Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance associated polymorphisms in adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1) genes in Ghanaian isolates.
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P. falciparum isolates to provide baseline data for antimalarial drug resistance surveillance in the country.Filter paper blood blots collected in 2015-2016 from children aged below 9 years presenting with uncomplicated malaria at hospitals in three sentinel sites Begoro, Cape Coast and Navrongo were used. Parasite DNA was extracted from 120 samples followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Sanger sequencing was performed to detect and identify SNPs in pfap2mu and pfubp1 genes.In all, 11.1% (9/81) of the isolates carried the wildtype genotypes for both genes. A total of 164 pfap2mu mutations were detected in 67 isolates whilst 271 pfubp1 mutations were observed in 72 isolates. The majority of the mutations were non-synonymous (NS): 78% (128/164) for pfap2mu and 92.3% (250/271) for pfubp1. Five unique samples had a total of 215 pfap2mu SNPs, ranging between 15 and 63 SNPs per sample. Genotypes reportedly associated with ART resistance detected in this study included pfap2mu S160N (7.4%, 6/81) and pfubp1 E1528D (7.4%, 6/81) as well as D1525E (4.9%, 4/81). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the SNPs between the three ecologically distinct study sites (pfap2mu: ?2 = 6.905, df = 2, P = 0.546; pfubp1: ?2 = 4.883, df = 2, P = 0.769).The detection of pfap2mu and pfubp1 genotypes associated with ACT delayed parasite clearance is evidence of gradual nascent emergence of resistance in Ghana. The results will serve as baseline data for surveillance and the selection of the genotypes with drug pressure over time. The pfap2mu S160N, pfubp1 E1528D and D1525E must be monitored in Ghanaian isolates in ACT susceptibility studies, especially when cure rates of ACTs, particularly AL, is less than 100%.
Project description:Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the standard of care to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, resistance to artemisinins, defined as delayed parasite clearance after therapy, has emerged in Southeast Asia, and the spread of resistance to sub-Saharan Africa could have devastating consequences. Artemisinin resistance has been associated in Southeast Asia with multiple nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (NS-SNPs) in the propeller domain of the gene encoding the <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> K13 protein (K13PD). Some K13PD NS-SNPs have been seen in Africa, but the relevance of these mutations is unclear. To assess whether ACT use has selected for specific K13PD mutations, we compared the K13PD genetic diversity in clinical isolates collected before and after the implementation of ACT use from seven sites across Uganda. We detected K13PD NS-SNPs in 16 of 683 (2.3%) clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2004 and in 26 of 716 (3.6%) isolates collected between 2012 and 2016 (<i>P</i> = 0.16), representing a total of 29 different polymorphisms at 27 codons. Individual NS-SNPs were usually detected only once, and none were found in more than 0.7% of the isolates. Three SNPs (C469F, P574L, and A675V) associated with delayed clearance in Southeast Asia were seen in samples collected between 2012 and 2016, each in a single isolate. No differences in diversity following implementation of ACT use were found at any of the seven sites, nor was there evidence of selective pressures acting on the locus. Our results suggest that selection by ACTs is not impacting on K13PD diversity in Uganda.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bangladesh is a malaria hypo-endemic country sharing borders with India and Myanmar. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) remains successful in Bangladesh. An increase of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites on the Thai-Cambodia and Thai-Myanmar borders is worrisome. K13 propeller gene (PF3D7_1343700 or PF13_0238) mutations have been linked to both in vitro artemisinin resistance and in vivo slow parasite clearance rates. This group undertook to evaluate if mutations seen in Cambodia have emerged in Bangladesh where ACT use is now standard for a decade. METHODS: Samples were obtained from Plasmodium falciparum-infected malaria patients from Upazila health complexes (UHC) between 2009 and 2013 in seven endemic districts of Bangladesh. These districts included Khagrachari (Matiranga UHC), Rangamati (Rajasthali UHC), Cox's Bazar (Ramu and Ukhia UHC), Bandarban (Lama UHC), Mymensingh (Haluaghat UHC), Netrokona (Durgapur and Kalmakanda UHC), and Moulvibazar (Sreemangal and Kamalganj UHC). RESULTS: Out of 296 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples, 271 (91.6%) were confirmed as mono-infections by both real-time PCR and nested PCR. The K13 propeller gene from 253 (93.4%) samples was sequenced bi-directionally. One non-synonymous mutation (A578S) was found in Bangladeshi clinical isolates. The A578S mutation was confirmed and lies adjacent to the C580Y mutation, the major mutation causing delayed parasite clearance in Cambodia. Based on computational modeling A578S should have a significant effect on tertiary structure of the protein. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that P. falciparum in Bangladesh remains free of the C580Y mutation linked to delayed parasite clearance. However, the mutation A578S is present and based on structural analysis could affect K13 gene function. Further in vivo clinical studies are required to validate the effect of this mutation.
Project description:Delayed clearance of <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> by artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) has already been observed for African isolates. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, among travelers returning from African countries, of polymorphisms in two genes correlated with delayed parasite clearance (encoding <i>P. falciparum</i> Kelch 13 [<i>PfK13</i>] and ubiquitin-specific protease 1 [<i>pfubp1</i>]) reported in eastern China and to provide baseline data for antimalarial drug resistance (ART) surveillance and evaluation. A total of 153 filter paper blood spots collected in 2017-2019 from patients with uncomplicated <i>P. falciparum</i> cases in Anhui and Shandong Provinces were included in this study. Among them, 3.3% (5/153) of the isolates carried <i>PfK13</i> mutations, and 3 of them harbored the same synonymous mutation, C469C. A total of 13.1% (20/153) of the isolates were found to contain <i>pfubp1</i> mutations, and all were nonsynonymous. The <i>pfubp1</i> genotypes associated with ART that occurred in this study included E1528D (6.5% [10/153]) and D1525E (2.6% [4/153]). However, a high prevalence of the previously unreported mutation E1531D (5.9% [9/153]) was also detected. In addition, two types of deletions (encoding KID and KIE, respectively) and two types of insertions (encoding KYE and KYDKYD, respectively) were found in 16 isolates and 6 isolates, respectively. This study showed limited variation in <i>PfK13</i> among travelers returning from African countries and suggested other potential molecular markers, such as <i>pfubp1</i>, for use in the surveillance of African isolates in ACT susceptibility studies. Further clinical trial research is under way to investigate these <i>PfK13</i> and <i>pfubp1</i> mutations, as well as other candidate molecular markers, and their roles in delaying parasite clearance.
Project description:The recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia could threaten prospects for malaria elimination. Identification of the genetic basis of resistance would provide tools for molecular surveillance, aiding efforts to contain resistance. Clinical trials of artesunate efficacy were conducted in Bangladesh, in northwestern Thailand near the Myanmar border, and at two sites in western Cambodia. Parasites collected from trial participants were genotyped at 8,079 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a P. falciparum-specific SNP array. Parasite genotypes were examined for signatures of recent positive selection and association with parasite clearance phenotypes to identify regions of the genome associated with artemisinin resistance. Four SNPs on chromosomes 10 (one), 13 (two), and 14 (one) were significantly associated with delayed parasite clearance. The two SNPs on chromosome 13 are in a region of the genome that appears to be under strong recent positive selection in Cambodia. The SNPs on chromosomes 10 and 13 lie in or near genes involved in postreplication repair, a DNA damage-tolerance pathway. Replication and validation studies are needed to refine the location of loci responsible for artemisinin resistance and to understand the mechanism behind it; however, two SNPs on chromosomes 10 and 13 may be useful markers of delayed parasite clearance in surveillance for artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.
Project description:The emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia, manifested as delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following treatment with artemisinins, is a major concern. Recently, the artemisinin resistance phenotype was attributed to mutations in portions of a P. falciparum gene (PF3D7_1343700) encoding kelch (K13) propeller domains, providing a molecular marker to monitor the spread of resistance. The P. falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 (FP2; PF3D7_1115700) has been shown to contribute to artemisinin action, as hemoglobin degradation is required for potent drug activity, and a stop mutation in the FP2 gene was identified in parasites selected for artemisinin resistance. Although delayed parasite clearance after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has not yet been noted in Uganda and ACTs remain highly efficacious, characterizing the diversity of these genes is important to assess the potential for resistance selection and to provide a baseline for future surveillance. We therefore sequenced the K13-propeller domain and FP2 gene in P. falciparum isolates from children previously treated with ACT in Uganda, including samples from 2006-7 (n?=?49) and from 2010-12 (n?=?175). Using 3D7 as the reference genome, we identified 5 non-synonymous polymorphisms in the K13-propeller domain (133 isolates) and 35 in FP2 (160 isolates); these did not include the polymorphisms recently associated with resistance after in vitro selection or identified in isolates from Asia. The prevalence of K13-propeller and FP2 polymorphisms did not increase over time, and was not associated with either time since prior receipt of an ACT or the persistence of parasites ?2 days following treatment with an ACT. Thus, the K13-propeller and FP2 polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance are not prevalent in Uganda, and we did not see evidence for selection of polymorphisms in these genes.
Project description:Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is the first line to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. Artemisinin treatment failures are on the rise in southeast Asia. Delayed parasite clearance after ACT is associated with mutations of the P. falciparum kelch 13 gene. Patients (N = 148) in five districts of northwest Ethiopia were enrolled in a 28-day ACT trial. We identified a unique kelch 13 mutation (R622I) in 3/125 (2.4%) samples. The three isolates with R622I were from Negade-Bahir and Aykel districts close to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. One of three patients with the mutant strain was parasitemic at day 3; however, all patients cleared parasites by day 28. Correlation between kelch 13 mutations and parasite clearance was not possible due to the low frequency of mutations in this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended at the initial phase for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum, to reduce morbidity and mortality in all countries where malaria is endemic. Polymorphism in portions of P. falciparum gene encoding kelch (K13)-propeller domains is associated with delayed parasite clearance after ACT. Of about 124 different non-synonymous mutations, 46 have been identified in Southeast Asia (SEA), 62 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and 16 in both the regions. This is the first study designed to analyse the prevalence of polymorphism in the P. falciparum k13-propeller domain in the Jazan region of southwest Saudi Arabia, where malaria is endemic. METHODS:One-hundred and forty P. falciparum samples were collected from Jazan region of southwest Saudi Arabia at three different times: 20 samples in 2011, 40 samples in 2016 and 80 samples in 2020 after the implementation of ACT. Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 (k13) gene DNA was extracted, amplified, sequenced, and analysed using a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). RESULTS:This study obtained 51 non-synonymous (NS) mutations in three time groups, divided as follows: 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) '11.8%' in samples collected in 2011 only, 3 (5.9%) in 2011and 2016, 5 (9.8%) in 2011 and 2020, 5 (9.8%) in 2016 only, 8 (15.7%) in 2016 and 2020, 14 (27.5%) in 2020 and 10 (19.6%) in all the groups. The BLAST revealed that the 2011 isolates were genetically closer to African isolates (53.3%) than Asian ones (46.7%). Interestingly, this proportion changed completely in 2020, to become closer to Asian isolates (81.6%) than to African ones (18.4%). CONCLUSIONS:Despite the diversity of the identified mutations in the k13-propeller gene, these data did not report widespread artemisinin-resistant polymorphisms in the Jazan region where these samples were collected. Such a process would be expected to increase frequencies of mutations associated with the resistance of ACT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. To date, multiple mutations associated with artemisinin delayed parasite clearance have been described in Southeast Asia in the Pfk13 gene, such as Y493H, R539T, I543T and C580Y. Even though ACT remains clinically and parasitologically efficacious in Senegal, the spread of resistance is possible as shown by the earlier emergence of resistance to chloroquine in Southeast Asia that subsequently spread to Africa. Therefore, surveillance of artemisinin resistance in malaria endemic regions is crucial and requires the implementation of sensitive tools, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) which can detect novel mutations at low frequency. METHODS:Here, an amplicon sequencing approach was used to identify mutations in the Pfk13 gene in eighty-one P. falciparum isolates collected from three different regions of Senegal. RESULTS:In total, 10 SNPs around the propeller domain were identified; one synonymous SNP and nine non-synonymous SNPs, and two insertions. Three of these SNPs (T478T, A578S and V637I) were located in the propeller domain. A578S, is the most frequent mutation observed in Africa, but has not previously been reported in Senegal. A previous study has suggested that A578S could disrupt the function of the Pfk13 propeller region. CONCLUSION:As the genetic basis of possible artemisinin resistance may be distinct in Africa and Southeast Asia, further studies are necessary to assess the new SNPs reported in this study.
Project description:Resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> parasite is threatening to reverse recent gains in reducing global deaths from malaria. While resistance manifests as delayed parasite clearance in patients, the phenotype can only spread geographically via the sexual stages and mosquito transmission. In addition to their asexual killing properties, artemisinin and its derivatives sterilize sexual male gametocytes. Whether resistant parasites overcome this sterilizing effect has not, however, been fully tested. Here, we analyzed <i>P. falciparum</i> clinical isolates from the Greater Mekong Subregion, each demonstrating delayed clinical clearance and known resistance-associated polymorphisms in the <i>Kelch13</i> (PfK13<sup>var</sup>) gene. As well as demonstrating reduced asexual sensitivity to drug, certain PfK13<sup>var</sup> isolates demonstrated a marked reduction in sensitivity to artemisinin in an <i>in vitro</i> male gamete formation assay. Importantly, this same reduction in sensitivity was observed when the most resistant isolate was tested directly in mosquito feeds. These results indicate that, under artemisinin drug pressure, while sensitive parasites are blocked, resistant parasites continue transmission. This selective advantage for resistance transmission could favor acquisition of additional host-specificity or polymorphisms affecting partner drug sensitivity in mixed infections. Favored resistance transmission under ACT coverage could have profound implications for the spread of multidrug-resistant malaria beyond Southeast Asia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Current malaria control and elimination strategies rely mainly on efficacious antimalarial drugs. However, drug resistance is a major threat facing malaria control programs. Determination of drug resistance molecular markers is useful in the monitoring and surveillance of malaria drug efficacy. This study aimed to determine the mutations and haplotypes frequencies of different genes linked with antimalarial drug resistance in certain areas in Sudan.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 226 dried blood spots (DBS) of microscopically diagnosed P. falciparum isolates were collected from Khartoum and three other areas in Sudan during 2015-2017. Plasmodium falciparum confirmation and multiplicity of infection was assessed using the Sanger's 101 SNPs-barcode and speciation was confirmed using regions of the parasite mitochondria. Molecular genotyping of drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, exonuclease, Pfk13, parasite genetic background (PGB) (Pfarps10, ferredoxin, Pfcrt, Pfmdr2)) was also performed. All genotypes were generated by selective regions amplicon sequencing of the parasite genome using the Illumina MiSeq platform at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK then genotypes were translated into drug resistance haplotypes and species determination.<h4>Findings</h4>In total 225 samples were confirmed to be P. falciparum. A higher proportion of multiplicity of infection was observed in Gezira (P<0.001) based on the Sanger 101 SNPs -barcode. The overall frequency of mutant haplotype Pfcrt 72-76 CVIET was 71.8%. For Pfmdr1, N86Y was detected in 53.6%, Y184F was observed in 88.1% and D1246Y was detected in 1.5% of the samples. The most frequently observed haplotype was YFD 47.4%. For Pfdhfr (codons 51, 59,108,164), the ICNI haplotype was the most frequent (80.7%) while for Pfdhps (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613) the (SGEAA) was most frequent haplotype (41%). The Quadruple mutation (dhfr N51I, S108N + dhps A437G, K540E) was the highest frequent combined mutation (33.9%). In Pfkelch13 gene, 18 non-synonymous mutations were detected, 7 of them were detected in other African countries. The most frequent Pfk13 mutation was E433D detected in four samples. All of the Pfk13 mutant alleles have not been reported to belong to mutations associated with delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia. PGB mutations were detected only in Pfcrt N326S\I (46.3%) and Pfcrt I356T (8.2%). The exonuclease mutation was not detected. There was no significant variation in mutant haplotypes between study areas.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was high frequency of mutations in Pfcrt, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps in this study. These mutations are associated with chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance. Many SNPs in Pfk13 not linked with delayed parasite clearance were observed. The exonuclease E415G mutation which is linked with piperaquine resistance was not reported.