C-Myc regulates the CDK1/cyclin B1 dependent?G2/M cell cycle progression by histone H4 acetylation in Raji cells.
ABSTRACT: Overexpression of c-Myc is involved in the tumorigenesis of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B?ALL), but the mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, a c?Myc?knockdown model (Raji?KD) was established using Raji cells, and it was indicated that c?Myc regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression in G2/M?phase, cyclin D kinase (CDK)1 and cyclin B1, by modulating 60 kDa Tat?interactive protein (TIP60)/males absent on the first (MOF)?mediated histone H4 acetylation (AcH4), which was then completely restored by re?introduction of the c?Myc gene into the Raji?KD cells. The expression of CDK1 and cyclin B1 was markedly suppressed in Raji?KD cells, resulting in G2/M arrest. In comparison to Raji cells, the proliferation of Raji?KD cells was significantly reduced, and it was recovered via re?introduction of the c?Myc gene. In the tumorigenesis assays, the loss of c?Myc expression significantly suppressed Raji cell?derived lymphoblastic tumor formation. Although c?Myc also promotes Raji cell apoptosis via the caspase?3?associated pathway, CDK1/cyclin B1?dependent?G2/M cell cycle progression remains the major driving force of c?Myc?controlled tumorigenesis. The present results suggested that c?Myc regulates cyclin B1? and CDK1?dependent G2/M cell cycle progression by TIP60/MOF-mediated AcH4 in Raji cells.
Project description:Activation of cyclin B1-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), triggered by a positive feedback loop at the end of G2, is the key event that initiates mitotic entry. In metaphase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent destruction of cyclin B1 inactivates Cdk1 again, allowing mitotic exit and cell division. Several models describe Cdk1 activation kinetics in mitosis, but experimental data on how the activation proceeds in mitotic cells have largely been lacking. We use a novel approach to determine the temporal development of cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity in single cells. By quantifying both dephosphorylation of Cdk1 and phosphorylation of the Cdk1 target anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome 3, we disclose how cyclin B1-Cdk1 continues to be activated after centrosome separation. Importantly, we discovered that cytoplasmic cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity can be maintained even when cyclin B1 translocates to the nucleus in prophase. These experimental data are fitted into a model describing cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation in human cells, revealing a striking resemblance to a bistable circuit. In line with the observed kinetics, cyclin B1-Cdk1 levels required to enter mitosis are lower than the amount of cyclin B1-Cdk1 needed for mitotic progression. We propose that gradually increasing cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity after centrosome separation is critical to coordinate mitotic progression.
Project description:A substantial amount of mitochondrial energy is required for cell-cycle progression. The mechanisms underlying the coordination of the mitochondrial respiration with cell-cycle progression, especially the G2/M transition, remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a fraction of cyclin B1/Cdk1 proteins localizes to the matrix of mitochondria and phosphorylates a cluster of mitochondrial proteins, including the complex I (CI) subunits in the respiratory chain. Cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated CI phosphorylation enhances CI activity, whereas deficiency of such phosphorylation in each of the relevant CI subunits results in impairment of CI function. Mitochondria-targeted cyclin B1/Cdk1 increases mitochondrial respiration with enhanced oxygen consumption and ATP generation, which provides cells with efficient bioenergy for G2/M transition and shortens overall cell-cycle time. Thus, cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of mitochondrial substrates allows cells to sense and respond to increased energy demand for G2/M transition and, subsequently, to upregulate mitochondrial respiration for successful cell-cycle progression.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are potential cancer therapeutic targets because of their critical role in promoting cell growth. Dinaciclib is a novel CDK inhibitor currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of advanced malignancies. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of dinaciclib in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient derived xenograft (PDX) and cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with dinaciclib induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and marked apoptosis. These changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of CDK1 and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and decreased protein levels of cyclin B1, cMYC and survivin. We further demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of CDK9, the kinase subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), instead of CDK1 or CDK2, reduced the levels of cyclin B1 and MYC in TNBC cell lines. These data support the importance of CDK9, in addition to CDK1, in mediating the growth inhibitory effect of dinaciclib in TNBC. Further investigation of CDK9 as a therapeutic target in TNBC is needed.
Project description:G2 arrest of cells suffering DNA damage in S phase is crucial to avoid their entry into mitosis, with the concomitant risks of oncogenic transformation. According to the current model, signals elicited by DNA damage prevent mitosis by inhibiting both activation and nuclear import of cyclin B1-Cdk1, a master mitotic regulator. We now show that normal human fibroblasts use additional mechanisms to block activation of cyclin B1-Cdk1. In these cells, exposure to nonrepairable DNA damage leads to nuclear accumulation of inactive cyclin B1-Cdk1 complexes. This nuclear retention, which strictly depends on association with endogenous p21, prevents activation of cyclin B1-Cdk1 by Cdc25 and Cdk-activating kinase as well as its recruitment to the centrosome. In p21-deficient normal human fibroblasts and immortal cell lines, cyclin B1 fails to accumulate in the nucleus and could be readily detected at the centrosome in response to DNA damage. Therefore, in normal cells, p21 exerts a dual role in mediating DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and exit before mitosis. In addition to blocking pRb phosphorylation, p21 directly prevents mitosis by inactivating and maintaining the inactive state of mitotic cyclin-Cdk complexes. This, with subsequent degradation of mitotic cyclins, further contributes to the establishment of a permanent G2 arrest.
Project description:There is remarkable redundancy between the Cyclin-Cdk complexes that comprise the cell cycle machinery. None of the mammalian A-, D-, or E-type cyclins are required in development until implantation, and only Cdk1 is essential for early cell divisions. Cyclin B1 is essential for development, but whether it is required for cell division is contentious. Here, we used a novel imaging approach to analyze Cyclin B1-null embryos from fertilization onward. We show that Cyclin B1-/- embryos arrest in G2 phase after just two divisions. This is the earliest arrest of any Cyclin known and places Cyclin B1 with cdk1 as the essential regulators of the cell cycle. We reintroduced mutant proteins into this genetically null background to determine why Cyclin B1 is constantly exported from the nucleus. We found that Cyclin B1 must be exported from the nucleus for the cell to prevent premature entry to mitosis, and retaining Cyclin B1-Cdk1 at the plasma membrane precludes entry to mitosis.
Project description:Cells recovering from the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint rely more on Aurora A-PLK1 signaling than cells progressing through an unperturbed G2 phase, but the reason for this discrepancy is not known. Here, we devised a method based on a FRET reporter for PLK1 activity to sort cells in distinct populations within G2 phase. We employed mass spectroscopy to characterize changes in protein levels through an unperturbed G2 phase and validated that ATAD2 levels decrease in a proteasome-dependent manner. Comparing unperturbed cells with cells recovering from DNA damage, we note that at similar PLK1 activities, recovering cells contain higher levels of Cyclin B1 and increased phosphorylation of CDK1 targets. The increased Cyclin B1 levels are due to continuous Cyclin B1 production during a DNA damage response and are sustained until mitosis. Whereas partial inhibition of PLK1 suppresses mitotic entry more efficiently when cells recover from a checkpoint, partial inhibition of CDK1 suppresses mitotic entry more efficiently in unperturbed cells. Our findings provide a resource for proteome changes during G2 phase, show that the mitotic entry network is rewired during a DNA damage response, and suggest that the bottleneck for mitotic entry shifts from CDK1 to PLK1 after DNA damage.
Project description:Cell cycle stimulation is a major transforming mechanism of Myc oncoprotein. This is achieved through at least three concomitant mechanisms: upregulation of cyclins and Cdks, downregulation of the Cdk inhibitors p15 and p21 and the degradation of p27. The Myc-p27 antagonism has been shown to be relevant in human cancer. To be degraded, p27 must be phosphorylated at Thr-187 to be recognized by Skp2, a component of the ubiquitination complex. We previously described that Myc induces Skp2 expression. Here we show that not only Cdk2 but Cdk1 phosphorylates p27 at the Thr-187. Moreover, Myc induced p27 degradation in murine fibroblasts through Cdk1 activation, which was achieved by Myc-dependent cyclin A and B induction. In the absence of Cdk2, p27 phosphorylation at Thr-187 was mainly carried out by cyclin A2-Cdk1 and cyclin B1-Cdk1. We also show that Cdk1 inhibition was enough for the synthetic lethal interaction with Myc. This result is relevant because Cdk1 is the only Cdk strictly required for cell cycle and the reported synthetic lethal interaction between Cdk1 and Myc.
Project description:Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukaemia-1) is a Bcl-2 family member with short-term pro-survival functions but whose other functions, demonstrated by embryonic lethality of knockout mice, do not involve apoptosis. In the present study, we show a cell-cycle-regulatory role of Mcl-1 involving a shortened form of the Mcl-1 polypeptide, primarily localized to the nucleus, which we call snMcl-1. snMcl-1 interacts with the cell-cycle-regulatory protein Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1; also known as cdc2) in the nucleus, and Cdk1 bound to snMcl-1 was found to have a lower kinase activity. The interaction with Cdk1 occurs in the absence of its cyclin partners and is enhanced on treatment of cells with G2/M blocking agents, but not by G1/S blocking. The snMcl-1 polypeptide is present during S and G2 phases and is negligible in G1. Overexpression of human Mcl-1 in a murine myeloid progenitor cell line resulted in a lower rate of proliferation. Furthermore, Mcl-1-overexpressing cells had lower total Cdk1 kinase activity compared with parental cells, in both anti-Cdk1 and anti-cyclin B1 immunoprecipitates. The latter results suggest that binding to snMcl-1 alters the ability of Cdk1 to bind its conventional partner, cyclin B1. Given the important role of Cdk1 in progression through G2 and M phases, it is probable that the inhibition of Cdk1 activity accounts for the inhibitory effect of Mcl-1 on cell growth.
Project description:Long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been reported to be associated with oncogenesis. However, the functional role of PVT1 in Burkitt lymphoma has not yet been addressed. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of PVT1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation of Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells and to explore its possible mechanism of action. An effective siRNA targeting PVT1 was screened and the corresponding short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was reconstructed into a lentiviral vector. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were assessed by Cell Counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Protein expression levels of c-Myc, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor1A (CDKN1A, P21) and cyclin E1 (CCNE1) were detected by western blotting. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array was used to analyse the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle. PVT1 knockdown markedly suppressed proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in Raji cells. Protein expression levels of c-Myc and CCNE1 were reduced, whereas P21 protein expression was markedly increased following downregulation of PVT1 in Raji cells. The cell cycle PCR array revealed that 54 genes were upregulated and 26 genes were downregulated in Raji cells following PVT1 knockdown. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR demonstrated that cyclin G2 (CCNG2), CDKN1A, Retinoblastoma-like 2 (RBL2, p130), HUS1 checkpoint homolog, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) expression were upregulated, whereas the expression levels of CCNE1, cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) were downregulated in Raji cells with PVT1 knockdown. In conclusion, PVT1 knockdown may inhibit the proliferation of Raji cells by arresting cells in G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, inhibition of cell proliferation may be associated with a reduction inc-Myc expression and alterations in the expression levels of cell cycle-associated genes.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has shown that many molecules, including some cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and cyclins, as well as the death-effector domain (DED)-containing FADD, function for both apoptosis and cell cycle. Here we identified that DEDD, which also possesses the DED domain, acts as a novel inhibitor of the mitotic Cdk1/cyclin B1 complex. DEDD associates with mitotic Cdk1/cyclin B1 complexes via direct binding to cyclin B1 and reduces their function. In agreement, kinase activity of nuclear Cdk1/cyclin B1 in DEDD-null (DEDD-/-) embryonic fibroblasts is increased compared with that in DEDD+/+ cells, which results in accelerated mitotic progression, thus exhibiting a shortened G2/M stage. Interestingly, DEDD-/- cells also demonstrated decreased G1 duration, which perhaps enhanced the overall reduction in rRNA amounts and cell volume, primarily caused by the rapid termination of rRNA synthesis before cell division. Likewise, DEDD-/- mice show decreased body and organ weights relative to DEDD+/+ mice. Thus, DEDD is an impeder of cell mitosis, and its absence critically influences cell and body size via modulation of rRNA synthesis.