Facilitates chromatin transcription complex is an "accelerator" of tumor transformation and potential marker and target of aggressive cancers.
ABSTRACT: The facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex is involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription, replication, and DNA repair. FACT was previously considered to be ubiquitously expressed and not associated with any disease. However, we discovered that FACT is the target of a class of anticancer compounds and is not expressed in normal cells of adult mammalian tissues, except for undifferentiated and stem-like cells. Here, we show that FACT expression is strongly associated with poorly differentiated aggressive cancers with low overall survival. In addition, FACT was found to be upregulated during in vitro transformation and to be necessary, but not sufficient, for driving transformation. FACT also promoted survival and growth of established tumor cells. Genome-wide mapping of chromatin-bound FACT indicated that FACT's role in cancer most likely involves selective chromatin remodeling of genes that stimulate proliferation, inhibit cell death and differentiation, and regulate cellular stress responses.
Project description:The Facilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT) is involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription, replication and DNA repair and is considered to be an ubiquitously expressed complex that has no known associations with any disease. However, we discovered that FACT is expressed in very limited number of cells of adult mammalian organism, mostly presented by stem and undifferentiated cells. Here, we show that FACT is present in poorly differentiated aggressive cancers with an overall low survival rate. FACT acts as an "accelerator" of tumor transformation. It cannot drive transformation like an oncogene, but it increases the efficiency of oncogene-induced transformation. FACT expressing cancer cells cannot grow in the absence of FACT possibly due to the FACT involvement in selective chromatin remodeling of genes that stimulate proliferation, inhibit cell death and differentiation and that are induced in response to cell stress. We propose that FACT is a marker of an aggressive cancer phenotype and Patients with FACT-positive tumors are noted for an overall poorer survival rate. FACT expression in primary tumors may be used as a predictor of metastatic disease. FACT may also be used as a target of anti-cancer therapy because tumor cells expressing FACT are dependent on FACT function, while normal cells either do not express FACT or are not sensitive to FACT inhibition. Examination of AR binding sites of 3 replicates of untreated cells and 3 replicates of curaxin-treated cells, each with 3 replicate controls
Project description:Histone chaperone FACT is commonly expressed and essential for the viability of transformed but not normal cells, and its expression levels correlate with poor prognosis in patients with cancer. FACT binds several components of nucleosomes and has been viewed as a factor destabilizing nucleosomes to facilitate RNA polymerase passage. To connect FACT's role in transcription with the viability of tumor cells, we analyzed genome-wide FACT binding to chromatin in conjunction with transcription in mouse and human cells with different degrees of FACT dependence. Genomic distribution and density of FACT correlated with the intensity of transcription. However, FACT knockout or knockdown was unexpectedly accompanied by the elevation, rather than suppression, of transcription and with the destabilization of chromatin in transformed, but not normal cells. These data suggest that FACT stabilizes and reassembles nucleosomes disturbed by transcription. This function is vital for tumor cells because malignant transformation is accompanied by chromatin destabilization.
Project description:FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription/Transactions) is a histone chaperone that can destabilize or assemble nucleosomes. Acetylation of histone H3-K56 weakens a histone-DNA contact that is central to FACT activity, suggesting that this modification could affect FACT functions. We tested this by asking how mutations of H3-K56 and FACT affect nucleosome reorganization activity in vitro, and chromatin integrity and transcript output in vivo Mimics of unacetylated or permanently acetylated H3-K56 had different effects on FACT activity as expected, but the same mutations had surprisingly similar effects on global transcript levels. The results are consistent with emerging models that emphasize FACT's importance in establishing global chromatin architecture prior to transcription, promoting transitions among different states as transcription profiles change, and restoring chromatin integrity after it is disturbed. Optimal FACT activity required the availability of both modified and unmodified states of H3-K56. Perturbing this balance was especially detrimental for maintaining repression of genes with high nucleosome occupancy over their promoters and for blocking antisense transcription at the +1 nucleosome. The results reveal a complex collaboration between H3-K56 modification status and multiple FACT functions, and support roles for nucleosome reorganization by FACT before, during, and after transcription.
Project description:FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription/Transactions) plays a central role in transcription and replication in eukaryotes by both establishing and overcoming the repressive properties of chromatin. FACT promotes these opposing goals by interconverting nucleosomes between the canonical form and a more open reorganized form. In the forward direction, reorganization destabilizes nucleosomes, while the reverse reaction promotes nucleosome assembly. Nucleosome destabilization involves disrupting contacts among histone H2A-H2B dimers, (H3-H4)(2) tetramers, and DNA. Here we show that mutations that weaken the dimer:tetramer interface in nucleosomes suppress defects caused by FACT deficiency in vivo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutating the gene that encodes the Spt16 subunit of FACT causes phenotypes associated with defects in transcription and replication, and we identify histone mutants that selectively suppress those associated with replication. Analysis of purified components suggests that the defective version of FACT is unable to maintain the reorganized nucleosome state efficiently, whereas nucleosomes with mutant histones are reorganized more easily than normal. The genetic suppression observed when the FACT defect is combined with the histone defect therefore reveals the importance of the dynamic reorganization of contacts within nucleosomes to the function of FACT in vivo, especially to FACT's apparent role in promoting progression of DNA replication complexes. We also show that an H2B mutation causes different phenotypes, depending on which of the two similar genes that encode this protein are altered, revealing unexpected functional differences between these duplicated genes and calling into question the practice of examining the effects of histone mutants by expressing them from a single plasmid-borne allele.
Project description:Centromere identity is thought to be determined by epigenetic mechanisms. The centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A plays a central role in specifying the locus where the centromere is constructed. However, the precise mechanisms that target CENP-A to centromeric chromatin are poorly understood. Here, we show that facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) localizes to centromeres in a CENP-H-containing complex-dependent manner. In conditional mutant cell lines for SSRP1, a subunit of FACT, centromere targeting of newly synthesized CENP-A is severely inhibited. The chromatin remodeling factor CHD1 binds to SSRP1 both in vivo and in vitro and associates with centromeres. The centromeric localization of CHD1 is lost in SSRP1-depleted cells. RNA interference knockdown of CHD1 leads to a decrease in the amount of centromere localized CENP-A. These findings indicate that the CENP-H-containing complex facilitates deposition of newly synthesized CENP-A into centromeric chromatin in cooperation with FACT and CHD1.
Project description:Efficient transcription elongation from a chromatin template requires RNA polymerases (Pols) to negotiate nucleosomes. Our biochemical analyses demonstrate that RNA Pol I can transcribe through nucleosome templates and that this requires structural rearrangement of the nucleosomal core particle. The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes. In cells, SSRP1 is detectable at the rRNA gene repeats. Crucially, siRNA-mediated repression of FACT subunit expression in cells results in a significant reduction in 47S pre-rRNA levels, whereas synthesis of the first 40 nt of the rRNA is not affected, implying that FACT is important for Pol I transcription elongation through chromatin. FACT also associates with RNA Pol III complexes, is present at the chromatin of genes transcribed by Pol III and facilitates their transcription in cells. Our findings indicate that, beyond the established role in Pol II transcription, FACT has physiological functions in chromatin transcription by all three nuclear RNA Pols. Our data also imply that local chromatin dynamics influence transcription of the active rRNA genes by Pol I and of Pol III-transcribed genes.
Project description:FACT, in addition to its role in transcription, is likely implicated in both transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and DNA double strand break repair. Here, we present evidence that FACT could be directly involved in Base Excision Repair and elucidate the chromatin remodeling mechanisms of FACT during BER. We found that, upon oxidative stress, FACT is released from transcription related protein complexes to get associated with repair proteins and chromatin remodelers from the SWI/SNF family. We also showed the rapid recruitment of FACT to the site of damage, coincident with the glycosylase OGG1, upon the local generation of oxidized DNA. Interestingly, FACT facilitates uracil-DNA glycosylase in the removal of uracil from nucleosomal DNA thanks to an enhancement in the remodeling activity of RSC. This discloses a novel property of FACT wherein it has a co-remodeling activity and strongly enhances the remodeling capacity of the chromatin remodelers. Altogether, our data suggest that FACT may acts in concert with RSC to facilitate excision of DNA lesions during the initial step of BER.
Project description:Chromatin structure plays a critical role in the regulation of transcription. Drosophila GAGA factor directs chromatin remodeling to its binding sites. We show here that Drosophila FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), a heterodimer of dSPT16 and dSSRP1, is associated with GAGA factor through its dSSRP1 subunit, binds to a nucleosome, and facilitates GAGA factor-directed chromatin remodeling. Moreover, genetic interactions between Trithorax-like encoding GAGA factor and spt16 implicate the GAGA factor-FACT complex in expression of Hox genes Ultrabithorax, Sex combs reduced, and Abdominal-B. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated the presence of the GAGA factor-FACT complex in the regulatory regions of Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-B. These data illustrate a crucial role of FACT in the modulation of chromatin structure for the regulation of gene expression.
Project description:The essential histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) promotes both nucleosome assembly and disassembly. FACT is a heterodimer of Spt16 with either SSRP1 or Pob3, differing primarily by the presence of a high-mobility group B (HMGB) DNA-binding domain furnished only by SSRP1. Yeast FACT lacks the intrinsic HMGB domain found in SSRP1-based homologs such as human FACT, but yeast FACT activity is supported by Nhp6, which is a freestanding, single HMGB-domain protein. The importance of histone binding by FACT domains has been established, but the roles of DNA-binding activity remain poorly understood. Here, we examined these roles by fusing single or multiple HMGB modules to Pob3 to mimic SSRP1 or to test the effects of extended DNA-binding capacity. Human FACT and a yeast mimic both required Nhp6 to support nucleosome reorganization in vitro, indicating that a single intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB module is insufficient for full FACT activity. Three fused HMGB modules supported activity without Nhp6 assistance, but this FACT variant did not efficiently release from nucleosomes and was toxic in vivo Notably, intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB modules reduced the DNA accessibility and histone H2A-H2B dimer loss normally associated with nucleosome reorganization. We propose that DNA bending by HMGB domains promotes nucleosome destabilization and reorganization by exposing FACT's histone-binding sites, but DNA bending also produces DNA curvature needed to accommodate nucleosome assembly. Intrinsic DNA-bending activity therefore favors nucleosome assembly by FACT over nucleosome reorganization, but excessive activity impairs FACT release, suggesting a quality control checkpoint during nucleosome assembly.
Project description:The FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transactions) complex is a conserved complex that maintains chromatin structure on transcriptionally active genes. Consistent with this, FACT is enriched on highly expressed genes, but how it is targeted to these regions is unknown. In vitro, FACT binds destabilized nucleosomes, supporting the hypothesis that FACT is targeted to transcribed chromatin through recognition of RNA polymerase (RNAP)-disrupted nucleosomes. In this study, we used high-resolution analysis of FACT occupancy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test this hypothesis. We demonstrate that FACT interacts with nucleosomes in vivo and that its interaction with chromatin is dependent on transcription by any of the three RNAPs. Deep sequencing of micrococcal nuclease-resistant fragments shows that FACT-bound nucleosomes exhibit differing nuclease sensitivity compared to bulk chromatin, consistent with a modified nucleosome structure being the preferred ligand for this complex. Interestingly, a subset of FACT-bound nucleosomes may be "overlapping dinucleosomes," in which one histone octamer invades the ?147-bp territory normally occupied by the adjacent nucleosome. While the differing nuclease sensitivity of FACT-bound nucleosomes could also be explained by the demonstrated ability of FACT to alter nucleosome structure, transcription inhibition restores nuclease resistance, suggesting that it is not due to FACT interaction alone. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model in which FACT is targeted to transcribed genes through preferential interaction with RNAP-disrupted nucleosomes.