Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants treated with the Ky-9 and Ky-72 histone deacetylase inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Histone acetylation plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, and is regulated by the antagonistic relationship between histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). We previously revealed that some HDAC inhibitors confer high-salinity stress tolerance in plants. In this study, we identified two HDAC inhibitors, namely Ky-9 and Ky-72, which enhanced the high-salinity stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ky-9 and Ky-72 are structurally similar chlamydocin analogs. However, the in vitro inhibitory activity of Ky-9 against mammalian HDAC is greater than that of Ky-72. A western blot indicated that Ky-9 and Ky-72 increased the acetylation levels of histone H3, suggesting they exhibit HDAC inhibitory activities in plants. We conducted a transcriptomic analysis to investigate how Ky-9 and Ky-72 enhance high-salinity stress tolerance. Although Ky-9 upregulated the expression of more genes than Ky-72, similar gene expression patterns were induced by both HDAC inhibitors. Additionally, the expression of high-salinity stress tolerance-related genes, such as anthocyanin-related genes and a small peptide-encoding gene, increased by Ky-9 and Ky-72. These data suggest that slight structural differences in chemical side chain between HDAC inhibitors can alter inhibitory effect on HDAC protein leading to influence gene expression, thereby enhancing high-salinity stress tolerance in different extent.
Project description:To analyze the molecular function of HDAC inhibitors in salt stress responses in Arabidopsis, we conducted microarray analysis using 4-day-old plants, which were treated with 1 μM Ky-9 or Ky-72 or water for 24 h, and then treated with or without 100 mM NaCl for 2 h Overall design: Microarray analysis was conducted using HDAC inhibitors-treated and non-treated plants subjected to non-stress and salt-stress condition for 2 h.
Project description:Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) demand has been rising because of its various applications. High salinity stress is a major environmental factor that interferes with normal plant growth and limits crop productivity. As well as genetic engineering to enhance stress tolerance, the use of small molecules is considered as an alternative methodology to modify plants with desired traits. The effectiveness of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for increasing tolerance to salinity stress has recently been reported. Here we use the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), to enhance tolerance to high salinity in cassava. Immunoblotting analysis reveals that SAHA treatment induces strong hyper-acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in roots, suggesting that SAHA functions as the HDAC inhibitor in cassava. Consistent with increased tolerance to salt stress under SAHA treatment, reduced Na+ content and increased K+/Na+ ratio were detected in SAHA-treated plants. Transcriptome analysis to discover mechanisms underlying salinity stress tolerance mediated through SAHA treatment reveals that SAHA enhances the expression of 421 genes in roots under normal condition, and 745 genes at 2 h and 268 genes at 24 h under both SAHA and NaCl treatment. The mRNA expression of genes, involved in phytohormone [abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and gibberellin] biosynthesis pathways, is up-regulated after high salinity treatment in SAHA-pretreated roots. Among them, an allene oxide cyclase (MeAOC4) involved in a crucial step of JA biosynthesis is strongly up-regulated by SAHA treatment under salinity stress conditions, implying that JA pathway might contribute to increasing salinity tolerance by SAHA treatment. Our results suggest that epigenetic manipulation might enhance tolerance to high salinity stress in cassava.
Project description:Histone acetylation plays an important role in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression in terms of responding to abiotic stresses. Histone acetylation is modulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases. Recently, the effectiveness of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) for conferring plant salt tolerance has been reported. However, the role of HDACis in cotton has not been elucidated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) during high salinity stress in cotton. We demonstrated that 10 ?M SAHA pretreatment could rescue of cotton from 250 mM NaCl stress, accompanied with reduced Na+ accumulation and a strong expression of the ion homeostasis-related genes. Western blotting and immunostaining results revealed that SAHA pretreatment could induce global hyperacetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) and histone H4 at lysine 5 (H4K5) under 250 mM NaCl stress, indicating that SAHA could act as the HDACi in cotton. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromatin accessibility coupled with real time quantitative PCR analyses showed that the upregulation of the ion homeostasis-related genes was associated with the elevated acetylation levels of H3K9 and H4K5 and increased chromatin accessibility on the promoter regions of these genes. Our results could provide a theoretical basis for analyzing the mechanism of HDACi application on salt tolerance in plants.
Project description:Acetylation in histone and non-histone proteins is balanced by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymatic activity, an essential aspect of fine-tuning plant response to environmental stresses. HDACs in Arabidopsis are composed of three families (RPD3-like, SIRT, and HD-tuins). A previous study indicated that class I (HDA19) and class II (HDA5/14/15/18) RPD3-like family HDACs control positive and negative responses to salinity stress, respectively. Furthermore, quintuple hda5/14/15/18/19 mutants (quint) exhibit salinity stress tolerance, suggesting that hda19 suppresses the sensitivity to salinity stress present in quadruple hda5/14/15/18 mutants (quad). In the present study, transcriptome analysis of the quint mutant was conducted to elucidate the hierarchical control of salinity stress response operated by RPD3-like family HDACs (HDA5/14/15/18/19). The analysis identified 4,832 salt-responsive genes in wild-type (Col-0), hda19-3, quad, and quint plants and revealed that 56.7% of the salt-responsive genes exhibited a similar expression pattern in both the hda19-3 and quint plants. These results indicate that deficiency in HDA19 has a bigger impact on salinity stress response than in class II HDACs. Furthermore, the expression pattern of genes encoding enzymes that metabolize phytohormones raises the possibility that a drastic change in the homeostasis of phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, and gibberellin, may contribute to increasing stress tolerance in hda19-3 and quint plants. Among these phytohormones, abscisic acid accumulation actually increased in hda19-3 and quint plants, and decreased in quad, compared with wild-type plants. Importantly, 7.8% of the salt-responsive genes in quint plants exhibited a similar expression pattern in quad plants, suggesting that some gene sets are regulated in an HDA5/14/15/18-dependent manner. The transcriptome analysis conducted in the present study revealed the hierarchical and independent regulation of salt stress response that is mediated through HDA19 and class II HDACs.
Project description:Twelve individuals of consanguineous Bedouin kindred presented with autosomal recessive progressive spastic paraplegia evident as of age 0-24 months, with spasticity of lower limbs, hyperreflexia, toe walking and equinus deformity. Kyphoscolisois was evident in older patients. Most had atrophy of the lateral aspects of the tongue and few had intellectual disability. Nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and head and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging were normal in tested subjects. Muscle biopsy showed occasional central nuclei and fiber size variability with small angular fibers. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified a 6.7Mbp disease-associated locus on chromosome 3q21.3-3q22.2 (LOD score 9.02; D3S1290). Whole-exome sequencing identified a single homozygous variant within this locus, c.51_52ins(28); p.(V18fs56*) in KY, segregating in the family as expected and not found in 190 Bedouin controls. High KY transcript levels were demonstrated in muscular organs with lower expression in the CNS. The phenotype is reminiscent of kyphoscoliosis seen in Ky null mice. Two recent studies done independently and parallel to ours describe somewhat similar phenotypes in one and two patients with KY mutations. KY encodes a tranglutaminase-like peptidase, which interacts with muscle cytoskeletal proteins and is part of a Z-band protein complex, suggesting the disease mechanism may resemble myofibrillar myopathy. However, the mixed myopathic-neurologic features caused by human and mouse Ky mutations are difficult to explain by loss of KY sarcomere stabilizing function alone. KY transcription in CNS tissues may imply that it also has a role in neuromotor function, in line with the irregularity of neuromuscular junction in Ky null mutant mice.
Project description:The unique hydrographic setting of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) makes it an ideal tropical marine system to study the influence of regional and global forcings on productivity and [CO2aq] through the late quaternary. Enormous fresh water flux into the BoB and consequent salinity stratification significantly weaken the convective mixing and wind driven processes which are commonly responsible for transport of nutrients to the euphotic zone driving primary productivity. Here we present a high resolution organic carbon-CaCO3 MAR and ?13CTOC records for the last 300 ky from the BoB. The results show significant productivity variation at marine isotope sub-stages and millennial timescales. Colder sub-stages and stadials (Dansgard-Oeschger cycle) show a boost in productivity which may be attributed to thinning of low salinity cap, thereby facilitating efficient nutrient transport across the euphotic zone by the combination of wind driven processes (entrainment and upwelling), convective mixing and cold core eddies. The [CO2aq] was a net result of global pCO2 variation and regional processes. Our long term high-resolution data indicates a possibility of marked change in productivity/biogeochemistry of BOB in the future due to global warming, thus affecting the coastal economy.
Project description:Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are, therefore, promising anti-cancer drugs. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is activated in histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-treated tumor cells, and its growth-inhibitory function contributes to the anti-tumorigenic effect of HDAC inhibitors. We show here that induction of p21 by trichostatin A involves MAP kinase signaling. Activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway by growth factors or stress signals results in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation at the p21 promoter and is crucial for acetylation of the neighboring lysine 14 and recruitment of activated RNA polymerase II in response to trichostatin A treatment. In non-induced cells, the protein phosphatase PP2A is associated with the p21 gene and counteracts its activation. Induction of p21 is linked to simultaneous acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3. The dual modification mark H3S10phK14ac at the activated p21 promoter is recognized by the phospho-binding protein 14-3-3?, which protects the phosphoacetylation mark from being processed by PP2A. Taken together we have revealed a cross-talk of reversible phosphorylation and acetylation signals that controls the activation of p21 by HDAC inhibitors and identify the phosphatase PP2A as chromatin-associated transcriptional repressor in mammalian cells.
Project description:We describe a new early-onset neuromuscular disorder due to a homozygous loss-of-function variant in the kyphoscoliosis peptidase gene (KY). A 7.5-year-old girl with walking difficulties from 2 years of age presented with generalized muscle weakness; mild contractures in the shoulders, hips and feet; cavus feet; and lordosis but no scoliosis. She had previously been operated with Achilles tendon elongation. Whole-body MRI showed atrophy and fatty infiltration in the calf muscles. Biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle showed variability in fiber size, with some internalized nuclei and numerous very small fibers with variable expression of developmental myosin heavy chain isoforms. Some small fibers showed abnormal sarcomeres with thickened Z-discs and small nemaline rods. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous one-base deletion (c.1071delG, p.(Thr358Leufs*3)) in KY, predicted to result in a truncated protein. Analysis of an RNA panel showed that KY is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle in humans. A recessive variant in the murine ortholog Ky was previously described in a spontaneously generated mouse mutant with kyphoscoliosis, which developed postnatally and was caused by dystrophy of postural muscles. The abnormal distribution of Xin and Ky-binding partner filamin C in the muscle fibers of our patient was highly similar to their altered localization in ky/ky mouse muscle fibers. We describe the first human case of disease associated with KY inactivation. As in the mouse model, the affected child showed a neuromuscular disorder - but in contrast, no kyphoscoliosis.