Naive CD4 T cells inhibit CD28-costimulated R5 HIV replication in memory CD4 T cells.
ABSTRACT: Stimulation with antibodies to CD3 and CD28 coimmobilized on beads can be used to significantly expand T cells ex vivo. With CD4 T cells from HIV-infected patients, this expansion usually is accompanied by complete suppression of viral replication, presumed to be caused by down-regulation of the viral coreceptor CCR5 and up-regulation of CCR5 ligands. Here we show that this suppression occurs in total CD4 T cells acutely infected with R5 HIV, but not in purified CD62L(-) memory CD4 T cells. The lack of complete suppression in these memory cells, typically comprising 10-40% of total CD4 T cells, occurs despite high levels of CCR5 ligand secretion and down-regulation of CCR5. Significantly, adding back naive or CD62L(+) memory CD4 T cells inhibits the viral replication in the CD62L(-) cells, with the naive cells capable of completely repressing the virus. Although this inhibition was previously thought to be specific to bead-bound anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation, we show that the same suppression is obtained with sufficiently strong anti-CD3/B7.1 stimulation. Our results show that inhibitory mechanisms, expressed predominantly by strongly stimulated naive CD4 T cells and mediated independently of CCR5-binding chemokines, play a role in the inhibition of R5 HIV replication in CD4 T cells upon CD28 costimulation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Resting CD4+ T cells are major reservoirs of latent HIV-1 infection, and may be formed during the early phase of the infection. Although CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 is highly transmissible during the early phase, newly infected individuals have usually been exposed to a mixture of R5 and CXCR4-tropic (X4) viruses, and X4 viral DNA is also detectable in the host. Our aim was to identify which subsets of resting CD4+ T cells contribute to forming the latent reservoir in the presence of both X4 and R5 viruses. RESULTS:Primary resting CD4+ naïve T (TN) cells, CCR5- memory T (TM) cells, and CCR5+ TM cells isolated by flow cytometry were infected simultaneously with X4 and R5 HIV-1, which harbored different reporter genes, and were cultured in the resting condition. Flow cytometry at 3 days post-infection demonstrated that X4 HIV-1+ cells were present in all three subsets of cells, whereas R5 HIV-1+ cells were present preferentially in CCR5+ TM cells, but not in TN cells. Following CD3/CD28-mediated activation at 3 days post-infection, numbers of R5 HIV-1+ cells and X4 HIV-1+ cells increased significantly only in the CCR5+ TM subset, suggesting that it provides a major reservoir of replication-competent, latently infected viruses.
Project description:CD4(+) T-cell loss is the hallmark of HIV-1 infection. CD4 counts fall more rapidly in advanced disease when CCR5-tropic viral strains tend to be replaced by X4-tropic viruses. We hypothesized: (i) that the early dominance of CCR5-tropic viruses results from faster turnover rates of CCR5(+) cells, and (ii) that X4-tropic strains exert greater pathogenicity by preferentially increasing turnover rates within the CXCR4(+) compartment. To test these hypotheses we measured in vivo turnover rates of CD4(+) T-cell subpopulations sorted by chemokine receptor expression, using in vivo deuterium-glucose labeling. Deuterium enrichment was modeled to derive in vivo proliferation (p) and disappearance (d*) rates which were related to viral tropism data. 13 healthy controls and 13 treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects (CD4 143-569 cells/ul) participated. CCR5-expression defined a CD4(+) subpopulation of predominantly CD45R0(+) memory cells with accelerated in vivo proliferation (p = 2.50 vs 1.60%/d, CCR5(+) vs CCR5(-); healthy controls; P<0.01). Conversely, CXCR4 expression defined CD4(+) T-cells (predominantly CD45RA(+) naive cells) with low turnover rates. The dominant effect of HIV infection was accelerated turnover of CCR5(+)CD45R0(+)CD4(+) memory T-cells (p = 5.16 vs 2.50%/d, HIV vs controls; P<0.05), naïve cells being relatively unaffected. Similar patterns were observed whether the dominant circulating HIV-1 strain was R5-tropic (n = 9) or X4-tropic (n = 4). Although numbers were small, X4-tropic viruses did not appear to specifically drive turnover of CXCR4-expressing cells (p = 0.54 vs 0.72 vs 0.44%/d in control, R5-tropic, and X4-tropic groups respectively). Our data are most consistent with models in which CD4(+) T-cell loss is primarily driven by non-specific immune activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F) on CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells in vivo and in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells decreased from 3.7 ± 7.1% before to 0 ± 0% six hours after ATG-F application (P = 0.043) in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9 ± 2.9% vs. 3.9 ± 3.0%). In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4(+)CD28(+) T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+)CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.
Project description:The study was aimed at assessing T cell subsets of peripheral blood from recipients of long-term functioning (more than 60 months) biological and mechanical heart valve prostheses. The absolute and relative number of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets was analyzed: naïve (N, CD45RA(+)CD62L(+)), central memory (CM, CD45RA(-)CD62L(+)), effector memory (EM, CD45RA(-)CD62L(-)), and terminally differentiated CD45RA-positive effector memory (TEMRA, CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)) in 25 persons with biological and 7 with mechanical prosthesis compared with 48 apparently healthy volunteers. The relative and absolute number of central memory and naïve CD3(+)CD8(+) in patients with biological prosthesis was decreased (p < 0.001). Meanwhile the number of CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) was increased (p < 0.001). Patients with mechanical prosthesis had increased absolute and relative number of CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)CD3(+)CD8(+) cells (p = 0.006). Also the relative number of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells was reduced (p = 0.04). We assume that altered composition of T cell subsets points at development of xenograft rejection reaction against both mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Small chemical compounds which target chemokine receptors have been developed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are under investigation for use as anti-HIV-1 microbicides. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chemokine receptors have also been shown to have anti-HIV-1 activities. The objective of the present study was to screen a panel of three anti-CXCR4 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to block the HIV-1 infection using in vitro activated primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS: PBMCs from normal donors were pre-activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs for 1 day, and aliquots were infected with a low dose of CCR5-tropic (R5), CXCR4 tropic (X4) or dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 isolates and cultured in the presence of a panel of anti-CXCR4 mAbs. The panel included clones A145 mAb against the N-terminus, A120 mAb against a conformational epitope consisting of extracellular loops (ECL)1 and ECL2, and A80 mAb against ECL3 of CXCR4. Among these mAbs, the A120 mAb showed the most potent inhibition of infection, by not only X4 but surprisingly also R5 and X4R5 HIV-1. The inhibition of R5 HIV-1 was postulated to result from the novel ability of the A120 mAb to induce the levels of the CCR5-binding ?-chemokines MIP-1?, MIP-1? and/or RANTES, and the down modulation of CCR5 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Neutralizing anti-MIP-1? mAb significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of the A120 mAb on R5 HIV-1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The data described herein have identified a unique epitope of CXCR4 whose ligation not only directly inhibits X4 HIV-1, but also indirectly inhibits R5 HIV-1 infection by inducing higher levels of natural CCR5 ligands.
Project description:Interleukin 1? is a pro-inflammatory cytokine important for both normal immune responses and chronic inflammatory diseases. The regulation of the 31?kDa proIL-1? precursor coded by the IL1B gene has been extensively studied in myeloid cells, but not in lymphoid-derived CD4 T cells. Surprisingly, we found that some CD4 T cell subsets express higher levels of proIL-1? than unstimulated monocytes, despite relatively low IL1B mRNA levels. We observed a significant increase in IL1B transcription and translation in CD4 T cells upon ex vivo CD3/CD28 activation, and a similar elevation in the CCR5+ effector memory population compared to CCR5- T cells in vivo. The rapid and vigorous increase in IL1B gene transcription for stimulated monocytes has previously been associated with the presence of Spi-1/PU.1 (Spi1), a myeloid-lineage transcription factor, pre-bound to the promoter. In the case of CD4 T cells, this increase occurred despite the lack of detectable Spi1 at the IL1B promoter. Additionally, we found altered epigenetic regulation of the IL1B locus in CD3/CD28-activated CD4 T cells. Unlike monocytes, activated CD4 T cells possess bivalent H3K4me3+/H3K27me3+ nucleosome marks at the IL1B promoter, reflecting low transcriptional activity. These results support a model in which the IL1B gene in CD4 T cells is transcribed from a low-activity bivalent promoter independent of Spi1. Accumulated cytoplasmic proIL-1? may ultimately be cleaved to mature 17?kDa bioactive IL-1?, regulating T cell polarization and pathogenic chronic inflammation.
Project description:Subpopulations of pathogenic or nonpathogenic Th17 cells were reported to develop when presensitized CD4 cells were activated with their target Ag during polarization by either IL-23 or IL-6 and TGF-?, respectively. In this study, we generated two Th17 subpopulations by using a system in which naive CD4 cells from TCR transgenic mice specific to hen egg lysozyme (HEL) are polarized with IL-6/TGF-? and, concurrently, are activated either with HEL presented by APCs, or with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs. Only the former cells were pathogenic, inducing inflammation in eyes expressing HEL. Naive CD4 cells activated by the anti-CD3/CD28 Abs acquired pathogenicity, however, when cocultured with HEL/APC. Importantly, the naive CD4 cells did not acquire pathogenicity when cocultured with APCs stimulated with LPS or when separated from the HEL-presenting cells by a semipermeable membrane. Unlike with presensitized Th17, soluble IL-23 does not participate in pathogenicity acquisition by naive CD4 cells; no pathogenicity was induced by adding IL-23 to cultures activated with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs. Furthermore, Abs against IL-23 or IL-23R did not inhibit acquisition of pathogenicity in cultures of naive CD4 cells activated by HEL/APC. Our data thus show that, unlike presensitized CD4 cells, naive CD4 cells polarized toward Th17 phenotype acquire pathogenicity only by direct interaction with APCs presenting the Ag, with no apparent involvement of soluble IL-23. We suggest that the Th17 lymphocytes derived from naive CD4 cells participate in pathogenic and other immune processes, along with the IL-23-dependent Th17 cells.
Project description:Peripheral blood and thymic double-positive (DP) CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells from neonates have been described earlier, but the function and immunophenotypic characteristics of other tissue-derived DP T cells are not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrate the functional and immunophenotypic characteristics of DP cells in 6 different tissues, including thymus from normal neonatal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) between 0 and 21 days of age. In general, intestinal DP T cells of neonates have higher percentages of memory markers (CD28(+)CD95(+)CD45RA(low)CD62L(low)) and proliferation compared with single-positive (SP) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, percentages of DP T cells increase and CD62L expression decreases as animals mature, suggesting that DP cells mature and proliferate with maturity and/or antigen exposure. Consistent with this, intestinal DP T cells in neonates express higher levels of CCR5 and are the primary targets in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Finally, DP T cells produce higher levels of cytokine in response to mitogen stimulation compared with SP CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that intestinal DP T cells of neonates are proliferating, activated memory cells and are likely involved in regulating immune responses, in contrast to immature DP T cells in the thymus.
Project description:Although multiple restriction factors have been shown to inhibit HIV/SIV replication, little is known about their expression in vivo Expression of 45 confirmed and putative HIV/SIV restriction factors was analyzed in CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and the jejunum in rhesus macaques, revealing distinct expression patterns in naive and memory subsets. In both peripheral blood and the jejunum, memory CD4+ T cells expressed higher levels of multiple restriction factors compared to naive cells. However, relative to their expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, jejunal CCR5+ CD4+ T cells exhibited significantly lower expression of multiple restriction factors, including APOBEC3G, MX2, and TRIM25, which may contribute to the exquisite susceptibility of these cells to SIV infection. In vitro stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies or type I interferon resulted in upregulation of distinct subsets of multiple restriction factors. After infection of rhesus macaques with SIVmac239, the expression of most confirmed and putative restriction factors substantially increased in all CD4+ T cell memory subsets at the peak of acute infection. Jejunal CCR5+ CD4+ T cells exhibited the highest levels of SIV RNA, corresponding to the lower restriction factor expression in this subset relative to peripheral blood prior to infection. These results illustrate the dynamic modulation of confirmed and putative restriction factor expression by memory differentiation, stimulation, tissue microenvironment and SIV infection and suggest that differential expression of restriction factors may play a key role in modulating the susceptibility of different populations of CD4+ T cells to lentiviral infection.IMPORTANCE Restriction factors are genes that have evolved to provide intrinsic defense against viruses. HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) target CD4+ T cells. The baseline level of expression in vivo and degree to which expression of restriction factors is modulated by conditions such as CD4+ T cell differentiation, stimulation, tissue location, or SIV infection are currently poorly understood. We measured the expression of 45 confirmed and putative restriction factors in primary CD4+ T cells from rhesus macaques under various conditions, finding dynamic changes in each state. Most dramatically, in acute SIV infection, the expression of almost all target genes analyzed increased. These are the first measurements of many of these confirmed and putative restriction factors in primary cells or during the early events after SIV infection and suggest that the level of expression of restriction factors may contribute to the differential susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to SIV infection.
Project description:Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsmm) infection of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) is characterized by stable CD4(+) T cell counts despite high plasma levels of CCR5-tropic viruses. However, in rare instances, SIVsmm acquires CXCR4 coreceptor tropism and causes severe CD4(+) T cell depletion, albeit without clinical signs of immunodeficiency. Here, we show that CXCR4-tropic SIVsmm strains lost their ability to downmodulate TCR-CD3 by evolving unusual Nef mutations that initially reduced (I132V) and subsequently disrupted (I123L and L146F) interaction with the CD3 ? chain. This coevolution of Env and Nef function suggests that CD3 downmodulation is advantageous for viral replication in activated CCR5(+) memory T cells, but not in resting naive CXCR4(+) T cells that have not yet undergone TCR-CD3-mediated stimulation. This may explain why HIV-1, which generally lacks the CD3 downmodulation function, commonly switches to CXCR4 usage, whereas this is extremely rare for SIV strains that have retained this Nef activity.