Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrrolopyrimidine Scaffolds through Cation-Directed Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.
ABSTRACT: The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of 3-aryl-substituted pyrrolopyrimidines (PPYs), a common motif in drug discovery, is achieved through a kinetic resolution via quaternary ammonium salt-catalyzed nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr). Both enantioenriched products and starting materials can be functionalized with no observed racemization to give enantiodivergent access to diverse chiral analogues of an important class of kinase inhibitor. One of the compounds was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of breast tumor kinase.
Project description:We have developed an efficient and robust route to synthesize 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines as potent kinase inhibitors. This solution-phase synthesis features a SNAr substitution reaction, cross-coupling reaction, one-pot reduction/reductive amination and N-alkylation reaction. These reactions occur rapidly with high yields and have broad substrate scopes. A variety of groups can be selectively introduced into the N5 and C7 positions of 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolopyrimidines at a late stage of the synthesis, thereby providing a highly efficient approach to explore the structure-activity relationships of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives. Four synthetic analogs have been profiled against a panel of 48 kinases and a new and selective FLT3 inhibitor 9 is identified.
Project description:Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is one of the most widely applied reaction classes in pharmaceutical and chemical research, providing a broadly useful platform for the modification of aromatic ring scaffolds. The generally accepted mechanism for SNAr reactions involves a two-step addition-elimination sequence via a discrete, non-aromatic Meisenheimer complex. Here we use 12C/13C kinetic isotope effect (KIE) studies and computational analyses to provide evidence that prototypical SNAr reactions in fact proceed through concerted mechanisms. The KIE measurements were made possible by a new technique that leverages the high sensitivity of 19F as an NMR nucleus to quantitate the degree of isotopic fractionation. This sensitive technique permits the measurement of KIEs on 10?mg of natural abundance material in one overnight acquisition. As a result, it provides a practical tool for performing detailed mechanistic analyses of reactions that form or break C-F bonds.
Project description:Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain (18)F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a 'leaving group' leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong ?-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant (18)F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize (18)F-PET probes. Selective (18)F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of (18)F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to (18)F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.
Project description:Pyrrolopyrimidines are an important class of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer or anti-inflammatory. Here, we present the identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster from the rare actinomycete strain Kutzneria albida DSM 43870, which leads to the production of huimycin, a new member of the pyrrolopyrimidine family of compounds. The huimycin gene cluster was successfully expressed in the heterologous host strain Streptomyces albus Del14. The compound was purified, and its structure was elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The minimal huimycin gene cluster was identified through sequence analysis and a series of gene deletion experiments. A model for huimycin biosynthesis is also proposed in this paper.
Project description:An enantiodivergent method for the synthesis of multiply substituted allenes is described. Highly enantioenriched, point-chiral boronic esters were synthesized by homologation of ?-seleno alkenyl boronic esters with lithiated carbamates and eliminated to form axially chiral allene products. By employing either oxidative or alkylative conditions, both syn and anti elimination could be achieved with complete stereospecificity. The process enables the synthesis of either M or P?allenes from a single isomer of a point-chiral precursor and can be employed for the enantioselective assembly of di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted allenes.
Project description:Tertiary phosphines are generally known to withstand inversion under moderate conditions. In this work, a remarkable racemization process of three P-chiral ferrocenyl phosphines is reported. Subjected to conventional column chromatography as highly enantioenriched compounds, they greatly experienced racemization when collected at the column outlet within minutes. Initially, attention was drawn to this unusual inversion behavior after observing that the superb enantiomeric excess of these ligands (>95?% ee in all cases) was almost lost in their corresponding ruthenium(II) complexes. Successively excluding possible racemization causes, these P-chiral ferrocenyl phosphines were found to undergo a significant, acid-catalyzed racemization process at room temperature within a few minutes. This process is mainly observed during standard column chromatography by using conventional silica or alumina, but can also be triggered deliberately by addition of certain acids. Therefore, the stereochemical preservation of P-chiral phosphines during their purification may per se not always be guaranteed, since column chromatography is the most frequently used technique for purifying such types of compounds.
Project description:Lost in rotation: the concise strategy of the first enantioselective total synthesis of bismurrayaquinone A utilized traceless stereochemical exchange to form an enantioenriched biphenyl core that was elaborated in a bidirectional manner to the natural product. Observed racemization on an unsuccessful initial route prompted studies into the configurational stability of bismurrayaquinone A and related biquinones.
Project description:We report a cinchona alkaloid catalyzed addition of thiophenol into rapidly interconverting aryl-naphthoquinones, resulting in stable biaryl atropisomers upon reductive methylation. An array of thiophenols and naphthoquinone substrates were evaluated, and we observed selectivities up to 98.5:1.5 e.r. Control of the quinone redox properties allowed us to study the stereochemical stabilities of each oxidation state of the substrates. The resulting enantioenriched products can also be moved on via an SNAr-like reaction sequence to arrive at stable derivatives with excellent enantioretention.
Project description:We review recent works for nucleophilic fluorination of organic compounds in which the Coulombic interactions between ionic species and/or hydrogen bonding affect the outcome of the reaction. SN2 fluorination of aliphatic compounds promoted by ionic liquids is first discussed, focusing on the mechanistic features for reaction using alkali metal fluorides. The influence of the interplay of ionic liquid cation, anion, nucleophile and counter-cation is treated in detail. The role of ionic liquid as bifunctional (both electrophilic and nucleophilic) activator is envisaged. We also review the SNAr fluorination of diaryliodonium salts from the same perspective. Nucleophilic fluorination of guanidine-containing of diaryliodonium salts, which are capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the nucleophile, is exemplified as an excellent case where ionic interactions and hydrogen bonding significantly affect the efficiency of reaction. The origin of experimental observation for the strong dependence of fluorination yields on the positions of -Boc protection is understood in terms of the location of the nucleophile with respect to the reaction center, being either close to far from it. Recent advances in the synthesis of [18F]F-dopa are also cited in relation to SNAr fluorination of diaryliodonium salts. Discussions are made with a focus on tailor-making promoters and solvent engineering based on ionic interactions and hydrogen bonding.
Project description:Beta-silyloxy-alpha-keto esters are prepared through a cyanide-catalyzed benzoin-type reaction with silyl glyoxylates and aldehydes. The products undergo a dynamic kinetic resolution to provide enantioenriched orthogonally protected alcohols and can be converted to the corresponding beta-silyloxy-alpha-amino esters.