Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 mediates elevated IL-6 signaling to promote chronic inflammation and multitissue damage in sickle cell disease.
ABSTRACT: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biolipid involved in chronic inflammation in several inflammatory disorders. Recent studies revealed that elevated S1P contributes to sickling in sickle cell disease (SCD), a devastating hemolytic, genetic disorder associated with severe chronic inflammation and tissue damage. We evaluated the effect of elevated S1P in chronic inflammation and tissue damage in SCD and underlying mechanisms. First, we demonstrated that interfering with S1P receptor signaling by FTY720, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, significantly reduced systemic, local inflammation and tissue damage without antisickling effects. These findings led us to discover that S1P receptor activation leads to substantial elevated local and systemic IL-6 levels in SCD mice. Genetic deletion of IL-6 in SCD mice significantly reduced local and systemic inflammation, tissue damage, and kidney dysfunction. At the cellular level, we determined that elevated IL-6 is a key cytokine functioning downstream of elevated S1P, which contributes to increased S1P receptor 1 ( S1pr1) gene expression in the macrophages of several tissues in SCD mice. Mechanistically, we revealed that S1P-S1PR1 signaling reciprocally up-regulated IL-6 gene expression in primary mouse macrophages in a JAK2-dependent manner. Altogether, we revealed that elevated S1P, coupled with macrophage S1PR1 reciprocally inducing IL-6 expression, is a key signaling network functioning as a malicious, positive, feed-forward loop to sustain inflammation and promote tissue damage in SCD. Our findings immediately highlight novel therapeutic possibilities.-Zhao, S., Adebiyi, M. G., Zhang, Y., Couturier, J. P., Fan, X., Zhang, H., Kellems, R. E., Lewis, D. E., Xia, Y. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 mediates elevated IL-6 signaling to promote chronic inflammation and multitissue damage in sickle cell disease.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for colorectal cancer. We show that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) produced by upregulation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) links chronic intestinal inflammation to colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and both are exacerbated by deletion of Sphk2. S1P is essential for production of the multifunctional NF-?B-regulated cytokine IL-6, persistent activation of the transcription factor STAT3, and consequent upregulation of the S1P receptor, S1PR1. The prodrug FTY720 decreased SphK1 and S1PR1 expression and eliminated the NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 amplification cascade and development of CAC, even in Sphk2(-/-) mice, and may be useful in treating colon cancer in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Thus, the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis is at the nexus between NF-?B and STAT3 and connects chronic inflammation and CAC.
Project description:Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that the oral drug Fingolimod (FTY720) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) may act directly on the central nervous system (CNS) and modulate disease pathogenesis and progression in experimental models of MS. However, the specific subtype of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors that mediates the effect of FTY720 on the CNS cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) is elevated in reactive astrocytes in an autoimmunity independent mouse model of MS and that selective S1PR1 modulation is sufficient to ameliorate the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. The non-selective S1PR modulator, FTY720, or a short-lived S1PR1-specific modulator, CYM5442, was administered daily to mice while on cuprizone diet. Both FTY720- and CYM5422-treated mice displayed a significant reduction in oligodendrocyte apoptosis and astrocyte and microglial activation in comparison to vehicle-treated groups, which was associated with decreased production of proinflammatory mediators and down-regulation of astrocytic S1PR1 protein. Interestingly, S1PR1 modulation during the early phase of cuprizone intoxication was required to suppress oligodendrocyte death and consequent demyelination as drug treatment from 10 days after the initiation of cuprizone feeding was no longer effective. CYM5442 treatment during the brief cuprizone exposure significantly prevented Il-1?, Il-6, Cxcl10, and Cxcl3 induction, resulting in suppression of subsequent reactive gliosis and demyelination. Our study identifies functional antagonism of S1PR1 as a major mechanism for the protective effect of FTY720 in the cuprizone model and suggests pathogenic contributions of astrocyte S1PR1 signaling in primary demyelination and its potential as a therapeutic target for CNS inflammation.
Project description:The interleukin-22 (IL-22) signaling pathway is well known to be involved in the progression of various cancer types but its role in bone metastatic breast cancer remains unclear. We demonstrate using human GEO profiling that bone metastatic breast cancer displays elevated interleukin-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) expression. Importantly, IL-22 stimuli promoted the expression of IL-22R1 and S1PR1 in aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. IL-22 treatment also increased sphingosine-1-phosphate production in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated chemotactic migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was inhibited by an S1P antagonist. In addition to the S1PR1 axis, IL-22 stimulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), thereby promoting breast cancer cell invasion. Moreover, IL-22 induced IL22R1 and S1PR1 expression in macrophages, myeloid cell, and MCP1 expression in MSCs to facilitate macrophage infiltration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that IL-22R1 and S1PR1 are overexpressed in invasive malignant breast cancers and that this correlates with the MMP-9 levels. Collectively, our present results indicate a potential role of IL-22 in driving the metastasis of breast cancers into the bone microenvironment through the IL22R1-S1PR1 axis.
Project description:One of the major obstacles facing stem cell therapy is the limited number of functional stem cells available after transplantation due to the harsh microenvironment surrounding the damaged tissue. The aim of this study was to delineate the mechanistic involvement of lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) in the regulation of anti-stress and transplantation efficacy of stem cells.Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) were treated with chemical toxin or ethanol to induce cell stress. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and/or sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were co-treated to examine their protective effects and mechanisms on stem cell damage. Acute liver failure and alcoholic liver disease murine models were also established to test the transplantation efficacy of hADMSCs with or without LPA/S1P pre-incubation.Co-stimulation of LPAR1 by LPA and S1PR1/3 by S1P synergistically enhanced the anti-stress ability of hADMSCs induced by chemical or ethanol incubation in vitro. Downstream pathways involved in this process included the Gi protein (but not the G12/13 proteins), the RAS/ERK pathway, and the PI3K/Akt pathway. Upon cell injury, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) was promoted to facilitate the activation of downstream pro-inflammatory gene transcription, which was ameliorated by co-treatment with LPA and/or S1P. Increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 from stem cells by LPA and/or S1P seemed to be one of the major protective mechanisms since blocking IL-10 expression significantly aggravated stress-induced cell damage. In a drug-induced acute liver failure model and a chronic alcoholic liver disease model, pre-conditioning with LPA and/or S1P significantly enhanced the survival ratio and the therapeutic efficacy of hADMSCs in mice, including ameliorating histological damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, lipid metabolism dysfunction, and enhancing alcohol metabolizing enzyme activity. Importantly, supplementing LPA and/or S1P did not alter the basic characteristics of the hADMSCs nor induce tumour formation after cell transplantation.Co-use of LPA and S1P represents a novel and safe strategy to enhance stem cell transplantation efficacy for future drug- and alcoholic-related liver disease therapies.
Project description:NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome accompanies chronic liver injury and is a critical mediator of inflammation-driven liver fibrosis. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P Receptor (S1PR) signaling participates in liver fibrogenesis by affecting bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes/macrophage (BMM) activation. However, the relationship between S1P/S1PR signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome in BMMs remains unclear. Here, we found significantly elevated gene expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, pro-interleukin-1?, and pro-interleukin-18) and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome significantly elevated during murine chronic liver injury induced by a bile duct ligation operation, a methionine-choline-deficient and high-fat diet, or carbon tetrachloride intraperitoneal injection. Moreover, the increased expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme of S1P, was positively correlated with NLRP3 inflammasome components in both patients and mouse model livers. Flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence staining showed BMMs contributed to the significant proportion of NLRP3+ cells in murine inflammatory livers, but not Kupffer cells, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, T cells, and hepatocytes. Focusing on macrophages, S1P promoted NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation in a dose-dependent manner. Blockade of S1PR2 by JTE-013 (antagonist of S1PR2) or S1PR2-siRNA inhibited S1P-induced NLRP3 inflammasome priming and inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1? and interleukin-18) secretion, whereas blockade of S1PR1 or S1PR3 had no such effect. in vivo, a ?1,3-d-glucan-encapsulated siRNA particle (GeRP) delivery system is capable of silencing genes in macrophages specifically. Treatment with S1PR2 siRNA-GeRPs markedly reduced NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation and attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis. Together, the conclusions indicated that targeting macrophage S1PR2 retarded liver inflammation and fibrogenesis via downregulating NLRP3 inflammasome, which may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver injury.
Project description:The fundamental interaction between the immune and skeletal systems, termed as osteoimmunology, has been demonstrated to play indispensable roles in the maintenance of balance between bone resorption and formation. The pleiotropic sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), together with its cognate receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), are known as key players in osteoimmunology due to the regulation on both immune system and bone remodeling. The role of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in bone remodeling can be directly targeting both osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. Meanwhile, inflammatory cell function and polarization in both adaptive immune (T cell subsets) and innate immune cells (macrophages) are also regulated by this signaling axis, suggesting that S1P-S1PR1 signaling could aslo indirectly regulate bone remodeling via modulating the immune system. Therefore, it could be likely that S1P-S1PR1 signaling might take part in the maintenance of continuous bone turnover under physiological conditions, while lead to the pathogenesis of bone deformities during inflammation. In this review, we summarized the immunological regulation of S1P-S1PR1 signal axis during bone remodeling with an emphasis on how osteo-immune regulators are affected by inflammation, an issue with relevance to chronical bone disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and periodontitis.
Project description:Recent research has led to contradictory notions regarding the conventional theory that apoptotic cell death can evoke inflammatory or immunogenic responses orchestrated by released damage-associated patterns (DAMPs). By inducing IL-1? from bone marrow-derived macrophages in an effort to determine the inflammatory mediators released from apoptotic cells, we found that exosomal fractions called "apoptotic exosome-like vesicles" (AEVs) prepared from apoptotic-conditioned medium were the main inflammatory factors. These AEVs showed characteristics of exosomes in their size, density, morphology, and protein expression but had unique marker proteins, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 1 and 3 (S1PR1 and 3). Their biogenesis was completely dependent on cellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1PRs signaling from multiple fine spindles of plasma membrane accompanied by F-actin, S1PR1, S1PR3, and CD63 at the early apoptotic phase and progressing to the maturation of F-actin-guided multivesicular endosomes mediated by G?? subunits of S1PRs downstream. S1P-loaded S1PRs on AEVs were critical factors for inducing IL-1? via NF-?B transcriptional factor and p38 MAPK, possibly through the RHOA/NOD2 axis, in differentiating macrophages. The AEVs induced genes of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators in both in vitro and in vivo models. In conclusion, AEVs could be key inflammatory mediators, acting as DAMPs that could explain the pathogeneses of various chronic inflammations, autoimmune diseases, or cancers in the future.
Project description:Despite the medical importance of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in vivo cellular heterogeneity of GPCR signaling and downstream transcriptional responses are not understood. We report the comprehensive characterization of transcriptomes (bulk and single-cell) and chromatin domains regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) in adult mouse aortic endothelial cells. First, S1PR1 regulates NF?B and nuclear glucocorticoid receptor pathways to suppress inflammation-related mRNAs. Second, S1PR1 signaling in the heterogenous endothelial cell (EC) subtypes occurs at spatially-distinct areas of the aorta. For example, a transcriptomically distinct arterial EC population at vascular branch points (aEC1) exhibits ligand-independent S1PR1/ß-arrestin coupling. In contrast, circulatory S1P-dependent S1PR1/ß-arrestin coupling was observed in non-branch point aEC2 cells that exhibit an inflammatory gene expression signature. Moreover, S1P/S1PR1 signaling regulates the expression of lymphangiogenic and inflammation-related transcripts in an adventitial lymphatic EC (LEC) population in a ligand-dependent manner. These insights add resolution to existing concepts of endothelial heterogeneity, GPCR signaling and S1P biology.
Project description:Recent studies suggested an important contribution of sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) signaling via its specific receptors (S1PRs) in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as Interleukin (IL)-1? in cancer and inflammation. In an inflammation-driven cancer setting, we previously reported that myeloid S1PR1 signaling induces IL-1? production by enhancing NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and Pyrin Domain-Containing Protein 3) inflammasome activity. However, the autocrine role of S1P and enzymes acting on the S1P rheostat in myeloid cells are unknown. Using human and mouse macrophages with pharmacological or genetic intervention we explored the relative contribution of sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) in NLRP3 inflammasome activity regulation. We noticed redundancy in SPHK1 and SPHK2 activities towards macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome transcriptional induction and IL-1? secretion. However, pharmacological blockade of both kinases in unison completely abrogated NLRP3 inflammasome induction and IL-1? secretion. Interestingly, human and mouse macrophages demonstrate varied responses towards SPHKs inhibition and IL-1? secretion. Clinical datasets of renal cell carcinoma and psoriasis patients showed a positive correlation between enzymes affecting the S1P rheostat with NLRP3 inflammasome components expression, which corroborates our finding. Our data provide a better understanding on the role of SPHKs and de novo synthesized S1P in macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation.