Metabolomics of Hydrazine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats for Discovering Potential Biomarkers.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic pathway disturbances associated with drug-induced liver injury remain unsatisfactorily characterized. Diagnostic biomarkers for hepatotoxicity have been used to minimize drug-induced liver injury and to increase the clinical safety. A metabolomics strategy using rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) analyses and multivariate statistics was implemented to identify potential biomarkers for hydrazine-induced hepatotoxicity. The global serum and urine metabolomics of 30 hydrazine-treated rats at 24 or 48?h postdosing and 24?healthy rats were characterized by a metabolomics approach. Multivariate statistical data analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to identify the most significantly altered metabolites. The 16 most significant potential biomarkers were identified to be closely related to hydrazine-induced liver injury. The combination of these biomarkers had an area under the curve (AUC)?>?0.85, with 100% specificity and sensitivity, respectively. This high-quality classification group included amino acids and their derivatives, glutathione metabolites, vitamins, fatty acids, intermediates of pyrimidine metabolism, and lipids. Additionally, metabolomics pathway analyses confirmed that phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis as well as tyrosine metabolism had great interactions with hydrazine-induced liver injury in rats. These discriminating metabolites might be useful in understanding the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver injury and provide good prospects for drug-induced liver injury diagnosis clinically.
Project description:The hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PM) has aroused great concern throughout the world. Hence, it is worthwhile to perform studies on the detoxification with the combined use of medicinal herbs based on the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, the rat model of PM/LPS-induced idiosyncratic liver injury was used. The effects of Poria, Licorice, and Panax notoginseng on rats of PM/LPS-induced liver injury were investigated respectively, hoping to find the most effective herbal medicine to reduce the hepatotoxicity. According to results of biochemical and histological tests, PM could induce the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of rats which presented modest inflammation triggered by non-injurious dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also found that the combined use of Poria and PM in the ratio of 1:2 could significantly ameliorate the PM/LPS-induced liver injury and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, UPLC/QTOF-MS-based metabolomics was performed to identify possible biomarkers and underlying biological pathways. Ten metabolites were expressed differentially among LPS, PM/LPS, and detoxification-treated groups in terms of PCA and OPLS-DA analysis, which could be potential biomarkers. MetaboAnalyst and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that alterations of these metabolites were primarily involved in three pathways: arginine and proline metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. This research provides systematic experimental evidences for the hepatoprotective effect of Poria against PM/LPS-induced liver injury for the first time. And these findings may help better understand the underlying mechanisms of pathophysiologic changes in PM/LPS-induced liver injury.
Project description:Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity.
Project description:Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) is one of the most frequently used natural products in China. Its hepatotoxicity has been proven and reported. However, chronic PM toxicity is a dynamic process, and a few studies have reported the long-term hepatotoxic mechanism of PM or its nephrotoxicity. To elucidate the mechanism of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by PM after different administration times, different samples from rats were systematically investigated by traditional biochemical analysis, histopathological observation, and nontargeted metabolomics. The concentrations of direct bilirubin (DBIL) at 4 weeks and total bile acid, DBIL, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen at 8 weeks were significantly increased in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. Approximately, 12 metabolites and 24 proteins were considered as unique toxic biomarkers and targets. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the primary pathways disrupted by PM were phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, which resulted in liver injury, accompanied by chronic kidney injury. As the administration time increased, the toxicity of PM gradually affected vitamin B6, bile acid, and bilirubin metabolism, leading to aggravated liver injury, abnormal biochemical indicators, and marked nephrotoxicity. Our results suggest that the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by PM are both dynamic processes that affect different metabolic pathways at different administration times, which indicated that PM-induced liver and kidney injury should be treated differently in the clinic according to the degree of injury.
Project description:Isoniazid (INH) is associated with serious liver injury and autoimmunity. Classic studies in rats indicated that a reactive metabolite of acetylhydrazine is responsible for the covalent binding and toxicity of INH. Studies in rabbits suggested that hydrazine might be the toxic species. However, these models involved acute toxicity with high doses of INH, and INH-induced liver injury in humans has very different features than such animal models. In this study, we demonstrated that a reactive metabolite of INH itself can covalently bind in the liver of mice and also to human liver microsomes. Covalent binding also occurred in rats, but it was much less than that in mice. We were able to trap the reactive metabolite of INH with N-?-acetyl-l-lysine in incubations with human liver microsomes. This suggests that the reactive intermediate of INH that leads to covalent binding is a diazohydroxide rather than a radical or carbocation because those reactive metabolites would be too reactive to trap in this way. Treatment of mice or rats with INH for up to 5 weeks did not produce severe liver injury. The alanine transaminase assay (ALT) is inhibited by INH, and other assays such as glutamate and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were better biomarkers of INH-induced liver injury. High doses of INH (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) for one week produced steatosis in rats and an increase in SDH, which suggests that it can cause mitochondrial injury. However, steatosis was not observed when INH was given at lower doses for longer periods of time to either mice or rats. We propose that covalent binding of the parent drug can contribute to INH-induced hepatotoxicity and autoimmunity. We also propose that these are immune-mediated reactions, and there are clinical data to support these hypotheses.
Project description:Previous studies revealed the hepatotoxic effect of aurantio-obtusin on rats. The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers of urine caused by aurantio-obtusin. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with body weight of 0, 4, 40, and 200 mg/kg were orally given aurantio-obtusin for 28 days, and urine was collected for 24 h after the last administration. The urine metabolites in the aurantio-obtusin group and the control group were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). Twenty-three metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers, and 10 of them were up-regulated, including xanthosine, hippuric acid, 5-L-glutamyl-taurine, etc. The other 13 biomarkers were down-regulated, including thymidine, 3-methyldioxyindole, cholic acid, etc. The significant changes of these biomarkers indicated that purine metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism played an important role in the hepatotoxicity of aurantio-obtusin in rats. In this paper, the safety and potential risk of aurantio-obtusin were studied for the first time by combining the toxicity of aurantio-obtusin with the results of urine metabolomics, which provided information for the mechanism of liver injury induced by aurantio-obtusin.
Project description:Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, accounts for approximately fifty percent of the cases of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States due to overdose, with over half of those unintentional. Current clinical approaches for assessing APAP overdose rely on identifying the precise time of overdose and quantitating acetaminophen alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in peripheral blood. Novel specific and sensitive biomarkers may provide additional information regarding patient status post overdose. Previous non-clinical metabolomics studies identified potential urinary biomarkers of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolites involved pathways of tricarboxylic acid cycle, ketone metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. In this study, biomarkers identified in the previous non-clinical study were evaluated in urine samples collected from healthy subjects ( N = 6, median age 14.08 years) and overdose patients ( N = 13, median age 13.91 years) as part of an IRB-approved multicenter study of APAP toxicity in children. The clinical results identified metabolites from pathways previously noted, and pathway analysis indicated analogous pathways were significantly altered in both the rats and humans after APAP overdose. The results suggest a metabolomics approach may enable the discovery of specific, translational biomarkers of drug-induced hepatotoxicity that may aid in the assessment of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to its excellent physicochemical properties and wide applications in consumer goods, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been increasingly exposed to the environment and the public. However, the health effects of oral exposure of TiO2 NPs are still controversial. This study aimed to illustrate the hepatotoxicity induced by TiO2 NPs and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were administered with TiO2 NPs (29?nm) orally at exposure doses of 0, 2, 10, 50?mg/kg daily for 90?days. Changes in the gut microbiota and hepatic metabolomics were analyzed to explore the role of the gut-liver axis in the hepatotoxicity induced by TiO2 NPs. RESULTS:TiO2 NPs caused slight hepatotoxicity, including clear mitochondrial swelling, after subchronic oral exposure at 50?mg/kg. Liver metabolomics analysis showed that 29 metabolites and two metabolic pathways changed significantly in exposed rats. Glutamate, glutamine, and glutathione were the key metabolites leading the generation of energy-related metabolic disorders and imbalance of oxidation/antioxidation. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed that the diversity of gut microbiota in rats increased in a dose-dependent manner. The abundance of Lactobacillus_reuteri increased and the abundance of Romboutsia decreased significantly in feces of TiO2 NPs-exposed rats, leading to changes of metabolic function of gut microbiota. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by gut microbiota increased significantly, which may be a key factor in the subsequent liver effects. CONCLUSIONS:TiO2 NPs could induce slight hepatotoxicity at dose of 50?mg/kg after long-term oral exposure. The indirect pathway of the gut-liver axis, linking liver metabolism and gut microbiota, played an important role in the underlying mechanisms.
Project description:Although increasing reports from the literature on herbal-related hepatotoxicity, the identification of susceptibility-related factors and biomarkers remains challenging due to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). As a well-known Chinese medicine prescription, Xianling Gubao Capsule (XLGB) has attracted great attention due to reports of potential liver toxicity. But the mechanism behind it is difficult to determine. In this paper, we found that XLGB-induced liver injury belongs to IDILI through the analysis of clinical liver injury cases. In toxicological experiment assessment, co-exposure to XLGB and non-toxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could cause evident liver injury as manifested by significantly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and obvious liver histological damage. However, it failed to induce observable liver injury in normal rats, suggesting that mild immune stress may be a susceptibility factor for XLGB-induced idiosyncratic liver injury. Furthermore, plasma cytokines were determined and 15 cytokines (such as IL-1?, IFN-?, and MIP-2? etc) were acquired by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. The expression of these 15 cytokines in LPS group was significantly up-regulated in contrast to the normal group. Meanwhile, the metabolomics profile showed that mild immune stress caused metabolic reprogramming, including sphingolipid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. 8 potential biomarkers (such as sphinganine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, and phenylalanine etc.) were identified by correlation analysis. Therefore, these results suggested that intracellular metabolism and immune changes induced by mild immune stress may be important susceptibility mechanisms for XLGB IDILI.
Project description:Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of ?-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects.
Project description:Currently, numerous liver injury cases related to a famous Chinese herb- Polygonum Multiflorum (Heshouwu in Chinese) have attracted great attention in many countries. Our previous work showed that Heshouwu-induced hepatotoxicity belonged to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Unfortunately, the components and mechanisms attributed to IDILI of Heshouwu are difficult to determine and thus remain unknown. Attempts to explore puzzles, we prepared the chloroform (CH)-, ethyl acetate (EA)-, and residue (RE) extracts of Heshouwu to investigate IDILI constituents and underlying mechanisms, using biochemistry, histopathology, and metabolomics examinations. The results showed that co-treatment with non-toxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and EA extract could result in evident liver injury, indicated by the significant elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as obvious liver histologic damage; whereas other two separated fractions, CH and RE extracts, failed to induce observable liver injury. Furthermore, 21 potential metabolomic biomarkers that differentially expressed in LPS/EA group compared with other groups without liver injury were identified by untargeted metabolomics, mainly involved two pathways: tricarboxylic acid cycle and sphingolipid metabolism. This work illustrated EA extract had close association with the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Heshouwu and provided a metabolomic insight into IDILI of different extracts from Heshouwu.