Methanol Generates Numerous Artifacts during Sample Extraction and Storage of Extracts in Metabolomics Research.
ABSTRACT: Many metabolomics studies use mixtures of (acidified) methanol and water for sample extraction. In the present study, we investigated if the extraction with methanol can result in artifacts. To this end, wheat leaves were extracted with mixtures of native and deuterium-labeled methanol and water, with or without 0.1% formic acid. Subsequently, the extracts were analyzed immediately or after storage at 10 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C with an HPLC-HESI-QExactive HF-Orbitrap instrument. Our results showed that 88 (8%) of the >1100 detected compounds were derived from the reaction with methanol and either formed during sample extraction or short-term storage. Artifacts were found for various substance classes such as flavonoids, carotenoids, tetrapyrrols, fatty acids and other carboxylic acids that are typically investigated in metabolomics studies. 58 of 88 artifacts were common between the two tested extraction variants. Remarkably, 34 of 73 (acidified extraction solvent) and 33 of 73 (non-acidified extraction solvent) artifacts were formed de novo as none of these meth(ox)ylated metabolites were found after extraction of native leaf samples with CD?OH/H?O. Moreover, sample extracts stored at 10 °C for several days, as can typically be the case during longer measurement sequences, led to an increase in both the number and abundance of methylated artifacts. In contrast, frozen sample extracts were relatively stable during a storage period of one week. Our study shows that caution has to be exercised if methanol is used as the extraction solvent as the detected metabolites might be artifacts rather than natural constituents of the biological system. In addition, we recommend storing sample extracts in deep freezers immediately after extraction until measurement.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Untargeted metabolomics intends to objectively analyze a wide variety of compounds. Their diverse physicochemical properties make it difficult to choose an appropriate reconstitution solvent after sample evaporation without influencing the chromatography or hamper column sorbent integrity. OBJECTIVES:The study aimed to identify the most appropriate reconstitution solvent for blood plasma samples in terms of feature recovery, four endogenous compounds, and one selected internal standard. METHODS:We investigated several reconstitution solvent mixtures containing acetonitrile and methanol to resolve human plasma extract and evaluated them concerning the peak areas of tryptophan-d5, glucose, creatinine, palmitic acid, and the phophatidylcholine PC(P-16:0/P-16:0), as well as the total feature count RESULTS: Results indicated that acetonitrile containing 30% methanol was best suited to match all tested criteria at least for human blood plasma samples. CONCLUSION:Despite identifying the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol being suitable as solvent for human blood plasma extracts, we recommend to systematically test for an appropriate reconstitution solvent for each analyzed biomatrix.
Project description:The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone.
Project description:Glycerol is a co-solvent for water extraction that has been shown to be highly effective for obtaining polyphenol extracts under atmospheric conditions. However, its efficacy under subcritical conditions has not yet been studied. We assessed different water-glycerol mixtures (15%, 32.5%, and 50%) in a hot pressurized liquid extraction system (HPLE: 10 MPa) at 90 °C, 120 °C, and 150 °C to obtain extracts of low molecular weight polyphenols from Carménère grape pomace. Under the same extraction conditions, glycerol as a co-solvent achieved significantly higher yields in polyphenols than ethanol. Optimal extraction conditions were 150 °C, with 32.5% glycerol for flavonols and 50% for flavanols, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Considering gallic acid as a model molecule, computational chemistry calculations were applied to explain some unusual extraction outcomes. Furthermore, glycerol, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol were studied to establish an incipient structure-property relationship. The high extraction yields of gallic acid obtained with water and glycerol solvent mixtures can be explained not only by the additional hydrogen bonds between glycerol and gallic acid as compared with the other alcohols, but also because the third hydroxyl group allows the formation of a three-centered hydrogen bond, which intensifies the strongest glycerol and gallic acid hydrogen bond. The above occurs both in neutral and deprotonated gallic acid. Consequently, glycerol confers to the extraction solvent a higher solvation energy of polyphenols than ethanol.
Project description:The comparison of extraction methods for global metabolomics is usually executed in biofluids only and focuses on metabolite coverage and method repeatability. This limits our detailed understanding of extraction parameters such as recovery and matrix effects and prevents side-by-side comparison of different sample preparation strategies. To address this gap in knowledge, seven solvent-based and solid-phase extraction methods were systematically evaluated using standard analytes spiked into both buffer and human plasma. We compared recovery, coverage, repeatability, matrix effects, selectivity and orthogonality of all methods tested for non-lipid metabolome in combination with reversed-phased and mixed-mode liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS). Our results confirmed wide selectivity and excellent precision of solvent precipitations, but revealed their high susceptibility to matrix effects. The use of all seven methods showed high overlap and redundancy which resulted in metabolite coverage increases of 34-80% depending on LC-MS method employed as compared to the best single extraction protocol (methanol/ethanol precipitation) despite 7x increase in MS analysis time and sample consumption. The most orthogonal methods to methanol-based precipitation were ion-exchange solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction using methyl-tertbutyl ether. Our results help facilitate rational design and selection of sample preparation methods and internal standards for global metabolomics.
Project description:It is well established that various extraction factors, including the method, temperature, time, and solvent system, significantly influence the antioxidant quality of plant-derived products. Previously, we observed that extraction of Pinus densiflora bark (PDB) by the most common traditional Soxhlet method using water at two different temperature conditions 60°C and 100°C for 6-15 h noticeably altered their antioxidant quality. In this study, we examined the impact of different extraction solvents such as ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, and acetone at a different percentage with water (vol/vol) on antioxidant efficiency as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) of PDB extracts. Among the fourteen different PDB extracts, the extracts obtained from 20% ethanol (E20), 40% ethanol (E40), and 20% acetonitrile (ACN20) showed more significant antioxidant potential, as well as high total phenol content (TPC). Extracts from other aqueous mixtures of organic solvents such as isopropanol, acetone, and methanol, as well as water, showed lesser antioxidant capacity and also had less TPC compared to these three most active extracts, E20, E40, and ACN20. Moreover, using ethanol at 100% for extraction significantly decreased the TPC and antioxidant capacity of PDB extracts. Data are implicating that an increased phenolic content in PDB extracts proportionally increases their antioxidant efficiency.
Project description:In this study, a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics protocol was optimized for quenching, harvesting, and extraction of metabolites from the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. Trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in water were compared for sample harvesting. Four different extraction methods were compared to investigate the efficiency of intracellular metabolite extraction, including pure acetonitrile, methanol, methanol/chloroform/H2O, and methanol/chloroform/acetonitrile. The separation efficiencies of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with UPLC-QTOF-MS were also evaluated. Global metabolomics profiles were compared; the number of total detected features and the recovery and relative extraction efficiencies of target metabolites were assessed. Trypsin/EDTA treatment caused substantial metabolite leakage proving it inadequate for metabolomics studies. Direct scraping after flash quenching with liquid nitrogen was chosen to harvest Panc-1 cells which allowed for samples to be stored before extraction. Methanol/chloroform/H2O was chosen as the optimal extraction solvent to recover the highest number of intracellular features with the best reproducibility. HILIC had better resolution for intracellular metabolites of Panc-1 cells. This optimized method therefore provides high sensitivity and reproducibility for a variety of cellular metabolites and can be applicable to further LC/MS-based global metabolomics study on Panc-1 cell lines and possibly other cancer cell lines with similar chemical and physical properties.
Project description:AIMS:Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms. RESULTS:We compared seven different solvents for quenching and extraction of cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues: a cold aqueous buffer commonly used in enzyme assays with and without detergent, hot aqueous buffer, and cold organic mixtures (80% methanol, buffered 75% acetonitrile, and acidic 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with either 0.02 M or 0.1?M formic acid). Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). To monitor the metabolite interconversion, cells were grown in 13C6-glucose medium, and unlabeled standards were spiked into the extraction solvents. Interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms was substantial except for the enzyme assay buffer with detergent, 80% methanol and 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water, with the 0.1?M formic acid mix giving the least interconversion and best recoveries. Absolute NAD+, NADH, NADP+, and NADPH concentrations in cells and mouse tissues were measured with this approach. INNOVATION:We found that the interconversion between the reduced and oxidized forms during extraction is a major barrier to accurately measuring NADPH/NADP+ and NADH/NAD+ ratios. Such interconversion can be monitored by isotope labeling cells and spiking NAD(P)(H) standards. CONCLUSION:Extraction with 40:40:20 acetonitrile:methanol:water with 0.1?M formic acid decreases interconversion and, therefore, is suitable for measurement of redox cofactor ratios using LC-MS. This solvent is also useful for general metabolomics. Samples should be neutralized immediately after extraction to avoid acid-catalyzed degradation. When LC-MS is not available and enzyme assays are accordingly used, inclusion of detergent in the aqueous extraction buffer reduces interconversion. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 167-179.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Consensus in sample preparation for untargeted human fecal metabolomics is lacking.<h4>Objectives</h4>To obtain sample preparation with broad metabolite coverage for high-throughput LC-MS.<h4>Methods</h4>Extraction solvent, solvent ratio and fresh frozen-vs-lyophilized samples were evaluated by metabolite feature quality.<h4>Results</h4>Methanol at 5 mL per g wet feces provided a wide metabolite coverage with optimal balance between signal intensity and saturation for both fresh frozen and lyophilized samples. Lyophilization did not affect SCFA and is recommended because of convenience in normalizing to dry matter.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The suggested sample preparation is simple, efficient and suitable for large-scale human fecal metabolomics.
Project description:Traditional extraction remains the method-of-choice for phytochemical analyses. However, the absence of an integrated analytical platform, focusing on customized, validated extraction steps, generates tendentious and non-reproducible data regarding the phytochemical profile. Such a platform would also support the exploration and exploitation of plant byproducts, which are a valuable source of bioactive metabolites. This study deals with the incorporation of (a) the currently sub-exploited high energy extraction methods (ultrasound (UAE)- and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)), (b) experimental design (DOE), and (c) metabolomics, in an integrated analytical platform for the extensive study of plant metabolomics and phytochemical profiling. The recovery of carotenoids from apricot by-products (pulp) is examined as a case study. MAE, using ethanol as solvent, achieved higher carotenoid yields compared to UAE, where 1:1 chloroform-methanol was employed, and classic extraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic profiling classified extracts according to the variations in co-extractives in relation to the extraction conditions. Extracts with a lower carotenoid content contained branched-chain amino acids as co-extractives. Medium carotenoid content extracts contained choline, unsaturated fatty acids, and sugar alcohols, while the highest carotenoid extracts were also rich in sugars. Overall, the proposed pipeline can provide different the phytochemical fractions of bioactive compounds according to the needs of different industrial sectors (cosmetics, nutraceuticals, etc.).
Project description:Introduction:Global metabolomics analyses using body fluids provide valuable results for the understanding and prediction of diseases. However, the mechanism of a disease is often tissue-based and it is advantageous to analyze metabolomic changes directly in the tissue. Metabolomics from tissue samples faces many challenges like tissue collection, homogenization, and metabolite extraction. Objectives:We aimed to establish a metabolite extraction protocol optimized for tissue metabolite quantification by the targeted metabolomics AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 Kit (Biocrates). The extraction method should be non-selective, applicable to different kinds and amounts of tissues, monophasic, reproducible, and amenable to high throughput. Methods:We quantified metabolites in samples of eleven murine tissues after extraction with three solvents (methanol, phosphate buffer, ethanol/phosphate buffer mixture) in two tissue to solvent ratios and analyzed the extraction yield, ionization efficiency, and reproducibility. Results:We found methanol and ethanol/phosphate buffer to be superior to phosphate buffer in regard to extraction yield, reproducibility, and ionization efficiency for all metabolites measured. Phosphate buffer, however, outperformed both organic solvents for amino acids and biogenic amines but yielded unsatisfactory results for lipids. The observed matrix effects of tissue extracts were smaller or in a similar range compared to those of human plasma. Conclusion:We provide for each murine tissue type an optimized high-throughput metabolite extraction protocol, which yields the best results for extraction, reproducibility, and quantification of metabolites in the p180 kit. Although the performance of the extraction protocol was monitored by the p180 kit, the protocol can be applicable to other targeted metabolomics assays.