Relation of Age and Health-Related Quality of Life to Invasive Versus Ischemia-Guided Management of Patients with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.
ABSTRACT: In older patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, an initial invasive strategy reduces cardiovascular events compared with an ischemia-guided approach; however its association with health status outcomes is unknown. Among patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction from 2 multicenter US acute myocardial infarction (AMI) registries, health status was assessed at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after AMI using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Routine invasive management was defined as coronary angiography within 72 hours of admission without a preceding stress test. Among 3,559 patients with NSTEMI, 2,455 (69.0%) were treated with routine invasive treatment, which was more common in younger patients. In propensity-adjusted analyses, invasive treatment was associated with higher SAQ physical limitation, angina frequency, and summary scores over the year after AMI; however, the differences were small (<5 points, all p?<0.05). Although there was a trend toward worse health status in patients aged ?85 years treated with an initial invasive treatment, the interaction between age and treatment for any health status measure (all p??0.09) was not significant, except for SF-12 physical component score (p?=?0.02), where worse scores were observed with invasive treatment in patients 85 years or older. In conclusion, an initial invasive treatment for patients with NSTEMI is associated with a small benefit in health status of marginal clinical significance, mainly in younger patients. The oldest old group trended toward less health status benefit from a routine invasive strategy-results that will need to be confirmed in a larger study.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> The detailed causes of death in non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have not been adequately evaluated compared to those in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). <h4>Methods</h4> The study population was 6,228 AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (STEMI: 4,625 patients and NSTEMI: 1,603 patients). The primary outcome was all-cause death. <h4>Results</h4> Within 6 months after AMI, the adjusted mortality risk was not significantly different between NSTEMI patients and STEMI patients (HR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.67–1.03, P = 0.09). Regarding the causes of death within 6 months after AMI, mechanical complications more frequently occurred in STEMI patients than in NSTEMI patients, while proportions of post resuscitation status on arrival and heart failure were higher in in NSTEMI patients than in STEMI patients. Beyond 6 months after AMI, the adjusted mortality risk of NSTEMI relative to STEMI was not significantly different. (HR: 1.04, 95%CI: 0.90–1.20, P = 0.59). Regarding causes of death beyond 6 months after AMI, almost half of deaths were cardiovascular causes in both groups, and breakdown of causes of death was similar between NSTEMI and STEMI. <h4>Conclusion</h4> The mortality risk within and beyond 6 months after AMI were not significantly different between STEMI patients and NSTEMI patients after adjusting confounders. Deaths due to post resuscitation status and heart failure were more frequent in NSTEMI within 6 months after AMI.
Project description:Background Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, little is known about the association of diabetes mellitus with post-AMI health status outcomes (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life) in younger adults. Methods and Results We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus and health status during the first 12 months after AMI, using data from 3501 adults with AMI (42.6% with diabetes mellitus) aged 18 to 55 years enrolled in the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study. Health status was measured with Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), 12-item Short-Form Health Survey, and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale at baseline hospitalization, 1-month, and 12-months post-AMI. At baseline, patients with diabetes mellitus had significantly worse SAQ-angina frequency (81±22 versus 86±19), SAQ-physical limitations (77±28 versus 85±23), SAQ-quality of life (55±25 versus 57±23), 12-item Short-Form Health Survey mental (44±13 versus 46±12)/physical functioning (41±12 versus 46±12), and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale (61±22 versus 66±21) than those without diabetes mellitus. Over time, both groups (with and without diabetes mellitus) improved considerably and the differences in health status scores progressively narrowed (except for 12-item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning). In the linear-mixed effects models, adjusted for sociodemographics, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, psychosocial factors, healthcare use, and AMI treatment, diabetes mellitus was associated with worse health status at baseline but not after discharge, and the association did not vary by sex. Conclusions At baseline, young adults with diabetes mellitus had poorer health status than those without diabetes mellitus. After AMI, however, they experienced significant improvements and diabetes mellitus was not associated with worse angina, SAQ-physical limitations, mental functioning, and quality of life, after adjustment for baseline covariates. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00597922.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To describe the magnitude and predictors of symptom burden (SB) and quality of life (QoL) 3 months after hospital admission for acute chest pain.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective observational study.<h4>Setting</h4>Single centre, outpatient follow-up.<h4>Participants</h4>1506 patients.<h4>Outcomes</h4>Scores reported for general health (RAND-12), angina-related health (Seattle Angina Questionnaire 7 (SAQ-7)) and dyspnoea (Rose Dyspnea Scale) 3 months after hospital admission for chest pain.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 1506 patients received questionnaires assessing general health (RAND-12), angina-related health (SAQ-7) and dyspnoea (Rose Dyspnea Scale) 3 months after discharge. Univariable and multivariable regression models identified predictors of SB and QoL scores. A mediator analysis identified factors mediating the effect of an unstable angina pectoris (UAP) diagnosis.<h4>Results</h4>774 (52%) responded. Discharge diagnoses were non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (14.2%), UAP (17.1%), non-coronary cardiac disease (6.6%), non-cardiac disease (6.3%) and non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) (55.6%). NSTEMI had the most favourable, and UAP patients the least favourable SAQ-7 scores (median SAQ7-summary; 88 vs 75, p<0.001). NCCP patients reported persisting chest pain in 50% and dyspnoea in 33% of cases. After adjusting for confounders, revascularisation predicted better QoL scores, while UAP, current smoking and hypertension predicted worse outcome. NSTEMI and UAP patients who were revascularised reported higher scores (p<0.05) in SAQ-7-QL, SAQ7-PL, SAQ7-summary (NSTEMI) and all SAQ-7 domains (UAP). Revascularisation altered the unstandardised beta value (>±10%) of an UAP diagnosis for all SAQ-7 and RAND-12 outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with NSTEMI reported the most favourable outcome 3 months after hospitalisation for chest pain. Patients with other diseases, in particular UAP patients, reported lower scores. Revascularised NSTEMI and UAP patients reported higher QoL scores compared with patients receiving conservative treatment. Revascularisation mediated all outcomes in UAP patients.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT02620202.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The most common classification of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on electrocardiographic findings and distinguishes ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Both types of AMI differ concerning their epidemiology, clinical approach and early outcomes. Ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, constituting the first-line treatment for STEMI and NSTEMI. According to available data, STEMI may be associated with lower plasma concentration of ticagrelor in the first hours of AMI, but currently there are no studies directly comparing ticagrelor pharmacokinetics or antiplatelet effect in patients with STEMI versus NSTEMI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The PINPOINT study is a phase IV, single-centre, investigator-initiated, prospective, observational study designed to compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI assigned to the invasive strategy of treatment. Based on an internal pilot study, the trial is expected to include at least 23 patients with each AMI type. All subjects will receive a 180?mg loading dose of ticagrelor. The primary end point of the study is the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-6)) for ticagrelor during the first 6?hours after the loading dose. Secondary end points include various pharmacokinetic features of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX), and evaluation of platelet reactivity by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assay and multiple electrode aggregometry. Blood samples for the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment will be obtained at pretreatment, 30?min, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12?hours post-ticagrelor loading dose. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study received approval from the Local Ethics Committee (Komisja Bioetyczna Uniwersytetu Miko?aja Kopernika w Toruniu przy Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy; approval reference number KB 617/2015). The study results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02602444; Pre-results.
Project description:Early invasive management improves outcomes in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The association between preinfarct health status and the selecting patients for early invasive management is unknown. The Prospective Registry Evaluating outcomes after Myocardial Infarctions: Events and Recovery and Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in acute Myocardial infarction Patients' Health status are consecutive US multicenter registries, in which the associations between preinfarct angina frequency and quality of life (both assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire on admission) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and referral to early invasive management (coronary angiography within 48 hours) were evaluated using Poisson regression, after adjusting for site, demographics, and clinical and psychosocial variables. Of 3,768 patients with NSTEMI, 2,182 (57.9%) patients were referred for early invasive treatment. Patients with excellent, good, or very good baseline angina-specific quality of life, respectively, were more likely to receive early angiography, even after adjustment, as compared with patients reporting poor baseline quality of life because of angina (62.1.0%, 60.9%, 59.6%, vs 51.2%; adjusted relative risk [RR]?=?1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.16; RR?=?1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27; RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.31, respectively). Finally, patients with a GRACE score in the highest risk decile (199.5 to <321.4) had significantly lower rates of early invasive treatment (42.7%) than patients in the lowest decile of risk (67.6%; adjusted RR for continuous GRACE score per SD [1 SD?=?40 points], 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99, p = 0.019). In conclusion, in this real-world NSTEMI cohort, patients with the highest mortality risk and worst health status were less likely to be referred for early invasive management. Further work is needed to understand the role of preinfarct health status and in-hospital treatment strategy.
Project description:Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER) data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL)), assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care.Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9%) reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4%) reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7%) reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66), mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05), disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40), and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32) at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86), 4-year mortality was no different.High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.
Project description:Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and referral to CR has been introduced as a performance measure of high-quality care. The association of participation in CR with patients' health status (eg, quality of life, symptoms, and functional status) is poorly defined.To examine the association of participation in CR with health status outcomes after AMI.A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients enrolled in 2 AMI registries: PREMIER, from January 1, 2003, to June 28, 2004, and TRIUMPH, from April 11, 2005, to December 31, 2008. The analytic cohort was restricted to 4929 patients with data available on baseline health status, 6- or 12- month follow-up health status, and participation in CR. Data analysis was performed from 2014 to 2015.Participation in at least 1 CR session within 6 months of hospital discharge.Patient health status was quantified using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The primary outcomes of interest were the mean differences in SAQ domain scores during the 12 months after AMI between patients who did and did not participate in CR. Secondary outcomes were the mean differences in the SF-12 summary scores and all-cause mortality.After successfully matching the cohorts of the 4929 patients (3328 men and 1601 women; mean [SD] age, 60.0 [12.2] years) for the propensity to participate in CR and comparing the groups using linear, mixed-effects models, mean differences in the SAQ and SF-12 domain scores were similar at 6 and 12 months between the 2012 patients participating in CR (3 were unable to be matched) and the 2894 who did not participate (20 were unable to be matched). At 6 months, the mean difference was -0.76 (95% CI, -2.05 to 0.52) for the SAQ quality of life score, -1.53 (95% CI, -2.57 to -0.49) for the SAQ angina frequency score, 0.38 (95% CI, -0.51 to 1.27) for the SAQ treatment satisfaction score, -0.42 (95% CI, -1.65 to 0.79) for the SAQ physical limitation score, 0.50 (95% CI, -0.22 to 1.22) for the SF-12 physical component score, and 0.13 (95% CI, -0.53 to 0.79) for the SF-12 mental component score. At 12 months, the mean difference was -0.89 (95% CI, -2.20 to 0.43) for the SAQ quality of life score, -1.05 (95% CI, -2.12 to 0.02) for the SAQ angina frequency score, 0.38 (95% CI, -0.54 to 1.29) for the SAQ treatment satisfaction score, -0.14 (95% CI, -1.41 to 1.14) for the SAQ physical limitation score, 0.17 (95% CI, -0.57 to 0.92) for the SF-12 physical component score, and 0.12 (95% CI, -0.56 to 0.80) for the SF-12 mental component score. In contrast, the hazard rate of all-cause mortality (up to 7 years) associated with participating in CR was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.46-0.75).In a cohort of 4929 patients with AMI, we found that those who did and did not participate in CR had similar reported health status during the year following AMI; however, participation in CR did confer a significant survival benefit. These findings underscore the need for increased use of validated patient-reported outcome measures to further examine if and how health status can be maximized for patients who participate in CR.
Project description:The frequency of noncardiac chest pain (CP) hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown, and its significance from patients' perspectives is not studied.To assess the frequency of noncardiac CP admissions after AMI and its association with patients' self-reported health status.We identified cardiac and noncardiac CP hospitalizations in the year after AMI from the 24-center TRIUMPH registry. Hierarchical repeated-measures regression was used to identify the association of these hospitalizations with patients' self-reported health status using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Quality of Life domain (SAQ QoL) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores.Of 3,099 patients, 318 (10.3%) were hospitalized with CP, of whom 92 (28.9%) were hospitalized for noncardiac CP. Compared with patients not hospitalized with CP, noncardiac CP hospitalization was associated with poorer health status (SAQ QoL-adjusted differences: -8.9 points [95% CI -12.1 to -5.6]; SF-12 PCS: -2.5 points [95% CI -4.2 to -0.8] and SF-12 MCS: -3.5 points [95% CI -5.1 to -1.9]). The SAQ QoL for patients hospitalized with noncardiac CP was similar to patients hospitalized with cardiac CP (adjusted difference: 0.6 points [95% CI -3.2 to 4.5]; SF-12 PCS (0.9 points [95% CI -1.1 to 2.9]), but was worse with regard to SF-12 MCS (adjusted difference: -2.0 points [95% CI -3.9 to -0.2]).Noncardiac CP accounted for a third of CP hospitalizations within 1 year of AMI and was associated with similar disease-specific QoL as well as general physical and mental health status impairment compared with cardiac CP hospitalization.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Whether there is a difference in prognosis between elderly patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) remains mysterious. <b>Methods:</b> We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing the data in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan to explore differences between STEMI and NSTEMI with respect to in-hospital and long-term (3-year) outcomes among older adult patients (aged ≥65 years). Patients were further stratified based on whether they received coronary revascularization. <b>Results:</b> In total, 5,902 patients aged ≥65 years with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent revascularization (2,254) or medical therapy alone (3,648) were included. In the revascularized group, no difference was observed in cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality during hospitalization or at 3-year follow-up between the two AMIs. Conversely, in the non-revascularized group, patients with NSTEMI had higher crude odds ratio (cOR) for all-cause death during hospitalization [cOR: 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.65] and at 3-year follow-up (cOR: 1.47, 95% CI = 1.21-1.91) relative to patients with STEMI. However, after multivariable adjustments, only NSTEMI indicated fewer in-hospital CV death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.98] than STEMI in non-revascularized group. Moreover, major bleeding was not different between patients with STEMI or NSTEMI aged ≥65 years old. <b>Conclusion:</b> Classification of AMI is not associated with the difference of in-hospital or 3-year CV and all-cause death in older adult patients received revascularization. In a 3-year follow-up period, STEMI was an independent predictor of a higher incidence of revascularization after the index event. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction had more incidence of MACE than patients with STEMI did in both treatment groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 70% patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) presented without ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram. Patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) often presented with atypical symptoms, which may be related to pre-hospital delay and increased risk of mortality. However, up to date few studies reported detailed symptomatology of NSTEMI, particularly among Asian patients. The objective of this study was to describe and compare symptoms and presenting characteristics of NSTEMI vs. STEMI patients. METHODS:We enrolled 21,994 patients diagnosed with AMI from China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry between January 2013 and September 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to ST-segment elevation: ST-segment elevation (STEMI) group and NSTEMI group. We extracted data on patients' characteristics and detailed symptomatology and compared these variables between two groups. RESULTS:Compared with patients with STEMI (N?=?16,315), those with NSTEMI (N?=?5679) were older, more often females and more often have comorbidities. Patients with NSTEMI were less likely to present with persistent chest pain (54.3% vs. 71.4%), diaphoresis (48.6% vs. 70.0%), radiation pain (26.4% vs. 33.8%), and more likely to have chest distress (42.4% vs. 38.3%) than STEMI patients (all P?<?0.0001). Patients with NSTEMI were also had longer time to hospital. In multivariable analysis, NSTEMI was independent predictor of presentation without chest pain (odds ratio: 1.974, 95% confidence interval: 1.849-2.107). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to present with chest distress and pre-hospital patient delay compared with patients with STEMI. It is necessary for both clinicians and patients to learn more about atypical symptoms of NSTEMI in order to rapidly recognize myocardial infarction. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT01874691).