Associations between birth weight, obesity, fat mass and lean mass in Korean adolescents: the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Previous studies on the relationship between birth weight and obesity in adolescents have mostly been conducted within Western populations and have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the association between birth weight, obesity, fat mass and lean mass in Korean adolescents using the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES V). METHODS:The study population consisted of a total of 1304 (693 men and 611 women) participants aged between 12 and 18 years. Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were calculated by multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the association between birth weight and being overweight or obese. Furthermore, adjusted mean values for body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) according to birth weight were calculated by multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS:Individuals within the highest 25th percentile in birth weight were more likely to be overweight (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.76) compared with adolescents within the 25th and 75th percentile in birth weight. Female adolescents who were in the highest 25th percentile in birth weight were more likely to be obese (aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.41) compared with those within the 25th and 75th percentile in birth weight. Increasing FMI, but not LMI was associated with increasing birth weight (P for trend: 0.03). This tendency remained only in female population in sex-stratified analysis (P for trend: 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:High birth weight may lead to obesity and increased fat mass, but not lean mass. Adolescents born with high birth weight may benefit from close weight monitoring and early intervention against obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>DXA is a widely used technique to assess body composition. Reference values based on a large general population cohort of European children and adolescents were missing. The aim of this study was to provide age- and sex-specific reference percentiles of body composition parameters for European children and adolescents and to compare them to the American NHANES cohort. Additionally, exponents accounting best for height biases were analysed.<h4>Methods</h4>DXA scans of 1573 participants, aged 6 to 18?years, recruited from 2011 to 2019 by the Austrian LEAD study, a representative population-based cohort, have been used to create reference charts using the LMS model.<h4>Results</h4>Reference charts displaying percentile curves and the corresponding reference values are provided. Fat mass parameters were higher in females, while lean mass parameters were higher in males. Compared to the NHANES cohort medians of FMI and LMI were always lower. For FMI, BMI, LMI and ALMI the best fitting exponent were 2.5, 3, 3 and 3.5 respectively CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides reference charts for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18?years, for body composition parameters assessed by DXA. The charts enable comparison to a European general-population cohort and indicate that reference populations should be chosen with caution.
Project description:Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition. These reference curves displayed differentiation between males and females during puberty and sharper limb LMI declines during late adulthood for males. For adults ages 30-50, females had 39%, 83%, and 47% larger arm, leg, and trunk FMI values than males, respectively. Males had 49%, 20%, and 15% higher regional LMI values than females for the arms, legs, and trunk respectively. The leg FMI and LMI of black females were 14% and 15% higher respectively than those of Hispanic and white females. White and Hispanic males had 37% higher trunk FMI values than black males. Hispanic females had 20% higher trunk FMI than white and black females. These data underscore the importance of accounting for sex and ethnicity in studies of regional composition. This study is the first to produce regional LMI and FMI reference tables and curves from the NHANES dataset. These reference curves provide a framework useful in studies and research involving sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, and other studies of compositional phenotypes. Further, the software tool we provide for visualizing regional composition will prove useful in monitoring progress in physical therapy, diets, or other attempts to attain healthier compositions.
Project description:The body composition phenotype of low lean mass (LM) has been associated with metabolic disorders and impaired physical functioning in the pediatric population. Abnormalities in body composition may be identified using reference curves; however, no reference data on LM is available for Brazilian adolescents. The purpose of this study was to present reference data, including percentile curves, of whole body LM, lean mass index (LMI), appendicular lean mass (ALM), and fat mass for Southern Brazilian adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of adolescents aged 12-17 years from a southern region in Brazil, who had body composition assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Percentile values and reference curves employing the Lambda, Mu and Sigma method (LMS) were computed for LM, LMI (lean mass/height2), ALM and fat mass. Data on 541 adolescents (68.6% boys) was included. Sex differences in growth trajectories were observed for absolute and adjusted LM, with boys presenting greater LM quantity with advancing ages than girls (66.9% and 17.4% difference between the ages of 12 and 17 for boys and girls, respectively). The values corresponding to the lowest percentile (3rd) of LMI ranged between 10.63 to 13.93 kg/m2 in boys and 11.13 to 12.03 kg/m2 among girls aged 12-17 years. This study established the first LM, LMI, and ALM reference curves in Southern Brazilian adolescents, which can potentially be used in association with functional measures to identify LM abnormalities during growth.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate how lean body mass is related to circulating Interleukin 18 (IL-18) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) among apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS:A population-based sample of 1059 Chinese men and women aged 35-54 years was used to measure plasma IL-18, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers and high-molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin. Fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS:Circulating IL-18 was positively correlated with LMI after adjustment for FMI (correlation coefficient?=?0.11, P<0.001). The association with the MetS (odds ratio 3.43, 95% confidence interval 2.01-5.85) was substantially higher in the highest than the lowest quartile of IL-18 after multiple adjustments including body mass index. In the stratified multivariable regression analyses, the positive association between IL-18 and MetS was independent of tertiles of FMI, inflammatory markers and HMW-adiponectin, but significantly interacted with tertile of LMI (P for interaction?=?0.010). CONCLUSION:Elevated plasma IL-18 was associated with higher MetS prevalence in apparently healthy Chinese, independent of traditional risk factors, FMI, inflammatory markers and HMW-adiponectin. More studies are needed to clarify the role of lean mass in IL-18 secretion and its associated cardio-metabolic disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing attention has been drawn on the assessment of body composition phenotypes, since the distribution of soft tissue influences cardio-metabolic risk. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a validated technique to assess body composition. European reference values from population-based cohorts are rare. AIMS:To provide age- and sex-related reference values of body composition parameters and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass, and for lean mass index (LMI) with regard to fat mass index (FMI) quantities and BMI categories. METHODS:GE-Lunar Prodigy DXA scans of 10.894 participants, aged 18-81 years, recruited from 2011 to 2019 by the Austrian LEAD study, a population-based cohort study, have been used to construct reference curves using the LMS method. Parameters assessed are FMI, LMI, appendicular LMI, fat mass ratios android/gynoid and trunk/limbs, and VAT. RESULTS:All lean mass and fat mass parameters indicating central fat accumulation were higher in men, whereas other fat mass indices were higher in women. LMI differed between each FMI subgroup (low vs. normal, low vs. high, normal vs. high), and BMI category in all ages and LMI increased with FMI and BMI classes. VAT mass was higher in men compared with women and increased across all age groups within both sexes. CONCLUSION:The present study provides age- and sex-related reference values for European adults aged 18-81 years for body composition parameters and VAT mass for Lunar Prodigy DXA. In addition, this study reports LMI reference values with regard to fat mass quantities, showing a positive association with increasing FMI percentiles and BMI categories.
Project description:Nutritional changes during and after tuberculosis treatment have not been well described. We therefore determined the effect of wasting on rate of mean change in lean tissue and fat mass as measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and mean change in body mass index (BMI) during and after tuberculosis treatment.In a prospective cohort study of 717 adult patients, BMI and height-normalized indices of lean tissue (LMI) and fat mass (FMI) as measured by BIA were assessed at baseline, 3, 12, and 24 months.Men with wasting at baseline regained LMI at a greater rate than FMI (4.55 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 7.83 versus 3.16 (95% CI: 0.80, 5.52)) per month, respectively during initial tuberculosis therapy. In contrast, women with wasting regained FMI at greater rate than LMI (3.55 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.40, 6.70) versus 2.07 (95% CI: -0.74, 4.88)), respectively. Men with wasting regained BMI at a rate of 6.45 kg/m2 (95% CI: 3.02, 9.87) in the first three months whereas women, had a rate of 3.30 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.11, 6.72). There were minimal changes in body composition after month 3 and during months 12 to 24.Wasted tuberculosis patients regain weight with treatment but the type of gain differs by gender and patients may remain underweight after the initial phase of treatment.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem that, in addition to its well-known negative effects on musculoskeletal health, has been related to a wide range of acute and chronic age-related diseases. However, little is known about the association of body composition with the active, hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plasma levels (1,25(OH)2D). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of 1,25(OH)2D with body composition including lean and fat body mass as well as bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged sedentary adults. A total of 73 (39 women) middle-aged sedentary adults (53.7 ± 5.1 years old) participated in the current study. We measured weight and height, and we used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure lean body mass, fat body mass and BMD. Body mass index (BMI), lean mass index (LMI), and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. 1,25(OH)2D was measured using a DiaSorin Liaison® immunochemiluminometric analyzer. The results showed a negative association of 1,25(OH)2D with BMI, LMI and BMD (? = -0.274, R2 = 0.075, p = 0.019; ? = -0.268, R2 = 0.072, p = 0.022; and ? = -0.325, R2 = 0.105, p = 0.005, respectively), which persisted after controlling for age and sex. No significant differences in 1,25(OH)2D across body weight status were observed after controlling for the same covariates. In summary, our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D could be negatively associated with BMI, LMI and BMD whereas no association was found with FMI in middle-aged sedentary adults.
Project description:Previous studies have suggested a "J-shaped" relationship between body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) and survival among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. However, BMI is a vague measure of body composition. To provide greater resolution, we used Bayesian sensitivity analysis, informed by external data, to model the relationship between predicted fat mass index (FMI, adipose tissue (kg)/height (m)2), lean mass index (LMI, lean tissue (kg)/height (m)2), and survival. We estimated posterior median hazard ratios and 95% credible intervals for the BMI-mortality relationship in a Bayesian framework using data from 1,180 adults in North Carolina with HNC diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Risk factors were assessed by interview shortly after diagnosis and vital status through 2013 via the National Death Index. The relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality was convex, with a nadir at 28.6, with greater risk observed throughout the normal weight range. The sensitivity analysis indicated that this was consistent with opposing increases in risk with FMI (per unit increase, hazard ratio = 1.04 (1.00, 1.08)) and decreases with LMI (per unit increase, hazard ratio = 0.90 (0.85, 0.95)). Patterns were similar for HNC-specific mortality but associations were stronger. Measures of body composition, rather than BMI, should be considered in relation to mortality risk.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Insufficient moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is harmful for youth; however, the evidence for differential effects by weight status is limited. The study aimed to examine associations between MVPA and adiposity by weight status across childhood and adolescence.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were from the Gateshead Millennium Study. Physical activity and body composition measures were taken at age 7?y (n?=?502; measures taken between October 2006 and December 2007), 9?y (n?=?506; October 2008-September 2009), 12?y (n?=?420; October 2011-September 2012), and 15?y (n?=?306; September 2014-September 2015). Participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M and epochs were classified as MVPA when accelerometer counts were ?574 counts/15?s. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods and fat mass using bioelectrical impedance. Associations between MVPA and changes in BMI and FMI were examined by weight status using quantile regression.<h4>Results</h4>Higher MVPA was associated with lower FMI for the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile and lower BMI at the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile, independent of accelerometer wear time, sex, and sedentary time. The association between MVPA and change in adiposity was stronger in the higher than lower FMI and BMI percentiles (e.g., 1?h/day more MVPA was associated with a 1.5?kg/m<sup>2</sup> and 2.7?kg/m<sup>2</sup> lower FMI at the 50th and 90th FMI percentiles, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The effect of MVPA on adiposity in the higher adiposity percentiles is stronger than reported to date. Given overweight and obese children are the highest risk group for later obesity, targeting MVPA might be a particularly effective obesity prevention strategy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The link between adiposity, metabolic abnormalities, and arterial disease progression in children and adolescents remains poorly defined. We aimed to assess whether persistent high adiposity levels are associated with increased arterial stiffness in adolescence and any mediation effects by common metabolic risk factors. METHODS:We included participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who had detailed adiposity measurements between the ages 9-17 years and arterial stiffness (carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV]) measured at age 17 years. Body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio were calculated from weight, height, and waist circumference measurements whereas fat mass was assessed using repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. We used total and trunk fat mass indices (FMIs) to classify participants as normal (<75th percentile) or high (>75th percentile) FMI. We classified participants as being metabolically unhealthy if they had three or more of the following risk factors: high levels of systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, or glucose (all >75th percentile) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (<25th percentile). We used multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the relationship between PWV and exposure to adiposity, and tested for linear trend of PVW levels across ordinal groups. We used latent class growth mixture modelling analysis to assess the effect of longitudinal changes in adiposity indices through adolescence on arterial stiffness. FINDINGS:We studied 3423 participants (1866 [54·5%] female and 1557 [45·5%] male). Total fat mass was positively associated with PWV at age 17 years (0·004 m/s per kg, 95% CI 0·001-0·006; p=0·0081). Persistently high total FMI and trunk FMI between ages 9 and 17 years were related to greater PWV (0·15 m/s per kg/m2, 0·05-0·24; p=0·0044 and 0·15 m/s per kg/m2, 0·06-0·25; p=0·0021) compared with lower FMI. Metabolic abnormalities amplified the adverse effect of high total FMI on arterial stiffness (PWV 6·0 m/s [95% CI 5·9-6·0] for metabolically healthy participants and 6·2 m/s [5·9-6·4] for metabolically unhealthy participants). Participants who restored normal total FMI in adolescence (PWV 5·8 m/s [5·7-5·9] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·6-6·1] for metabolically unhealthy) had comparable PWV to those who had normal FMI throughout (5·7 m/s [5·7-5·8] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·8-5·9] for metabolically unhealthy). INTERPRETATION:Persistently high fat mass during adolescence was associated with greater arterial stiffness and was further aggravated by an unfavourable metabolic profile. Reverting to normal FMI in adolescence was associated with normal PWV, suggesting adolescence as an important period for interventions to tackle obesity in the young to maximise long-term vascular health. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation, and AFA Insurances.