Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 controls allergic airway inflammation by suppressing IL-5-producing TH2 cells through the Notch/Gata3 pathway.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Asthmatic and allergic inflammation is mediated by TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13). Although we have learned much about how TH2 cells are differentiated, the TH2 checkpoint mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVES:In this study we investigate how monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1; encoded by the Zc3h12a gene) regulates IL-5-producing TH2 cell differentiation and TH2-mediated inflammation. METHODS:The functions of Zc3h12a-/- CD4 T cells were evaluated by checking the expression of TH2 cytokines and transcription factors in vivo and in vitro. Allergic airway inflammation of Zc3h12a-/- mice was examined with murine asthma models. In addition, antigen-specific CD4 T cells deficient in MCPIP1 were transferred to wild-type recipient mice, challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM), and accessed for TH2 inflammation. RESULTS:Zc3h12a-/- mice have spontaneous severe lung inflammation, with an increase in mainly IL-5- and IL-13-producing but not IL-4-producing TH2 cells in the lung. Mechanistically, differentiation of IL-5-producing Zc3h12a-/- TH2 cells is mediated through Notch signaling and Gata3 independent of IL-4. Gata3 mRNA is stabilized in Zc3h12a-/- TH2 cells. MCPIP1 promotes Gata3 mRNA decay through the RNase domain. Furthermore, deletion of MCPIP1 in OVA- or HDM-specific T cells leads to significantly increased TH2-mediated airway inflammation in OVA or HDM murine models of asthma. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals that MCPIP1 regulates the development and function of IL-5-producing TH2 cells through the Notch/Gata3 pathway. MCPIP1 represents a new and promising target for the treatment of asthma and other TH2-mediated diseases.
Project description:Picroside II isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum has been used as traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we assessed whether picroside II has inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. In the HDM-induced asthmatic model, picroside II significantly reduced inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig) E and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, airway inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion in the lung tissues. ELISA analysis showed that picroside II down-regulated the levels of Th2-related cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and asthma-related mediators, but it up-regulated Th1-related cytokine, IFN? in BALF. Picroside II also inhibited the expression of Th2 type cytokine genes and the transcription factor GATA3 in the lung tissues of HDM-induced mice. Finally, we demonstrated that picroside II significantly decreased the expression of GATA3 and Th2 cytokines in developing Th2 cells, consistent with in vivo results. Taken together, these results indicate that picroside II has protective effects on allergic asthma by reducing GATA3 expression and Th2 cytokine bias.
Project description:Interleukin-17 (IL-17) induces pathology in autoimmunity and infections; therefore, constraint of this pathway is an essential component of its regulation. We demonstrate that the signaling intermediate MCPIP1 (also termed Regnase-1, encoded by Zc3h12a) is a feedback inhibitor of IL-17 receptor signal transduction. MCPIP1 knockdown enhanced IL-17-mediated signaling, requiring MCPIP1's endoribonuclease but not deubiquitinase domain. MCPIP1 haploinsufficient mice showed enhanced resistance to disseminated Candida albicans infection, which was reversed in an Il17ra(-/-) background. Conversely, IL-17-dependent pathology in Zc3h12a(+/-) mice was exacerbated in both EAE and pulmonary inflammation. MCPIP1 degraded Il6 mRNA directly but only modestly downregulated the IL-6 promoter. However, MCPIP1 strongly inhibited the Lcn2 promoter by regulating the mRNA stability of Nfkbiz, encoding the I?B? transcription factor. Unexpectedly, MCPIP1 degraded Il17ra and Il17rc mRNA, independently of the 3' UTR. The cumulative impact of MCPIP1 on IL-6, I?B?, and possibly IL-17R subunits results in a biologically relevant inhibition of IL-17 signaling.
Project description:Chitin, which is a major component of house dust mites (HDM), fungi, crustaceans, etc., can activate immune cells, suggesting that it contributes to development of allergic disorders such as asthma. Although the pathophysiological sensitization route of asthmatic patients to allergens is considered via the respiratory tract, the roles of intranasally-administered chitin in development of asthma remain unclear. After ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, development of airway inflammation was profoundly exacerbated in mice sensitized with OVA in the presence of chitin. The exacerbation was dependent on IL-33, but not IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-17A. Chitin enhanced IL-33-dependent IL-1? production by dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, chitin- and IL-33-stimulated DC-derived IL-1? promoted OVA-specific Th2 cell activation, resulting in aggravation of OVA-induced airway inflammation. These findings indicate the adjuvant activity of chitin via a new mechanism and provide important clues for development of therapeutics for allergic disorders caused by HDM, fungi and crustaceans.
Project description:When house dust mite (HDM), a common allergen, comes into the mucosal membrane, it may stimulate innate immunity. However, the precise role of interleukin- (IL-) 25 in the development of HDM-induced nasal allergic inflammation is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of IL-25 in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients sensitized to HDM.To confirm the production of IL-25 in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), we stimulated HNECs. IL-25 expression in the nasal mucosa from control, non-AR (NAR) patients, and HDM-sensitized AR patients was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Correlations between IL-25 and other inflammatory markers were explored.An in vitro study showed significantly elevated concentrations of IL-25 in the HNEC samples with highest doses of HDM. Nasal tissues from AR patients sensitized to HDM showed significantly higher IL-25 expression, compared to those from the control or NAR patients. Moreover, the expression of IL-25 in nasal tissues from AR patients sensitized to HDM was positively associated with Th2 markers, such as ECP and GATA3.IL-25 expression increased with high-dose HDM stimulation and was related to Th2 markers. Therefore, IL-25 neutralization might offer a new strategy for treating patients with HDM-sensitized AR.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) may modulate allergic airway inflammation because it is expressed not only on the nerve endings but also on several cells of the immune system. We wanted to know the characteristics of airway and systemic responses against sensitization and challenge with allergens in TRPV1 receptor gene knockout mice (TRPV1(-/-)). METHODS: TRPV1(-/-) and their wild-type counterparts (TRPV1(+/+)) were sensitized with either house dust mite (HDM) or ovalbumin (OVA) via intranasal (i.n.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) route before the final i.n. challenge with the corresponding allergen. One day after the final challenge, serum IgE levels, cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the number of BALF cells were examined after measuring bronchial hyperresponsiveness against methacholine. RESULTS: Compared to TRPV1(+/+), TRPV1(-/-) showed enhanced Th2-biased response after i.n. HDM or OVA sensitization, including increased levels of serum IgE, interleukin 4 (IL-4) and eosinophils in the BALF. By contrast, when sensitized via i.p. route, the response against OVA or HDM was almost similar between TRPV1(+/+) and TRPV1(-/-). CONCLUSION: TRPV1 receptor may downregulate Th2-biased immune response when sensitized via airways, although this was not the case when sensitized systemically.
Project description:ST2hi memory-type Th2 cells are identified as a pathogenic subpopulation in eosinophilic airway inflammation. These ST2hi pathogenic Th2 cells produce large amount of IL-5 upon T cell receptor stimulation, but not in response to IL-33 treatment. By contrast, IL-33 alone induces cytokine production in ST2+ group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). Here we show that a MAPK phosphatase Dusp10 is a key negative regulator of IL-33-induced cytokine production in Th2 cells. In this regard, Dusp10 is expressed by ST2hi pathogenic Th2 cells but not by ILC2, and Dusp10 expression inhibits IL-33-induced cytokine production. Mechanistically, this inhibition is mediated by DUSP10-mediated dephosphorylation and inactivation of p38 MAPK, resulting in reduced GATA3 activity. The deletion of Dusp10 renders ST2hi Th2 cells capable of producing IL-5 by IL-33 stimulation. Our data thus suggest that DUSP10 restricts IL-33-induced cytokine production in ST2hi pathogenic Th2 cells by controlling p38-GATA3 activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some multifunctional cellular proteins, as the monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (ZC3H12A/MCPIP1) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21, are able to modulate the cellular susceptibility to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Several studies showed that CDKN1A/p21 is expressed at high levels ex vivo in cells from individuals who naturally control HIV-1 replication (HIC) and a recent study supports a coordinate regulation of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 transcripts in a model of renal carcinoma cells. Here, we explored the potential associations between mRNA expression of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 in HIC sustaining undetectable (elite controllers-EC) or low (viremic controllers-VC) viral loads. RESULTS:We found a selective upregulation of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 mRNA levels in PBMC from HIC compared with both ART-suppressed and HIV-negative control groups (P??0.02) and higher MCPIP1 and p21 proteins levels in HIC than in HIV-1 negative subjects. There was a moderate positive correlation (r???0.57; P???0.014) between expressions of both transcripts in HIC and in HIC combined with control groups. We found positive correlations between the mRNA level of CDKN1A/p21 with activated CD4+ T cells levels in HIC (r???0.53; P???0.017) and between the mRNA levels of both CDKN1A/p21 (r?=?0.74; P?=?0.005) and ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 (r?=?0.58; P?=?0.040) with plasmatic levels of sCD14 in EC. Reanalysis of published transcriptomic data confirmed the positive association between ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells and monocytes from disparate cohorts of HIC and other HIV-positive control groups. CONCLUSIONS:These data show for the first time the simultaneous upregulation of ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 transcripts in the setting of natural suppression of HIV-1 replication in vivo and the positive correlation of the expression of these cellular factors in disparate cohorts of HIV-positive individuals. The existence of a common regulatory pathway connecting ZC3H12A/MCPIP1 and CDKN1A/p21 could have a synergistic effect on HIV-1 replication control and pharmacological manipulation of these multifunctional host factors may open novel therapeutic perspectives to prevent HIV-1 replication and disease progression.
Project description:Exposure to environmental antigens, such as house dust mite (HDM), often leads to T helper 2 (Th2) cell-driven allergic responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of these responses are incompletely understood. We found that the initial exposure to HDM did not lead to Th2 cell development but instead promoted the formation of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-committed T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Following challenge exposure to HDM, Tfh cells differentiated into IL-4 and IL-13 double-producing Th2 cells that accumulated in the lung and recruited eosinophils. B cells were required to expand IL-4-committed Tfh cells during the sensitization phase, but did not directly contribute to disease. Impairment of Tfh cell responses during the sensitization phase or Tfh cell depletion prevented Th2 cell-mediated responses following challenge. Thus, our data demonstrate that Tfh cells are precursors of HDM-specific Th2 cells and reveal an unexpected role of B cells and Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that IL-22, one of the Th17 cell-related cytokines, plays multiple roles in regulating allergic airway inflammation caused by antigen-specific Th2 cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that allergic airway inflammation and Th2 and Th17 cytokine production upon intratracheal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract, a representative allergen, were exacerbated in IL-22-deficient mice. We also found that IL-22 induces Reg3? production from lung epithelial cells through STAT3 activation and that neutralization of Reg3? significantly exacerbates HDM-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine induction. Moreover, exostatin-like 3 (EXTL3), a functional Reg3? binding protein, is expressed in lung epithelial cells, and intratracheal administration of recombinant Reg3? suppresses HDM-induced thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 expression and accumulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lung. Collectively, these results suggest that IL-22 induces Reg3? production from lung epithelial cells and inhibits the development of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, possibly by inhibiting cytokine production from lung epithelial cells.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Chitin is a potent adjuvant in the development of immune response to inhaled allergens in the airways. According to other studies, chitin is known as multi-faced adjuvants which can induce Th2 responses. Recently, we found that TNF-? is a key mediator in the development of Th2 cell response to inhaled allergens. Here, we evaluated the immunologic mechanisms in the development of airway hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens, enhanced by house dust mite (HDM)-derived chitin.<h4>Methods</h4>The role of TNF-? and TLRs was evaluated in an airway hypersensitivity mouse model induced by a sensitization with an allergen (ovalbumin, OVA) and HDM-derived chitin using mice with the null mutation of target genes.<h4>Results</h4>The present study showed that airway sensitization with HDM-derived chitin plus OVA enhanced OVA-induced airway inflammation v. OVA alone. This phenotype was associated with the increased expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines and also with the enhanced production of OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a. As for T cell responses, OVA-specific Th2 cell response, enhanced by chitin, was abolished by the treatment of chitinase, whereas Th1 and Th17 cell responses enhanced by this treatment. Moreover, the null mutation of the TNF-? gene revealed similar effects as the chitinase treatment. In contrast, all the OVA-specific T cell responses, enhanced by chitin, were blocked by the absence of TLR2, but not of TLR1, TLR4, or TLR6.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, these data suggest that HDM-derived chitin may enhance airway hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens, via the TLR2-dependent pathway, and that chitin-induced TNF-? can be a key mediator in the development of Th2 cell response to inhaled allergens.