Transferrin-targeted, resveratrol-loaded liposomes for the treatment of glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a very grim prognosis even after multi-modal therapeutic regimens. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents frequently lead to drug resistance and result in severe toxicities to non-cancerous tissues. Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol with pleiotropic health benefits, has proven chemopreventive effects in all the stages of cancer including initiation, promotion and progression. However, the poor physico-chemical properties of RES severely limit its use as a free drug. In this study, RES was loaded into PEGylated liposomes (RES-L) to counter its drawbacks as a free drug. Since transferrin receptors (TfRs) are up-regulated in GBM, the liposome surface was modified with transferrin moieties (Tf-RES-L) to make them cancer cell-specific. The liposomal nanomedicines developed in this project were aimed at enhancing the physico-chemical properties of RES and exploiting the passive and active targeting capabilities of liposomes to effectively treat GBM. The RES-L were stable, had a good drug-loading capacity, prolonged drug-release in vitro and were easily scalable. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to study the association with, and internalization of, Tf-L into U-87 MG cells. The Tf-RES-Ls were significantly more cytotoxic and induced higher levels of apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspases 3/7 in GBM cells when compared to free RES or RES-L. The ability of RES to arrest cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and selectively induce production of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells were probably responsible for its cytotoxic effects. The therapeutic efficacy of RES formulations was evaluated in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of GBM. A tumor growth inhibition study and a modified survival study showed that Tf-RES-Ls were more effective than other treatments in their ability to inhibit tumor growth and improve survival in mice. Overall, the liposomal nanomedicines of RES developed in this project exhibited favorable in vitro and in vivo efficacies, which warrant their further investigation for the treatment of GBMs.
Project description:To develop transferrin (Tf)-targeted delivery systems for the pro-apoptotic drug, NCL-240, and to evaluate the efficacy of this delivery system in ovarian cancer NCI/ADR-RES cells, grown in vitro in a 3D spheroid model.Tf-targeted PEG-PE-based micellar and ePC/CHOL-based liposomal delivery systems for NCL-240 were prepared. NCI/ADR-RES cells were used to generate spheroids by a non-adhesive liquid overlay technique. Spheroid growth and development were monitored by size (diameter) analysis and H&E staining. The targeted formulations were compared to untargeted ones in terms of their degree of spheroid association and penetration. A cell viability analysis with NCL-240-loaded micelles and liposomes was performed to assess the effectiveness of Tf-targeting.Tf-targeted polymeric micelles and Tf-targeted liposomes loaded with NCL-240 were prepared. NCI/ADR-RES cells generated spheroids that demonstrated the presence of a distinct necrotic core along with proliferating cells in the spheroid periphery, partly mimicking in vivo tumors. The Tf-targeted micelles and liposomes had a deeper spheroid penetration as compared to the untargeted delivery systems. Cell viability studies using the spheroid model demonstrated that Tf-mediated targeting markedly improved the cytotoxicity profile of NCL-240.Transferrin targeting enhanced delivery and effectiveness of micelles and liposomes loaded with NCL-240 against NCI/ADR-RES cancer cells in a 3D spheroid model.
Project description:Effective treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rapid resistance to single agent therapies. To address these issues, we developed a transferrin-functionalized nanoparticle (Tf-NP) that can deliver dual combination therapies. Using intravital imaging, we show the ability of Tf-NPs to traverse intact BBB in mice as well as achieve direct tumor binding in two intracranial orthotopic models of GBM. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with Tf-NPs loaded with temozolomide and the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 leads to increased DNA damage and apoptosis that correlates with a 1.5- to 2-fold decrease in tumor burden and corresponding increase in survival compared to equivalent free-drug dosing. Immunocompetent mice treated with Tf-NP-loaded drugs also show protection from the effects of systemic drug toxicity, demonstrating the preclinical potential of this nanoscale platform to deliver novel combination therapies to gliomas and other central nervous system tumors.
Project description:Mortality of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has not improved over the last two decades despite medical breakthroughs in the treatment of other types of cancers. Nanoparticles hold tremendous promise to overcome the pharmacokinetic challenges and off-target adverse effects. However, an inhibitory effect of nanoparticles by themselves on metastasis has not been explored. In this study, we developed transferrin-conjugated porous silicon nanoparticles (Tf@pSiNP) and studied their effect on inhibiting GBM migration by means of a microfluidic-based migration chip. This platform, designed to mimic the tight extracellular migration tracts in brain parenchyma, allowed high-content time-resolved imaging of cell migration. Tf@pSiNP were colloidally stable, biocompatible, and their uptake into GBM cells was enhanced by receptor-mediated internalisation. The migration of Tf@pSiNP-exposed cells across the confined microchannels was suppressed, but unconfined migration was unaffected. The pSiNP-induced destabilisation of focal adhesions at the leading front may partially explain the migration inhibition. More corroborating evidence suggests that pSiNP uptake reduced the plasticity of GBM cells in reducing cell volume, an effect that proved crucial in facilitating migration across the tight confined tracts. We believe that the inhibitory effect of Tf@pSiNP on cell migration, together with the drug-delivery capability of pSiNP, could potentially offer a disruptive strategy to treat GBM.
Project description:BackgroundThyroid cancer becomes the most common endocrine cancer with the greatest growing incidence in this decade. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor for the treatment of progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), while the off-target toxicity effect is usually inconvenient for patients taking.MethodsIn this study, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) with transferrin modification (Tf-HMSNs) were loaded with sorafenib (sora@Tf-HMSNs) to help targeted delivery of sorafenib. Due to the biocompatible Tf shell, Tf-HMSNs exhibited excellent bio-compatibility and increased intracellular accumulation, which improved the targeting capability to cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.ResultsSora@Tf-HMSNs treatment exhibited the strongest inhibition effect of res-TPC-1 cells and res-BCPAP cells compared with sora@HMSNs and sorafenib groups and induced more cancer cell apoptosis. Finally, Western blot analysis was conducted to check the expression of RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway after sorafenib encapsulated Tf-HMSNs treatment.ConclusionOverall, sora@Tf-HMSNs can significantly increase the effective drug concentration in cancer cells and thus enhance the anticancer effect, which are expected to be promising nanocarriers to deliver anticancer drugs for effective and safe therapy for RAI-refractory DTC.
Project description:As the global population ages, cancer rates increase worldwide, and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), brain tumors, and inflammation threaten human health more frequently. We designed a dual-mediated (receptor-mediated and adsorption-mediated) liposome, named transferrin-cell penetrating peptide-sterically stabilized liposome (TF-CPP-SSL), to improve therapy for gliomas through combining molecular recognition of transferrin receptors (TF-Rs) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells with the internalization and lysosomal escaping ability of CPP. Based on the systematic investigation of structure-activity relations on the cellular level, we constructed TF-CPP-SSL rationally by conjugating TF and CPP moieties to the liposomes via PEG3.4K and PEG2.0K, respectively, and found the optimum densities of TF and CPP were 1.8% and 4%, respectively. These liposomes had the highest targeting efficacy for brain microvascular endothelial cell and C6 cell uptake but avoided capture by normal cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology and coculture models of BBB and glioma C6 cells indicated that TF-CPP-SSL was transported across the BBB without drug leakage, liposome breakup, or cleavage of ligand. TF-CPP-SSL offered advantages for crossing the BBB and entering into glioma C6 cells. Real-time confocal viewing revealed that TF-CPP-SSL was entrapped in endosomes of glioma C6 cells and then escaped from lysosomes successfully to release the liposomal contents into the cytosol. Entrapped contents, such as doxorubicin, could then enter the nucleus to exert pharmacological effects.
Project description:Hypoxia and necrosis are fundamental features of glioblastoma (GBM) and their emergence is critical for the rapid biological progression of this fatal tumor; yet, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have suggested that vaso-occlusion following intravascular thrombosis could initiate or propagate hypoxia and necrosis in GBM. Tissue factor (TF), the main cellular initiator of coagulation, is overexpressed in GBMs and likely favors a thrombotic microenvironment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification and PTEN loss are two common genetic alterations seen in GBM but not in lower-grade astrocytomas that could be responsible for TF up-regulation. The most frequent EGFR mutation in GBM involves deletion of exons 2 to 7, resulting in the expression of a constitutively active receptor, EGFRvIII. Here, we show that overexpression of EGFR or EGFRvIII in human glioma cells causes increased basal TF expression and that stimulation of EGFR by its ligand, EGF, leads to a marked dose-dependent up-regulation of TF. In all cases, increased TF expression led to accelerated plasma coagulation in vitro. EGFR-mediated TF expression depended most strongly on activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity and was associated with c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and JunD activation. Restoration of PTEN expression in PTEN-deficient GBM cells diminished EGFR-induced TF expression by inhibiting JunD/AP-1 transcriptional activity. PTEN mediated this effect by antagonizing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, which in turn attenuated both Akt and JNK activities. These mechanisms are likely at work in vivo, as EGFR expression was highly correlated with TF expression in human high-grade astrocytoma specimens.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been considered to be the most malignant brain tumors. Due to the existence of various barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) greatly hinder the accumulation and deep penetration of chemotherapeutics, the treatment of glioma remains to be the most challenging task in clinic. In order to circumvent these hurdles, we developed a multifunctional liposomal glioma-targeted drug delivery system (c(RGDyK)/pHA-LS) modified with cyclic RGD (c(RGDyK)) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHA) in which c(RGDyK) could target integrin ?v?3 overexpressed on the BBTB and glioma cells and pHA could target dopamine receptors on the BBB. In vitro, c(RGDyK)/pHA-LS could target glioblastoma cells (U87), brain capillary endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through a comprehensive pathway. Besides, c(RGDyK)/pHA-LS could also increase the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin encapsulated in liposomes on glioblastoma cells, and was able to penetrate inside the glioma spheroids after traversing the in vitro BBB and BBTB. In vivo, we demonstrated the targeting ability of c(RGDyK)/pHA-LS to intracranial glioma. As expected, c(RGDyK)/pHA-LS/DOX showed a median survival time of 35 days, which was 2.31-, 1.76- and 1.5-fold higher than that of LS/DOX, c(RGDyK)-LS/DOX, and pHA-LS/DOX, respectively. The findings here suggested that the multifunctional glioma-targeted drug delivery system modified with both c(RGDyK) and pHA displayed strong antiglioma efficiency in vitro and in vivo, representing a promising platform for glioma therapy.
Project description:Drug delivery to the brain has been a major challenge due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the uptake of most chemotherapeutics into brain. We developed a dual-functionalized liposomal delivery system, conjugating cell penetrating peptide penetratin to transferrin-liposomes (Tf-Pen-conjugated liposomes) to enhance the transport of an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), across the blood-brain barrier into the tumor cells. The in vitro cellular uptake study showed that the dual-functionalized liposomes are capable of higher cellular uptake in glioblastoma (U87) and brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells monolayer. In addition, dual-functionalized liposomes demonstrated significantly higher apoptosis in U87 cells. The liposomal nanoparticles showed excellent blood compatibility and in vitro cell viability, as studied by hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, respectively. The 5-FU-loaded dual-functionalized liposomes demonstrated higher transport across the brain endothelial barrier and delivered 5-FU to tumor cells inside poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-chitosan scaffold (an in vitro brain tumor model), resulting in significant tumor regression.
Project description:Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune clearance. Nanoparticles loaded with drugs can be designed to overcome these biological barriers to improve efficacy while reducing morbidity. Nanomedicine has ushered in a new era for drug delivery by improving the therapeutic indices of the active pharmaceutical ingredients engineered within nanoparticles. First generation nanomedicines have received widespread clinical approval over the past two decades, from Doxil® (liposomal doxorubicin) in 1995 to Onivyde® (liposomal irinotecan) in 2015. This review highlights the biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer, emphasizing the need for nanoparticles for improving therapeutic outcomes. A summary of different nanoparticles used for drug delivery applications in cancer are presented. The review summarizes recent successes in cancer nanomedicine in the clinic. The clinical trials of Onivyde leading to its approval in 2015 by the Food and Drug Adminstration are highlighted as a case study in the recent clinical success of nanomedicine against cancer. Next generation nanomedicines need to be better targeted to specifically destroy cancerous tissue, but face several obstacles in their clinical development, including identification of appropriate biomarkers to target, scale-up of synthesis, and reproducible characterization. These hurdles need to be overcome through multidisciplinary collaborations across academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies in order to achieve the goal of eradicating cancer. This review discusses the current use of clinically approved nanomedicines, the investigation of nanomedicines in clinical trials, and the challenges that may hinder development of the nanomedicines for cancer treatment.