods:Diffusion Tensor Imaging and the Spherical Mean Technique were used to investigate the microstructure of the optic radiations. Furthermore, tractography was used to evaluate whether pre-surgical reconstructions of the optic radiations overlap with the resection margin as measured using anatomical post-surgical T1-weighted MRI. Results:Increased diffusivity in patients compared to controls at baseline was observed with evidence of decreased diffusivity, anisotropy, and neurite orientation distribution in contralateral hemisphere after surgery. Pre-surgical optic radiation tractography overlapped with post-surgical resection margins in 20/43 (46%) children, and where visual data was available before and after surgery, the presence of overlap indicated a visual field deficit. Conclusion:This is the first report in a pediatric series which highlights the relevance of tractography for future pre-surgical evaluation in children undergoing epilepsy surgery and the usefulness of multi-shell diffusion MRI to characterize brain microstructure in these patients.
Project description:Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON). We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1). We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD)] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of -2.6% per annum (control = -0.51%; p = 0.006). Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R = 0.450, p = 0.006; RD: R = -0.428, p = 0.009; MD: R = -0.365, p = 0.029). In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R = 0.489, p = 0.039). In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.
Project description:To evaluate the feasibility of differentiating between acute pancreatitis (AP) and healthy pancreas using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and correlate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) /fractional anisotropy (FA) values with the severity of AP.66 patients diagnosed with AP and 20 normal controls (NC) underwent DTI sequences and routine pancreatic MR sequences on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Average ADC and FA values of the pancreatic were measured. Differences of FA and ADC values between the AP group and the NC group with AP and healthy pancreas were compared by two-sample independent t-test. The severity of AP on MRI was classified into subgroups using MR severity index (MRSI), where the mean FA and ADC values were calculated. Relationship among the FA values, ADC values and MRSI were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients.The pancreatic mean ADC value in the AP group (1.68 ± 0.45×10-3mm2/s) was significantly lower than in the NC group (2.09 ± 0.55×10-3mm2/s) (P = 0.02); the same as mean FA value (0.39 ± 0.23 vs 0.54 ± 0.12, P = 0.00). In the subgroup analysis, the pancreatic ADC and FA value of edema AP patients was significantly higher than necrosis AP patients with P = 0.000 and P = 0.001respectively. In addition, as severity of pancreatitis increased according to MRSI, lower pancreatic ADC (r = -0.635) and FA value (r = -0.654) were noted.Both FA and ADC value from DTI can be used to differentiate AP patients from NC. Both ADC and FA value of pancreas have a negative correlation with the severity of AP.
Project description:To assess relationships between spinal cord MRI (SC-MRI) and retinal measures, and to evaluate whether these measures independently relate to clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS).One hundred two patients with MS and 11 healthy controls underwent 3-tesla brain and cervical SC-MRI, which included standard T1- and T2-based sequences and diffusion-tensor and magnetization-transfer imaging, and optical coherence tomography with automated segmentation. Clinical assessments included visual acuity (VA), Expanded Disability Status Scale, MS functional composite, vibration sensation threshold, and hip-flexion strength. Regions of interest circumscribing SC cross-sections at C3-4 were used to obtain cross-sectional area (CSA), fractional anisotropy (FA), perpendicular diffusivity (??), and magnetization transfer ratio. Multivariable regression assessed group differences and SC, retinal, and clinical relationships.In MS, there were correlations between SC-CSA, SC-FA, SC-??, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) (p = 0.01, p = 0.002, p = 0.001, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, prior optic neuritis, and brain atrophy. In multivariable clinical models, when SC-CSA, pRNFL, and brain atrophy were included simultaneously, SC-CSA and pRNFL retained independent relationships with low-contrast VA (p = 0.04, p = 0.002, respectively), high-contrast VA (p = 0.06, p = 0.008), and vibration sensation threshold (p = 0.01, p = 0.05). SC-CSA alone retained independent relationships with Expanded Disability Status Scale (p = 0.001), hip-flexion strength (p = 0.001), and MS functional composite (p = 0.004).In this cross-sectional study of patients with MS, correlations exist between SC-MRI and retinal layers, and both exhibit independent relationships with clinical dysfunction. These findings suggest that the SC and optic nerve reflect ongoing global pathologic processes that supplement measures of whole-brain atrophy, highlighting the importance of combining measures from unique compartments to facilitate a thorough examination of regional and global disease processes that contribute to clinical disability in MS.
Project description:To evaluate the feasibility of differentiating between hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and healthy liver using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).All subjects underwent an abdominal examination on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Two radiologists independently scored the image quality (IQ). An optimal set of DTI parameters was obtained from a group of fifteen volunteers with multiple b-values (100, 300, 500, and 800 s/mm2) and various diffusion-encoding directions (NED = 6, 9, and 12)using two way ANOVA analysis. Eighteen Patients with HCC underwent DTI scans with the optimized parameters. Fractional anisotropy(FA) and average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured. The differences of FA and ADC values between liver healthy region and HCC lesion were compared through paired t tests.There were no significant changes in liver IQ and FA/ADC values with increased NED(P >0.05), whereas the liver IQ and FA/ADC values decreased significantly with increased b-values(P <0.05). Good IQ, acceptable scan time and reasonable FA/ADC values were acquired using NED = 9 with b-value of (0,300) s/mm2. Using the optimized DTI sequence, ADC value of the tumor lesion was significantly lower than that of the healthy liver region (1.30 ± 0.34×10-3 vs 1.52 ± 0.27×10-3 mm2/s, P = 0.013), whereas the mean FA value of the tumor lesion (0.42 ± 0.11) was significantly higher than the normal liver region (0.32 ± 0.10) (P = 0.004).Either FA or ADC value from DTI can be used to differentiate HCC from healthy liver. HCC lead to higher FA value and lower ADC value on DTI than healthy liver.
Project description:Sports-related concussion (SRC) is sustained by millions of people per year, yet the spatiotemporal patterns of white matter (WM) injury remain poorly understood. Several SRC studies have implemented the standardised approach Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). The aim of this image-based meta-analysis was to identify consensus patterns of SRC-related WM injury across TBSS studies. We included studies comparing the diffusion MRI measurement fractional anisotropy (FA) in SRC or subconcussive injury vs. controls using TBSS, as FA is the most frequently examined diffusion tensor imaging metric. Authors of eligible studies were contacted to request unthresholded statistical map outputs from TBSS, and image-based meta-analyses were performed using Seed-Based d-Mapping. Eight studies contributed to our meta-analyses, comprising 174 SRC or subconcussive injury participants and 160 controls. Our primary meta-analysis (n = 8), encompassing subjects with acute SRC (n = 2), chronic SRC (n = 4) and subconcussive injuries (n = 2) revealed dominant bilateral increased FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and internal capsule. Subconcussive injury was associated with small clusters of increased and decreased FA in the arcuate fasciculus compared to control. In acute SRC, we found diffuse foci of raised FA at WM/grey matter border-zone associated with the bilateral SLF and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, chronic SRC had a pattern of deep WM alteration, asymmetrically located in the right optic radiations and arcuate fasciculus. Our findings represent the most powerful analysis of TBSS data in SRC, supporting the use of this approach to analyse diffusion data. TBSS is sensitive to WM abnormalities resulting from SRC or subconcussive injury over a range of temporal and clinical scenarios. Our data show spatially concordant patterns of WM injury unique to subconcussive, acute and chronic phases, highlighting the future utility of diffusion MRI for concussion diagnosis.