Selective far-field addressing of coupled quantum dots in a plasmonic nanocavity.
ABSTRACT: Plasmon-emitter hybrid nanocavity systems exhibit strong plasmon-exciton interactions at the single-emitter level, showing great potential as testbeds and building blocks for quantum optics and informatics. However, reported experiments involve only one addressable emitting site, which limits their relevance for many fundamental questions and devices involving interactions among emitters. Here we open up this critical degree of freedom by demonstrating selective far-field excitation and detection of two coupled quantum dot emitters in a U-shaped gold nanostructure. The gold nanostructure functions as a nanocavity to enhance emitter interactions and a nanoantenna to make the emitters selectively excitable and detectable. When we selectively excite or detect either emitter, we observe photon emission predominantly from the target emitter with up to 132-fold Purcell-enhanced emission rate, indicating individual addressability and strong plasmon-exciton interactions. Our work represents a step towards a broad class of plasmonic devices that will enable faster, more compact optics, communication and computation.
Project description:Recent years have seen a growing interest in strong coupling between plasmons and excitons, as a way to generate new quantum optical testbeds and influence chemical dynamics and reactivity. Strong coupling to bright plasmonic modes has been achieved even with single quantum emitters. Dark plasmonic modes fare better in some applications due to longer lifetimes, but are difficult to probe as they are subradiant. Here, we apply electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy to demonstrate that a dark mode of an individual plasmonic bowtie can interact with a small number of quantum emitters, as evidenced by Rabi-split spectra. Coupling strengths of up to 85?meV place the bowtie-emitter devices at the onset of the strong coupling regime. Remarkably, the coupling occurs at the periphery of the bowtie gaps, even while the electron beam probes their center. Our findings pave the way for using EEL spectroscopy to study exciton-plasmon interactions involving non-emissive photonic modes.
Project description:Optical cavities can enhance and control light-matter interactions. This level of control has recently been extended to the nanoscale with single emitter strong coupling even at room temperature using plasmonic nanostructures. However, emitters in static geometries, limit the ability to tune the coupling strength or to couple different emitters to the same cavity. Here, we present tip-enhanced strong coupling (TESC) with a nanocavity formed between a scanning plasmonic antenna tip and the substrate. By reversibly and dynamically addressing single quantum dots, we observe mode splitting up to 160 meV and anticrossing over a detuning range of ~100 meV, and with subnanometer precision over the deep subdiffraction-limited mode volume. Thus, TESC enables previously inaccessible control over emitter-nanocavity coupling and mode volume based on near-field microscopy. This opens pathways to induce, probe, and control single-emitter plasmon hybrid quantum states for applications from optoelectronics to quantum information science at room temperature.
Project description:We report on non-conventional lasing in a photonic-crystal nanocavity that operates with only four solid-state quantum-dot emitters. In a comparison between microscopic theory and experiment, we demonstrate that irrespective of emitter detuning, lasing with [Formula: see text] is facilitated by means of emission from dense-lying multi-exciton states. In the spontaneous-emission regime we find signatures for radiative coupling between the quantum dots. The realization of different multi-exciton states at different excitation powers and the presence of electronic inter-emitter correlations are reflected in a pump-rate dependence of the ?-factor.
Project description:In cavity quantum electrodynamics, optical emitters that are strongly coupled to cavities give rise to polaritons with characteristics of both the emitters and the cavity excitations. We show that carbon nanotubes can be crystallized into chip-scale, two-dimensionally ordered films and that this material enables intrinsically ultrastrong emitter-cavity interactions: Rather than interacting with external cavities, nanotube excitons couple to the near-infrared plasmon resonances of the nanotubes themselves. Our polycrystalline nanotube films have a hexagonal crystal structure, ∼25-nm domains, and a 1.74-nm lattice constant. With this extremely high nanotube density and nearly ideal plasmon-exciton spatial overlap, plasmon-exciton coupling strengths reach 0.5 eV, which is 75% of the bare exciton energy and a near record for room-temperature ultrastrong coupling. Crystallized nanotube films represent a milestone in nanomaterials assembly and provide a compelling foundation for high-ampacity conductors, low-power optical switches, and tunable optical antennas.
Project description:Nanophotonics is becoming invaluable for an expanding range of applications, from controlling the spontaneous emission rate and the directionality of quantum emitters, to reducing material requirements of solar cells by an order of magnitude. These effects are highly dependent on the near field of the nanostructure, which constitutes the evanescent fields from propagating and resonant localized modes. Although the interactions between quantum emitters and nanophotonic structures are increasingly well understood theoretically, directly imaging these interactions experimentally remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a photoactivated localization microscopy-based technique to image emitter-nanostructure interactions. For a 75?nm diameter silicon nanowire, we directly observe a confluence of emission rate enhancement, directivity modification and guided mode excitation, with strong interaction at scales up to 13 times the nanowire diameter. Furthermore, through analytical modelling we distinguish the relative contribution of these effects, as well as their dependence on emitter orientation.
Project description:On-chip plasmon-induced transparency offers the possibility of realization of ultrahigh-speed information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made to date because it is difficult to obtain on-chip plasmon-induced transparency using only a single meta-molecule in plasmonic circuits. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy to realize on-chip plasmon-induced transparency in a nanoscale U-shaped plasmonic waveguide side-coupled nanocavity pair. High tunability in the transparency window is achieved by covering the pair with different organic polymer layers. It is possible to realize ultrafast all-optical tunability based on pump light-induced refractive index change of a graphene cover layer. Compared with previous reports, the overall feature size of the plasmonic nanostructure is reduced by more than three orders of magnitude, while ultrahigh tunability of the transparency window is maintained. This work also provides a superior platform for the study of the various physical effects and phenomena of nonlinear optics and quantum optics.
Project description:Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are intriguing hosts for quantum light sources due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we report that strain gradients, either unintentionally induced or generated by substrate patterning, result in spatially and spectrally isolated quantum emitters in mono- and bilayer WSe2. By correlating localized excitons with localized strain variations, we show that the quantum emitter emission energy can be red-tuned up to a remarkable ?170 meV. We probe the fine-structure, magneto-optics, and second-order coherence of a strained emitter. These results raise the prospect of strain-engineering quantum emitter properties and deterministically creating arrays of quantum emitters in two-dimensional semiconductors.
Project description:Combining the quantum optical properties of single-photon emitters with the strong near-field interactions available in nanophotonic and plasmonic systems is a powerful way of creating quantum manipulation and metrological functionalities. The ability to actively and dynamically modulate emitter-environment interactions is of particular interest in this regard. While thermal, mechanical and optical modulation have been demonstrated, electrical modulation has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we realize fast, all-electrical modulation of the near-field interactions between a nanolayer of erbium emitters and graphene, by in-situ tuning the Fermi energy of graphene. We demonstrate strong interactions with a >1000-fold increased decay rate for ~25% of the emitters, and electrically modulate these interactions with frequencies up to 300 kHz - orders of magnitude faster than the emitter's radiative decay (~100 Hz). This constitutes an enabling platform for integrated quantum technologies, opening routes to quantum entanglement generation by collective plasmon emission or photon emission with controlled waveform.
Project description:The integration of metallic plasmonic nanoantennas with quantum emitters can dramatically enhance coherent harmonic generation, often resulting from the coupling of fundamental plasmonic fields to higher-energy, electronic or excitonic transitions of quantum emitters. The ultrafast optical dynamics of such hybrid plasmon-emitter systems have rarely been explored. Here, we study those dynamics by interferometrically probing nonlinear optical emission from individual porous gold nanosponges infiltrated with zinc oxide (ZnO) emitters. Few-femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron emission microscopy reveals multiple long-lived localized plasmonic hot spot modes, at the surface of the randomly disordered nanosponges, that are resonant in a broad spectral range. The locally enhanced plasmonic near-field couples to the ZnO excitons, enhancing sum-frequency generation from individual hot spots and boosting resonant excitonic emission. The quantum pathways of the coupling are uncovered from a two-dimensional spectrum correlating fundamental plasmonic excitations to nonlinearly driven excitonic emissions. Our results offer new opportunities for enhancing and coherently controlling optical nonlinearities by exploiting nonlinear plasmon-quantum emitter coupling.
Project description:The controlled creation of defect centre-nanocavity systems is one of the outstanding challenges for efficiently interfacing spin quantum memories with photons for photon-based entanglement operations in a quantum network. Here we demonstrate direct, maskless creation of atom-like single silicon vacancy (SiV) centres in diamond nanostructures via focused ion beam implantation with ?32?nm lateral precision and <50?nm positioning accuracy relative to a nanocavity. We determine the Si+ ion to SiV centre conversion yield to be ?2.5% and observe a 10-fold conversion yield increase by additional electron irradiation. Low-temperature spectroscopy reveals inhomogeneously broadened ensemble emission linewidths of ?51?GHz and close to lifetime-limited single-emitter transition linewidths down to 126±13?MHz corresponding to ?1.4 times the natural linewidth. This method for the targeted generation of nearly transform-limited quantum emitters should facilitate the development of scalable solid-state quantum information processors.