Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit in Response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Infection.
ABSTRACT: Kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) has brought about a severe threat to the kiwifruit industry worldwide since its first outbreak in 2008. Studies on other pathovars of P. syringae are revealing the pathogenesis of these pathogens, but little about the mechanism of kiwifruit bacterial canker is known. In order to explore the species-specific interaction between Psa and kiwifruit, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of kiwifruit infected by Psa. After 48 h, 8255 differentially expressed genes were identified, including those involved in metabolic process, secondary metabolites metabolism and plant response to stress. Genes related to biosynthesis of terpens were obviously regulated, indicating terpens may play roles in suppressing the growth of Psa. We identified 283 differentially expressed resistant genes, of which most U-box domain containing genes were obviously up regulated. Expression of genes involved in plant immunity was detected and some key genes showed differential expression. Our results suggest that Psa induced defense response of kiwifruit, including PAMP (pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity and hypersensitive response. Metabolic process was adjusted to adapt to these responses and production of secondary metabolites may be altered to suppress the growth of Psa.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), a bacterial pathogen, is a severe threat to kiwifruit production. To elucidate the species-specific interaction between Psa and kiwifruit, transcriptomic-profiles analyses were conducted, under Psa-infected treatment and mock-inoculated control, on shoots of resistant Maohua (MH) and susceptible Hongyang (HY) kiwifruit varieties. The plant hormone-signal transduction and plant–pathogen interaction were significantly enriched in HY compared with MH. However, the starch and sucrose metabolism, antigen processing and presentation, phagosome, and galactose metabolism were significantly enriched in MH compared with HY. Interestingly, the MAP2 in the pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) was significantly up-regulated in MH. The genes RAR1, SUGT1, and HSP90A in the effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the NPR1 and TGA genes involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway as regulatory roles of ETI, were significantly up-regulated in HY. Other important genes, such as the CCRs involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, were highly expressed in MH, but some genes in the Ca2+ internal flow or involved in the reactive oxygen metabolism were obviously expressed in HY. These results suggested that the PTI and cell walls involved in defense mechanisms were significant in MH against Psa infection, while the ETI was notable in HY against Psa infection. This study will help to understand kiwifruit bacterial canker disease and provide important theoretical support in kiwifruit breeding.
Project description:An outbreak of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) beginning in 2008 caused disaster to the kiwifruit industry. However the mechanisms of interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes, but comprehensive repertoires of kiwifruit lncRNAs and their effects on the interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Here, based on in-depth transcriptomic analysis of four kiwifruit materials at three stages of infection with Psa, we identified 14,845 transcripts from 12,280 loci as putative lncRNAs. Hierarchical clustering analysis of differentially-expressed transcripts reveals that both protein-coding and lncRNA transcripts are expressed species-specifically. Comparing differentially-expressed transcripts from different species, variations in pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) were the main causes of species-specific responses to infection by Psa. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified species-specific expressed key lncRNAs which were closely related to plant immune response and signal transduction. Our results illustrate that different kiwifruit species employ multiple different plant immunity layers to fight against Psa infection, which causes distinct responses. We also discovered that lncRNAs might affect kiwifruit responses to Psa infection, indicating that both protein-coding regions and noncoding regions can affect kiwifruit response to Psa infection.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 biovar 3 (Psa3) produces necrotic lesions during infection of its kiwifruit host. Bacterial growth in planta and lesion formation are dependent upon a functional type III secretion system (T3S), which translocates multiple effector proteins into host cells. Associated with the T3S locus is the conserved effector locus (CEL), which has been characterized and shown to be essential for the full virulence in other P. syringae pathovars. Two effectors at the CEL, hopM1 and avrE1, as well as an avrE1-related non-CEL effector, hopR1, have been shown to be redundant in the model pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto), a close relative of Psa. However, it is not known whether CEL-related effectors are required for Psa pathogenicity. The Psa3 allele of hopM1, and its associated chaperone, shcM, have diverged significantly from their orthologs in Pto. Furthermore, the CEL effector hopAA1-1, as well as a related non-CEL effector, hopAA1-2, have both been pseudogenized. We have shown that HopM1 does not contribute to Psa3 virulence due to a truncation in shcM, a truncation conserved in the Psa lineage, probably due to the need to evade HopM1-triggered immunity in kiwifruit. We characterized the virulence contribution of CEL and related effectors in Psa3 and found that only avrE1 and hopR1, additively, are required for in planta growth and lesion production. This is unlike the redundancy described for these effectors in Pto and indicates that these two Psa3 genes are key determinants essential for kiwifruit bacterial canker disease.
Project description:Bacterial canker disease caused by <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. <i>actinidiae</i> (Psa) is a devastating disease of kiwifruit, which is severely limiting the development of the kiwifruit industry. Ethylicin is a broad-spectrum plant biomimetic fungicide. However, its application in the control of kiwifruit bacterial canker is rarely reported, and the mechanism of ethylicin on Psa remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethylicin on Psa in vitro and in vivo and found that ethylicin can inhibit the growth of Psa and prevent the cankering in the plant stem. Mechanism investigation indicated that ethylicin acted by limiting the movement of Psa, destroying the cell membrane of Psa, and inhibiting the formation of Psa biofilm. In addition, it was also found through transcriptomics research that ethylicin can up-regulate the expression of genes related to protein export and biofilm formation-<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> and down-regulate the expression of genes related to flagellar assembly in Psa. This study concluded that ethylicin can effectively inhibit Psa growth, and it could help to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of ethylicin inhibiting Psa and provide practical data for the application of ethylicin as a highly potent agent for controlling the bacterial canker disease of kiwifruit.
Project description:Bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a serious threat to kiwifruit production. Highly virulent strains of Psa biovar3 (Psa3) have spread rapidly to kiwifruit production areas worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop critical management strategies for bacterial canker based on dissecting the interactions between Psa and kiwifruit. Here, we developed a rapid and reliable flood-inoculation method using kiwifruit seedlings grown on Murashige and Skoog medium. This method has several advantages over inoculation of conventional soil-grown plants. We demonstrated the utility of a kiwifruit seedling assay to study the virulence of Psa biovars and Psa3 virulence factors, including the type III secretion system (T3SS). Kiwifruit seedlings inoculated with Psa3 developed severe necrosis within 1 week, whereas those inoculated with a T3SS-deficient hrcN mutant of Psa3 did not. This method was also useful for analyzing expression profiles of genes involved in Psa3 virulence during infection, and revealed that the expression of genes encoding the T3SS and type III secreted effectors were strongly induced in planta. Our results indicate that the T3SS has an important role in Psa3 virulence, and the flood-inoculation assay using kiwifruit seedling is suitable for analyzing Psa and kiwifruit interactions.
Project description:Since 2008, the kiwifruit industry has been devastated by a pandemic outbreak of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of bacterial canker. This disease has become the most significant limiting factor in kiwifruit production. Psa colonizes different organs of the host plant, causing a specific symptomatology on each of them. In addition, the systemic invasion of the plant may quickly lead to plant death. Despite the massive risk that this disease poses to the kiwifruit industry, studies focusing on Psa ecology have been sporadic, and a comprehensive description of the disease epidemiology is still missing. Optimal environmental conditions for infection, dispersal and survival in the environment, or the mechanisms of penetration and colonization of host tissues have not been fully elucidated yet. The present work aims to provide a synthesis of the current knowledge, and a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of kiwifruit bacterial canker based on new experimental data. The pathogen may survive in the environment or overwinter in dormant tissues and be dispersed by wind or rain. Psa was observed in association with several plant structures (stomata, trichomes, lenticels) and wounds, which could represent entry points for apoplast infection. Environmental conditions also affect the bacterial colonization, with lower optimum values of temperature and humidity for epiphytic than for endophytic growth, and disease incidence requiring a combination of mild temperature and leaf wetness. By providing information on Psa ecology, these data sets may contribute to plan efficient control strategies for kiwifruit bacterial canker.
Project description:Kiwifruit bacterial canker is a devastating disease threatening kiwifruit production. To clarify the defense mechanism in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), we observed phenotypic changes in resistant Huate (HT) and susceptible Hongyang (HY) kiwifruit varieties at 0, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 144 hour after inoculation (hai) with Psa. Brown lesions appeared in the inoculation areas 12 hai in HY shoots, and the lesion length gradually increased from 24 to 144 h. In contrast, no lesions were found in HT shoots at any time points. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis showed significantly more differentially expressed genes between HT and HY at 12 hai than at any other time point. According to weighted gene co-expression network analysis, five modules were notably differentially expressed between HT and HY; pathway mapping using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes database was performed for the five modules. In MEgreenyellow and MEyellow modules, pathways related to"plant-pathogen interaction", "Endocytosis", "Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism", and "Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms" were enriched, whereas in the MEblack module, pathways related to "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum", "plant-pathogen interaction", and "Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis" were enriched. In particular, the Pti1 and RPS2 encoding effector receptors, and the NPR1, TGA, and PR1 genes involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated in HT compared with HY. This indicates that the effector-triggered immunity response was stronger and that the salicylic acid signaling pathway played a pivotal role in the Psa defense response of HT. In addition, we identified other important genes, involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and Ca2+ internal flow, which were highly expressed in HT. Taken together, these results provide important information to elucidate the defense mechanisms of kiwifruit during Psa infection.
Project description:Kiwifruit canker, caused by <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. <i>actinidiae</i> (<i>Psa</i>), is a destructive pathogen that globally threatens the kiwifruit industry. Understanding the molecular mechanism of plant-pathogen interaction can accelerate applying resistance breeding and controlling plant diseases. All known effectors secreted by pathogens play an important role in plant-pathogen interaction. However, the effectors in <i>Psa</i> and their function mechanism remain largely unclear. Here, we successfully identified a T3SS effector HopAU1 which had no virulence contribution to <i>Psa</i>, but could, however, induce cell death and activate a series of immune responses by agroinfiltration in <i>Nicotiana benthamiana</i>, including elevated transcripts of immune-related genes, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and callose deposition. We found that HopAU1 interacted with a calcium sensing receptor in <i>N. benthamiana</i> (NbCaS) as well as its close homologue in kiwifruit (AcCaS). More importantly, silencing <i>CaS</i> by RNAi in <i>N. benthamiana</i> greatly attenuated HopAU1-triggered cell death, suggesting CaS is a crucial component for HopAU1 detection. Further researches showed that overexpression of <i>NbCaS</i> in <i>N. benthamiana</i> significantly enhanced plant resistance against <i>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</i> and <i>Phytophthora capsici</i>, indicating that <i>CaS</i> serves as a promising resistance-related gene for disease resistance breeding. We concluded that HopAU1 is an immune elicitor that targets CaS to trigger plant immunity.
Project description:Bacterial canker of kiwifruit, is a severe global disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). Here, we found that Psa biovar 3 (Psa3) was the only biovar consisting of three widely distributed clades in the largest Chinese kiwifruit cultivated area. Comparative genomics between the three clades revealed 13 polymorphic genes, each of which had multiple intra-clade variations. For instance, we confirmed that the polymorphic copA gene, which encodes a periplasmic protein CopA that is translocated by the Twin-arginine targeting (Tat) system, was involved in copper tolerance. We also found extensive variation in pathogenicity amongst strains within each genetically monomorphic clade. Accordingly, the pathogenic determinants of Psa3 were identified via a genomic comparison of phenotypically different strains within each clade. A case study of the high- and low-virulence strains in the clade 2 of Psa3 revealed that an hfq variant involved in in vitro growth and virulence, while a conserved locus 930 bp upstream of the hrpR gene in the Type III secretion system (T3SS) cluster was required for full pathogenicity on kiwifruit and elicitation of the hypersensitivity response on non-host Nicotiana benthamiana. The '-930' locus is involved in transcriptional regulation of hrpR/S and modulates T3SS function via the hierarchical 'HrpR/S-HrpL-T3SS/effector' regulatory cascade in Psa. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis underlying the genetic diversification and evolution of pathogenicity in Psa3 since kiwifruit canker emerged in China in the 1980s.
Project description:Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria. Recently, bacteriophages have been considered potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens due to their host specificity. <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. <i>actinidiae</i> (Psa) is a reemerging pathogen that causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (<i>Actinidia</i> sp.). The economic impact of this pest and the development of resistance to antibiotics and copper sprays in Psa and other pathovars have led to investigation of alternative management strategies. Phage therapy may be a useful alternative to conventional treatments for controlling Psa infections. Although the efficacy of bacteriophage φ6 was evaluated for the control of Psa, the characteristics of other DNA bacteriophages infecting Psa remain unclear. In this study, the PHB09 lytic bacteriophage specific to Psa was isolated from kiwifruit orchard soil. Extensive host range testing using Psa isolated from kiwifruit orchards and other <i>Pseudomonas</i> strains showed PHB09 has a narrow host range. It remained stable over a wide range of temperatures (4-50 °C) and pH values (pH 3-11) and maintained stability for 50 min under ultraviolet irradiation. Complete genome sequence analysis indicated PHB09 might belong to a new myovirus genus in <i>Caudoviricetes</i>. Its genome contains a total of 94,844 bp and 186 predicted genes associated with phage structure, packaging, host lysis, DNA manipulation, transcription, and additional functions. The isolation and identification of PHB09 enrich the research on <i>Pseudomonas</i> phages and provide a promising biocontrol agent against kiwifruit bacterial canker.