How much is too much?-Influence of X-ray dose on root growth of faba bean (Vicia faba) and barley (Hordeum vulgare).
ABSTRACT: X-ray CT is a powerful technology to study root growth in soil in-situ. Root systems can be studied in its true 3D geometry over time. Hence, the same plant can be scanned multiple times during development. A downside is the potential of X-rays to interfere with biological processes and therefore plant growth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of cumulative X-ray dose on Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare during a growth period of 17 days. One control treatment without X-ray scanning was compared to two treatments being scanned every two and four days, respectively. Scanned treatments received a maximum cumulative dose of less than 8 Gy. Plant species differed in their susceptibility to X-ray dose. For Vicia faba, mean total root length was reduced significantly. Leave growth was reduced as well. Number and length of second order laterals was reduced significantly, as well as length of first order laterals. Hordeum vulgare showed no negative impact of X-ray dose on any of the root parameters. Large differences between the two species investigated were detected in respect to susceptibility to X-ray dose. Results indicate that for X-ray CT studies involving temporal resolution a control treatment without scanning is required.
Project description:Root growth responds to local differences in N-form and concentration. This is known for artificial systems and assumed to be valid in soil. The purpose of this study is to challenge this assumption for soil mesocosms locally supplied with urea with and without nitrification inhibitor. Soil column experiments with Vicia faba ('Fuego') and Hordeum vulgare ('Marthe') were performed to investigate soil solution chemistry and root growth response of these two species with contrasting root architectures to the different N-supply simultaneously. Root growth was analysed over time and separately for the fertiliser layer and the areas above and below with X-ray CT (via region growing) and WinRHIZO. Additionally, NO3- and NH4+ in soil and soil solution were analysed. In Vicia faba, no pronounced differences were observed, although CT analysis indicated different root soil exploration for high NH4+. In Hordeum vulgare, high NO3- inhibited lateral root growth while high NH4+ stimulated the formation of first order laterals. The growth response to locally distributed N-forms in soil is species specific and less pronounced than in artificial systems. The combination of soil solution studies and non-invasive imaging of root growth can substantially improve the mechanistic understanding of root responses to different N-forms in soil.
Project description:Alleviation of cadmium-induced root genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by calcium chloride (CaCl2) in faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor) seedlings were studied. Faba bean seeds were treated with H2O or 2% CaCl2 for 6 h before germination. Seeds were then exposed to 0 and 50 µM CdCl2 concentrations for 7 days. Genotoxic damaging effects of Cd was examined through the determination of the mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) in the meristem cells of faba bean roots. Similarly, effects of Cd stress on metal accumulation, total membrane lipid contents, total fatty acid composition (TFA), lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde production, soluble protein and non-protein thiols (NP-SH) contents, hydrogen peroxide production and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) were evaluated after 7 days of Cd stress in the seedling roots. Cd stress resulted in the reduction of MI, in addition to MN formation and CA induction in the roots of non-primed seeds (treated with H2O). Moreover, Cd induced lipid peroxidation, H2O2 overproduction and loss of membrane lipid amount and soluble protein content, and changes in the TFA composition in roots of faba bean seedlings. SOD activity declined, but CAT and GPX activities increased. However, seed pre-treatment with CaCl2 attenuated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Cd on Vicia faba roots. The results showed that CaCl2 induced reduction of Cd accumulation, improved cell membrane stability and increased the antioxidant defence systems, thus reducing and alleviating Cd genotoxicity and oxidative damage.
Project description:Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.
Project description:Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a major food source and fodder legume, popularly known for its high content of seed-protein. Its role is critical in crop rotation, and for fixing nitrogen effectively. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers from transcript sequences (cDNA; simple sequence repeat [SSR]) were developed for faba bean (Vicia faba). We found that 1,729 SSR loci from 81,333 individual sequence reads and 240 primer pairs were designed and synthesized. In total, 55 primer pairs were found to be polymorphic and scorable consistently when screened in 32 accessions. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, frequency of major alleles per locus varied from 0.17 to 0.91, the genotypes number ranged from 2 to 17, observed and expected heterozycosity values ranged from 0.00 to 0.44 and 0.17 to 0.89 and overall PIC values ranged from 0.16 to 0.88 respectively. These markers will be a useful tool for assessing the genetic diversity, understanding the population structure, and breeding patterns of faba bean.
Project description:The understanding of crop domestication is dependent on tracking the original geographical distribution of wild relatives. The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is economically important in many countries around the world; nevertheless, its origin has been debated because its ancestor could not be securely identified. Recent investigations in the site of el-Wad (Mount Carmel, Israel), provide the first and, so far, only remains of the lost ancestor of faba bean. X-ray CT scan analysis of the faba beans provides the first set of measurements of the biometry of this species before its domestication. The presence of wild specimens in Mount Carmel, 14,000 years ago, supports that the wild variety grew nearby in the Lower Galilee where the first domestication was documented for Neolithic farmers 10,200 years ago.
Project description:Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200?cal?BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11(th) millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| ?(13)C analysis.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) on the energy metabolism of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). A total of 180 fish (?2900 g) were randomly assigned to six tanks (2.5 × 2.5 × 1.2 m; 30 individuals per tank) and fed either faba bean (Vicia faba L.) or a commercial diet for 120 days (3% body weight, twice per day). The results showed that faba bean-fed grass carp (FBFG) had significantly lower growth and higher fat accumulation in the mesenteric adipose tissue and hepatopancreas than commercial diet-fed grass carp (CDFG). Compared with CDFG, FBFG exhibited no significant difference in proximate composition of the muscle; however, an obvious decrease in muscle fiber size and significantly higher hardness, chewiness, and gumminess were observed. Transcriptome results showed that a total of 197 genes were differentially regulated in the dorsal muscle. Down-regulated genes included four genes annotated with myocyte development and 12 transcripts annotated with components of myofibrils. In addition, the FBFG group exhibited significantly lower expression of genes associated with oxygen transport, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine metabolism, suggesting reduced energy availability in the muscle of the FBFG. Moreover, using western-blotting and enzyme assays, we found decreased protein levels in the mitochondrial electron transport respiratory chain and creatine metabolism activities, as well as increased expression of autophagy marker protein levels, in the muscle of FBFG. Overall, our results suggest that an abnormal energy distribution may exist in grass carps after feeding with faba bean, which is reflected by a mass of fat deposition in the adipose tissue and hepatopancreas and subdued metabolic activity in the muscle.
Project description:An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba.
Project description:Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) holds great importance for human and animal nutrition for its high protein content. However, better understanding of its seed protein composition is required in order to develop cultivars that meet market demands for plant proteins with specific quality attributes. In this study, we screened 35 diverse Vicia faba genotypes by employing the one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE) method, and 35 major protein bands obtained from three genotypes with contrasting seed protein profiles were further analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Twenty-five of these protein bands (MW range: ? 9-107 kDa) had significant (p ? 0.05) matches to polypeptides in protein databases. MS analysis showed that most of the analyzed protein bands contained more than one protein type and, in total, over 100 proteins were identified. These included major seed storage proteins such as legumin, vicilin, and convicilin, as well as other protein classes like lipoxygenase, heat shock proteins, sucrose-binding proteins, albumin, and defensin. Furthermore, seed protein extracts were separated by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC), and percentages of the major protein classes were determined. On average, legumin and vicilin/convicilin accounted for 50 and 27% of the total protein extract, respectively. However, the proportions of these proteins varied considerably among genotypes, with the ratio of legumin:vicilin/convicilin ranging from 1:1 to 1:3. In addition, there was a significant (p < 0.01) negative correlation between the contents of these major fractions (r = -0.83). This study significantly extends the number of identified Vicia faba seed proteins and reveals new qualitative and quantitative variation in seed protein composition, filling a significant gap in the literature. Moreover, the germplasm and screening methods presented here are expected to contribute in selecting varieties with improved protein content and quality.
Project description:Vernalization is classically defined as the induction of flowering process by exposure of the plants to a prolonged cold condition. Normally, it is considered as a precondition of flowering. Vicia faba, commonly known as faba bean, belongs to family Fabaceae. It is one of the plant species that has been cultivated in the earliest human settlements. In this study, an iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomic analysis has been conducted to compare the vernalized faba bean seedlings and its corresponding control. In total, 91 proteins from various functional categories were observed to be differentially accumulated in vernalized faba bean seedlings. Subsequent gene ontology analysis indicated that several biological processes or metabolic pathways including photosynthesis and phytic acid metabolism were differentially respond to vernalization in comparison to the control sample. Further investigation revealed that a family of proteins nominated as glycine-rich RNA-binding factor was accumulated in vernalized seedlings, indicating an extra layer of regulation by alternative splicing on transcript abundance in response to vernalization. These findings raise a possibility that these candidate proteins could be important to represent the responsive network under vernalization process. Therefore, we propose that the regulation of vernalization in faba bean not only occurs at the transcriptional level as previously reported, but also at the post-transcriptional level.