PD-1/PD-L1 expression in a series of intracranial germinoma and its association with Foxp3+ and CD8+ infiltrating lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT: One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:Data describing relationships between the tumor immune microenvironment and patient outcome are limited for esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The present study investigated the prognostic values of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and CD8+ or forkhead box protein 3+ (FOXP3+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 133 pathological T3N0M0 stage ESCC patients who underwent radical resection without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities as well as PD-L1 levels in tumor cells and lymphocytes, were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Patient survival was not associated with CD8+ or FOXP3+ TILs alone, but PD-L1 expression and the CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio were independent predictors of both disease-free and overall survival. PD-L1 expression correlated with age (p = 0.029), tumor length (p < 0.001), tumor differentiation status (p = 0.002) and reduced intratumoral CD8+ TIL density (p < 0.001). Our results suggest pT3N0M0 ESCC clinical outcomes correlate with CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities and PD-L1 levels. Moreover, an intrinsic mechanism for induction of PD-L1 overexpression may be occurring during early tumor oncogenesis. This information may be useful for stratifying patients and guide the application of checkpoint blockade therapy in ESCC.
Project description:Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor cells in breast cancer has been reported, but the relationships between PD-L1 expression by TIL, carcinoma cells, and other immunologic features of the breast tumor microenvironment remain unclear. We therefore evaluated the interrelationships between tumor cell surface and TIL PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte subpopulations, and patterns of immune cell infiltration in cohorts of treatment-naive, primary breast cancers (PBCs) (n = 45) and matched PBC and metastatic breast cancers (MBC) (n = 26). Seventy-eight percent of untreated PBCs contained PD-L1(+) TILs, but only 21% had PD-L1(+) carcinoma cells. Carcinoma PD-L1 expression localized to the tumor invasive front and was associated with high tumor grade (P = .04). Eighty-nine percent of PD-L1(+) carcinomas contained brisk TIL infiltrates, compared to only 24% of PD-L1(-) carcinomas; this included CD3(+) (P = .02), CD4(+) (P = .04), CD8(+) (P = .002), and FoxP3(+) T cells (P = .02). PD-L1(+) PBCs were more likely to contain PD-L1(+) TIL than PD-L1(-) PBCs (P = .04). Peripheral lymphoid aggregates were present in 100% of PD-L1(+) compared to 41% of PD-L1(-) PBC (P < .001). No patient with PD-L1(+) PBC developed distant recurrence, compared to 15% of patients with PD-L1(-) PBC. For the matched PBC and MBC cohort, 2 patients (8%) had PD-L1(+) tumors, with 1 case concordant and 1 case discordant for carcinoma PD-L1 expression in the PBC and MBC. Our data support PD-L1 expression by tumor cells as a biomarker of active breast tumor immunity and programmed death 1 blockade as a therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aimed to compare intra- and extracranial responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in lung cancer with brain metastases (BM), and to explore tumor microenvironments of the brain and lungs focusing on the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway. METHODS:Two cohorts of lung cancer patients with BM were analyzed. Cohort 1 included 18 patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and intra- and extracranial responses were assessed. Cohort 2 comprised 20 patients who underwent both primary lung surgery and brain metastasectomy. Specimens from cohort 2 were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for the following markers: CD3, CD4, CD8, FOXP3, and PD-1 on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 on tumor cells. RESULTS:Seven patients (38.9%) in cohort 1 showed progressive disease in both primary and intracranial lesions. Although the other 11 patients exhibited a partial response or stable disease in the primary lesion, eight showed a progression in BM. Interestingly, PD-1+ TILs were significantly decreased in BM (P?=?0.034). For fifteen patients with adenocarcinoma, more distinctive patterns were observed in CD3+ (P?=?0.078), CD8+ (P?=?0.055), FOXP3+ (P?=?0.016), and PD-1+ (P?=?0.016) TILs. CONCLUSIONS:There may be discordant responses to an ICI of lung cancer between primary lung lesion and BM based on discrepancies in the tumor microenvironment. The diminished infiltration of PD-1+ TILs in tumor tissue within the brain may be one of the major factors that hinder the response to anti-PD-1 antibody in BM.
Project description:To better understand the expression pattern of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in different breast cancer types, we characterized PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, in relation to mutation rate, BRCA1-like status and survival. We analyzed 410 primary treatment-naive breast tumors comprising 162 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-, 101 HER2+ and 147 triple-negative (TN) cancers. Pathologists quantified tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and TILs using whole slides and tissue microarray. Mutation rate was assessed by DNA sequencing, BRCA1-like status using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and immune landscape by multiplex image analyses of CD4, CD68, CD8, FOXP3, cytokeratin, and PD-L1. Half of PD-L1 scores evaluated by tissue microarray were false negatives compared to whole slide evaluations. We observed at least 1% of PD-L1-positive (PD-L1+) cells in 53.1% of ER+HER2-, 73.3% of HER2+, and 84.4% of TN tumors. PD-L1 expression was higher in ductal compared to lobular carcinomas, also within ER+HER2- tumors (p = 0.04). High PD-L1+ TILs score (> 50%) was independently associated with better outcome in TN tumors (HR = 0.27; 95%CI = 0.10-0.69). Within TN tumors, PD-L1 and TIL scores showed a modest but significant positive association with the number of silent mutations, but no association with BRCA1-like status. Multiplex image analyses indicated that PD-L1 is expressed on multiple immune cells (CD68+ macrophages, CD4+, FOXP3+, and CD8+ T cells) in the breast tumor microenvironment, independent of the PD-L1 status of the tumor cells. We found no evidence that levels of PD-L1+ TILs in TN breast cancer are driven by high mutation rate or BRCA1-like status.
Project description:Immune escape of a tumor from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is induced by PD-L1, which is suppressed by miR-197. We investigated the clinicopathologic implications of the miR-197/PD-L1 axis and its effects on TILs and the clinicopathologic features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We used RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 68 OSCC patients to analyze the correlations between tumoral expression of miR-197 and PD-L1 and the degree of tumoral invasion by TILs (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, PD-1+, FoxP3+, and CD20+ lymphocytes). PD-L1 levels correlated inversely with miR-197 but correlated positively with TILs. The aggressive features of OSCC, including high stage, angiolymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, and death, were associated with TIL depletion. High T stage (T4) tumors also had low PD-L1 but had high miR-197 expression. In a univariate survival analysis of the full cohort, high miR-197 was associated with poor overall survival, whereas high PD-L1 expression (2+) associated with good overall survival. In a multivariate analysis stratified based on miR-197 (median), high PD-L1 expression (2+) was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.040) in the miR-197high subgroup but not the miR-197low subgroup. These findings may have clinicopathologic implications for the miR-197/PD-L1 axis and TILs in OSCC.
Project description:Adaptive immune resistance in the tumor microenvironment appears to attenuate the immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma (GBM). In this study, we identified a tumor-infiltrating myeloid cell (TIM) population that expands in response to dendritic cell (DC) vaccine treatment. The aim of this study was to understand how this programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-expressing population restricts activation and tumor-cytolytic function of vaccine-induced tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs).To test this hypothesis in our in vivo preclinical model, we treated mice bearing intracranial gliomas with DC vaccination ± murine anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) blockade or a colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor (CSF-1Ri) (PLX3397) and measured overall survival. We then harvested and characterized the PD-L1+ TIM population and its role in TIL activation and tumor cytolysis in vitro.Our data indicated that the majority of PD-L1 expression in the GBM environment is contributed by TIMs rather than by tumor cells themselves. While PD-1 blockade partially reversed the TIL dysfunction, targeting TIMs directly with CSF-1Ri altered TIM expression of key chemotactic factors associated with promoting increased TIL infiltration after vaccination. Neither PD-1 mAb nor CSF-1Ri had a demonstrable therapeutic benefit alone, but when combined with DC vaccination, a significant survival benefit was observed. When the tripartite regimen was given (DC vaccine, PD-1 mAb, PLX3397), long-term survival was noted together with an increase in the number of TILs and TIL activation.Together, these studies elucidate the role that TIMs play in mediating adaptive immune resistance in the GBM microenvironment and provide evidence that they can be manipulated pharmacologically with agents that are clinically available. Development of immune resistance in response to active vaccination in GBM can be reversed with dual administration of CSF-1Ri and PD-1 mAb.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a highly mortal malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Immunotherapies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 pathway represent a promising treatment for ICC. However, PD-L1 expression and microsatellite instability are not common in ICC. This study aimed to investigate whether HHLA2, a newly identified B7 family immune checkpoint for T cells, could be a therapeutic target next to PD-L1 in ICC. METHODS:Expression levels of PD-L1 and HHLA2 as well as infiltrations of CD3+, CD8+, CD4 + Foxp3+, CD68+, CD163+ and CD20+ cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 153 resected ICC samples. Comprehensive comparisons were made between PD-L1 and HHLA2 in terms of the expression rates, clinicopathological features and infiltrations of different immune cells. The expression level and prognostic significance of HHLA2 were further validated in an independent cohort. RESULTS:Expression of HHLA2 is more frequent than PD-L1 in ICC (49.0% vs 28.1%). Co-expression of both immune checkpoints was infrequent (13.1%) and 50% PD-L1 negative cases were with elevated HHLA2. HHLA2 overexpression was associated with sparser CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), CD8+ TILs and a higher CD4 + Foxp3+/CD8+ TIL ratio, whereas PD-L1 expression was associated with prominent T cells and CD163+ tumor associated macrophages infiltrations. PD-L1 failed to stratify overall survival (OS) but HHLA2 was identified as an independent prognostic indicator for OS in two independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with PD-L1, HHLA2 is more prevalent and possesses more explicit prognostic significance, which confer the rationale for HHLA2 as a potential immunotherapeutic target next to PD-L1 for ICC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (pc-CD30-LPD) are a group of clonal T cell lymphoproliferative disorders that despite very similar tumor histology follow different and characteristic clinical courses, suggesting a homeostatic role of the tumor microenvironment. Little is known about tumor microenvironment and there is almost no literature about PD-L1 expression in pc-CD30-LPD. METHODS:This retrospective study presents a fully clinicopathologically characterized series of pc-CD30-LPDs from an academic medical center in Brazil, including 8 lymphomatoid papulomatosis (LyP), 9 primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL) and 4 borderline lesions. All the cases were scored for FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) and CD8+ cytotoxic tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) densities, as well as PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and tissue associated macrophages. The CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio was also evaluated. RESULTS:Among the 21 cases of pc-CD30-LPD, PD-L1 expression is frequent in both tumor cells and tissue associated macrophages in pc-CD30-LPD across categories, suggesting that the PD-L1 axis may be a common feature of pc-CD30-LPDs. While reactive T cell infiltrates vary widely from case to case, a common feature across pc-CD30-LPDs is higher density of CD8 than FOXP3 + T cells. The distribution of T cells within the lesions however differed between LyP and pcALCL: we found that LyP lesions tend to be permeated by CD8+ and FOXP3+ T cells, whereas pcALCL tend to be surrounded by a rim of CD8+ TIL and FOXP3+ Tregs with relatively lower density infiltrates in the center of the lesion. CONCLUSIONS:LyP has a trend to have denser immune cells throughout the lesion, with higher FOXP3+ Treg and CD8+ TIL in the center than the edge comparing with pcALCL. PD-L1+ is frequent in tumor cells and tissue associated macrophages in pc-CD30-LPD. The differential distribution of CD8+ and FOXP3+ TILs in LyP as compared to pcALCL could provide a clue to the relapsing/remitting course of LyP as compared to the less frequent spontaneous regression of pcALCL.