Complement C1q stimulates the progression of hepatocellular tumor through the activation of discoidin domain receptor 1.
ABSTRACT: C1q is known to perform several functions in addition to the role it plays in complement activation. C1q contains a collagen-like portion and DDR1 (discoidin domain receptor 1) is a well-known collagen receptor. Accordingly, we hypothesized C1q might be a novel ligand of DDR1. This study shows for the first time C1q directly induces the activation and upregulation of DDR1, and that this leads to enhanced migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. In addition, C1q was found to induce the activations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, and to increase the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and 9). Our results reveal a relationship between C1q and DDR1 and suggest C1q-induced DDR1 activation signaling may be involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and transmits signals from various collagens in epithelial cells. However, how DDR1-dependent signaling is regulated has not been understood. Here we report that collagen binding induces ADAM10-dependent ectodomain shedding of DDR1. DDR1 shedding is not a result of an activation of its signaling pathway, since DDR1 mutants defective in signaling were shed in an efficient manner. DDR1 and ADAM10 were found to be in a complex on the cell surface, but shedding did not occur unless collagen bound to DDR1. Using a shedding-resistant DDR1 mutant, we found that ADAM10-dependent DDR1 shedding regulates the half-life of collagen-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Our data also revealed that ADAM10 plays an important role in regulating DDR1-mediated cell adhesion to achieve efficient cell migration on collagen matrices.
Project description:The discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) are receptor tyrosine kinases that upon binding to collagens undergo receptor phosphorylation, which in turn activates signal transduction pathways that regulate cell-collagen interactions. We report here that collagen-dependent DDR1 activation is partly regulated by the proteolytic activity of the membrane-anchored collagenases, MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). These collagenases cleave DDR1 and attenuate collagen I- and IV-induced receptor phosphorylation. This effect is not due to ligand degradation, as it proceeds even when the receptor is stimulated with collagenase-resistant collagen I (r/r) or with a triple-helical peptide harboring the DDR recognition motif in collagens. Moreover, the secreted collagenases MMP-1 and MMP-13 and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-type MMPs (MT4- and MT6-MMP) have no effect on DDR1 cleavage or activation. N-terminal sequencing of the MT1-MMP-mediated cleaved products and mutational analyses show that cleavage of DDR1 takes place within the extracellular juxtamembrane region, generating a membrane-anchored C-terminal fragment. Metalloproteinase inhibitor studies show that constitutive shedding of endogenous DDR1 in breast cancer HCC1806 cells is partly mediated by MT1-MMP, which also regulates collagen-induced receptor activation. Taken together, these data suggest a role for the collagenase of membrane-type MMPs in regulation of DDR1 cleavage and activation at the cell-matrix interface.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is activated by collagens, upregulated in injured and fibrotic kidneys, and contributes to fibrosis by regulating extracellular matrix production, but how DDR1 controls fibrosis is poorly understood. DDR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). RTKs can translocate to the nucleus via a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) present on the receptor itself or a ligand it is bound to. In the nucleus, RTKs regulate gene expression by binding chromatin directly or by interacting with transcription factors. METHODS:To determine whether DDR1 translocates to the nucleus and whether this event is mediated by collagen-induced DDR1 activation, we generated renal cells expressing wild-type or mutant forms of DDR1 no longer able to bind collagen. Then, we determined the location of the DDR1 upon collagen stimulation. Using both biochemical assays and immunofluorescence, we analyzed the steps involved in DDR1 nuclear translocation. RESULTS:We show that although DDR1 and its natural ligand, collagen, lack an NLS, DDR1 is present in the nucleus of injured human and mouse kidney proximal tubules. We show that DDR1 nuclear translocation requires collagen-mediated receptor activation and interaction of DDR1 with SEC61B, a component of the Sec61 translocon, and nonmuscle myosin IIA and ?-actin. Once in the nucleus, DDR1 binds to chromatin to increase the transcription of collagen IV, a major collagen upregulated in fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings reveal a novel mechanism whereby activated DDR1 translates to the nucleus to regulate synthesis of profibrotic molecules.
Project description:The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are constitutively dimeric receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by triple-helical collagen. Aberrant DDR signaling contributes to several human pathologies, including many cancers. We have generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that inhibit DDR1 signaling without interfering with collagen binding. The crystal structure of the monomeric DDR1 extracellular region bound to the Fab fragment of mAb 3E3 reveals that the collagen-binding discoidin (DS) domain is tightly associated with the following DS-like domain, which contains the epitopes of all mAbs. A conserved surface patch in the DS domain outside the collagen-binding site is shown to be required for signaling. Thus, the active conformation of the DDR1 dimer involves collagen-induced contacts between the DS domains, in addition to the previously identified association of transmembrane helices. The mAbs likely inhibit signaling by sterically blocking the extracellular association of DDR1 subunits.
Project description:Effector T cell migration through the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step of the adaptive immune response and in the development of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we addressed the role of a collagen receptor, the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), in the migration of Th17 cells. We showed that the vast majority of human Th17 cells express DDR1 and that silencing DDR1 or using the blocking recombinant receptor DDR1:Fc significantly reduced their motility and invasion in three-dimensional (3D) collagen. DDR1 promoted Th17 migration by activating RhoA/ROCK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, the RhoA/ROCK signaling module was required for MAPK/ERK activation. Finally, we showed that DDR1 is important for the recruitment of Th17 cells into the mouse dorsal air pouch containing the chemoattractant CCL20. Collectively, our results indicate that DDR1, via the activation of RhoA/ROCK/MAPK/ERK signaling axis, is a key pathway of effector T cell migration through collagen of perivascular tissues. As such, DDR1 can contribute to the development of Th17-dependent inflammatory diseases.
Project description:The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are widely expressed receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by triple-helical collagen. They control important aspects of cell behavior and are dysregulated in several human diseases. The major DDR2-binding site in collagens I-III is a GVMGFO motif (O is hydroxyproline) that also binds the matricellular protein SPARC. We have determined the crystal structure of the discoidin domain of human DDR2 bound to a triple-helical collagen peptide. The GVMGFO motifs of two collagen chains are recognized by an amphiphilic pocket delimited by a functionally critical tryptophan residue and a buried salt bridge. Collagen binding results in structural changes of DDR2 surface loops that may be linked to the process of receptor activation. A comparison of the GVMGFO-binding sites of DDR2 and SPARC reveals a striking case of convergent evolution in collagen recognition.
Project description:The quantity and quality of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) have a pivotal role in dictating biological processes. Several collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) are known to modulate collagen deposition and fibril diameter. However, limited studies exist on alterations in the fibril ultrastructure by CBPs. In this study, we elucidate how the collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) regulates the collagen content and ultrastructure in the adventitia of DDR1 knock-out (KO) mice. DDR1 KO mice exhibit increased collagen deposition as observed using Masson's trichrome. Collagen ultrastructure was evaluated in situ using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Although the mean fibril diameter was not significantly different, DDR1 KO mice had a higher percentage of fibrils with larger diameter compared with their wild-type littermates. No significant differences were observed in the length of D-periods. In addition, collagen fibrils from DDR1 KO mice exhibited a small, but statistically significant, increase in the depth of the fibril D-periods. Consistent with these observations, a reduction in the depth of D-periods was observed in collagen fibrils reconstituted with recombinant DDR1-Fc. Our results elucidate how DDR1 modulates collagen fibril ultrastructure in vivo, which may have important consequences in the functional role(s) of the underlying ECM.
Project description:Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) belongs to a unique family of receptor tyrosine kinases that signal in response to collagens. DDR1 undergoes autophosphorylation in response to collagen binding with a slow and sustained kinetics that is unique among members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. DDR1 dimerization precedes receptor activation suggesting a structural inhibitory mechanism to prevent unwarranted phosphorylation. However, the mechanism(s) that maintains the autoinhibitory state of the DDR1 dimers is unknown. Here, we report that N-glycosylation at the Asn(211) residue plays a unique role in the control of DDR1 dimerization and autophosphorylation. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that mutations that disrupt the conserved (211)NDS N-glycosylation motif, but not other N-glycosylation sites (Asn(260), Asn(371), and Asn(394)), result in collagen I-independent constitutive phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry revealed that the N211Q mutant undergoes phosphorylation at Tyr(484), Tyr(520), Tyr(792), and Tyr(797). The N211Q traffics to the cell surface, and its ectodomain displays collagen I binding with an affinity similar to that of the wild-type DDR1 ectodomain. However, unlike the wild-type receptor, the N211Q mutant exhibits enhanced receptor dimerization and sustained activation upon ligand withdrawal. Taken together, these data suggest that N-glycosylation at the highly conserved (211)NDS motif evolved to act as a negative repressor of DDR1 phosphorylation in the absence of ligand. The presence of glycan moieties at that site may help to lock the collagen-binding domain in the inactive state and prevent unwarranted signaling by receptor dimers. These studies provide a novel insight into the structural mechanisms that regulate DDR activation.
Project description:Accumulation of type I collagen fibrils in tumors is associated with an increased risk of metastasis. Invadosomes are F-actin structures able to degrade the extracellular matrix. We previously found that collagen I fibrils induced the formation of peculiar linear invadosomes in an unexpected integrin-independent manner. Here, we show that Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor overexpressed in cancer, colocalizes with linear invadosomes in tumor cells and is required for their formation and matrix degradation ability. Unexpectedly, DDR1 kinase activity is not required for invadosome formation or activity, nor is Src tyrosine kinase. We show that the RhoGTPase Cdc42 is activated on collagen in a DDR1-dependent manner. Cdc42 and its specific guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF), Tuba, localize to linear invadosomes, and both are required for linear invadosome formation. Finally, DDR1 depletion blocked cell invasion in a collagen gel. Altogether, our data uncover an important role for DDR1, acting through Tuba and Cdc42, in proteolysis-based cell invasion in a collagen-rich environment.