Effect of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor luseogliflozin on pancreatic beta cell mass in db/db mice of different ages.
ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, on pancreatic beta cell mass in db/db mice of different ages. db/db mice aged 6, 10, 14 and 24 weeks old were fed either standard chow (control group) or standard chow containing 0.01% luseogliflozin (luseo group). After 4 weeks, immunohistochemistry and gene expression tests were conducted. In 6-week-old db/db mice, immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in beta cell mass in the luseo group compared with the control group after 4 weeks of treatment. Gene expression profiling of isolated islets showed upregulation Mafa, Pdx1, Ki67 and Ccnd2 in the luseo group. Beta cell mass decreased with age in db/db mice in the control group. Beta cell mass in the luseo group significantly increased compared with the control group regardless of age, although beta cell mass in the 28-week-old luseo group (4 weeks of treatment in 24-week-old db/db mice) was significantly lower than in the 10-week-old luseo group (4 weeks of treatment in 6-week-old db/db mice). Luseogliflozin preserved beta cell mass in db/db mice. The protective effect was more evident in the earlier phase of diabetes.
Project description:Impaired executive function is a major peril for patients with type 2 diabetes, reducing quality of life and ability for diabetes management. Despite the significance of this impairment, few animal models of type 2 diabetes examine domains of executive function such as cognitive flexibility or working memory. Here, we evaluated these executive function domains in db/db mice, an established model of type 2 diabetes, at 10 and 24 weeks of age. The db/db mice showed impaired cognitive flexibility in the Morris water maze reversal phase. However, the db/db mice did not show apparent working memory disturbance in the spatial working memory version of the Morris water maze or in the radial water maze. We also examined axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier, key axonal domains for action potential initiation and propagation. AIS were significantly shortened in medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of 26-week-old db/db mice compared with controls, similar to our previous findings in 10-week-old mice. Nodes of Ranvier in corpus callosum, previously shown to be unchanged at 10 weeks, were elongated at 26 weeks, suggesting an important role for this domain in disease progression. Together, the findings help establish db/db mice as a model of impaired cognitive flexibility in type 2 diabetes and advance our understanding of its pathophysiology.
Project description:The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and inflammation, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate whether p38 MAPK contributes to the pathogenesis of T2DM. 6-week-old female db/db mice were randomly assigned to Dmo and Dmi groups, and C57 mice were assigned as controls. The Dmi group was gavaged with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 for 9?weeks, and the effects on ? cell dysfunction and apoptosis were investigated. db/db mice showed higher food intake, body mass, fasting glucose, and plasma insulin levels than C57 mice. After SB203580 administration, blood glucose was significantly lower. HOMA ? and HOMA IR were improved. Islet mRNA expression levels of the ERS markers were lower. P38 MAPK inhibition reduced blood glucose and improved ? cell function, at least in part by reducing ? cell apoptosis.
Project description:Aim/Introduction:? Preservation of ?-cell mass is crucial for maintaining long-term glucose homeostasis. Therapies based on incretin and its mimetics are expected to achieve this goal through various biological functions, particularly the restoration of ?-cell mass. Here we tested the effects of gastrin and exendin-4 in type 2 diabetic animals.? The effects of exendin-4 and gastrin on ?-cell function and mass were examined in 8-week-old db/db mice. INS-1 beta cells and AR42J cells were used to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of the two agents. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR assays were used to assess the biological effects of the two agents.? Two weeks of combination administration of exendin-4 plus gastrin resulted in a significant improvement of glucose tolerance associated with a marked preservation of ?-cell mass in db/db mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that such treatment resulted in the appearance of numerous irregularly-shaped small islets and single insulin-positive cells. While gastrin had little biological effect on INS-1 ?-cells consistent with low expression of its intrinsic receptor on these cells, it caused differentiation of AR42J cells into insulin-producing cells. Co-stimulation with exendin-4 significantly enhanced gastrin-induced endocrine differentiation of AR42J precursor cells. These findings were further supported by enhanced expression of key genes involved in ?-cell differentiation and maturation, such as neurogenin3 (Ngn3) and MafA.? These results suggest that combination treatment of db/db mice with exendin-4 and gastrin preserves ?-cell mass by stimulating ?-cell growth and differentiation. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.00044.x, 2010).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent large-scale clinical studies demonstrate that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors protect the diabetic kidney. However, clinical and animal studies have not shown the changes of the total glomeruli in the whole kidney treated with SGLT2 inhibitors. METHODS:We performed computed tomography (CT) imaging on mice using synchrotron radiation to investigate the impact of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on the number and volume of glomeruli in the whole kidney. FINDINGS:We did not observe a significant difference in the total glomerular number (Nglom) among mice. Luseogliflozin redistributed the number of glomeruli in different regions, accompanied by the normalization of diabetes-augmented renal volume (Vkidney). Diabetic db/db mice had a larger glomerular volume in the mid-cortex than did control db/m mice, and luseogliflozin increased the glomerular volume in all renal cortical zones of the whole kidney in db/db mice. According to the multivariate regression analysis, hemoglobin A1c level was the most relevant determinant of Vkidney, not Nglom or mean glomerular volume (Vglom), indicating that hyperglycemia induced renal (tubular) hypertrophy, but not glomerular enlargement. Luseogliflozin increased hypoxia in the juxtamedullary region, sustained upregulated renal renin expression and plasma renin activity, and failed to decrease albuminuria by downregulating megalin in db/db mice. INTERPRETATION:Based on our findings, SGLT2 inhibitors may alter glomerular distribution and size in addition to their glucose-lowering effects, presumably by affecting oxygen metabolism and humoral factors. FUND: Funding for this research was provided by The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japan Diabetes Foundation, and Asahikawa Medical University.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes is associated with diabetic cognopathy. Anti-hyperglycemic sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown promise in reducing cognitive impairment in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recently described marked ultrastructural (US) remodeling of the neurovascular unit (NVU) in type 2 diabetic db/db female mice. Herein, we tested whether the SGLT-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin (EMPA), protects the NVU from abnormal remodeling in cortical gray and subcortical white matter. Ten-week-old female wild-type and db/db mice were divided into lean controls (CKC, n = 3), untreated db/db (DBC, n = 3), and EMPA-treated db/db (DBE, n = 3). Empagliflozin was added to mouse chow to deliver 10 mg kg-1 day-1 and fed for ten weeks, initiated at 10 weeks of age. Brains from 20-week-old mice were immediately immersion fixed for transmission electron microscopic study. Compared to CKC, DBC exhibited US abnormalities characterized by mural endothelial cell tight and adherens junction attenuation and/or loss, pericyte attenuation and/or loss, basement membrane thickening, glia astrocyte activation with detachment and retraction from mural cells, microglia cell activation with aberrant mitochondria, and oligodendrocyte?myelin splitting, disarray, and axonal collapse. We conclude that these abnormalities in the NVU were prevented in DBE. Empagliflozin may provide neuroprotection in the diabetic brain.
Project description:Degradation of the glycocalyx and stiffening of endothelium are important pathophysiological components of endothelial dysfunction. However, to our knowledge, these events have not been investigated in tandem in experimental diabetes. Here, the mechanical properties of the glycocalyx and endothelium in ex vivo mouse aorta were determined simultaneously in indentation experiments with an atomic force microscope (AFM) for diabetic db/db and control db/+ mice at ages of 11-19 weeks. To analyze highly heterogeneous aorta samples, we developed a tailored classification procedure of indentation data based on a bi-layer brush model supplemented with Hertz model for quantification of nanomechanics of endothelial regions with and without the glycocalyx surface. In db/db mice, marked endothelial stiffening and reduced glycocalyx coverage were present already in 11-week-old mice and persisted in older animals. In contrast, reduction of the effective glycocalyx length was progressive and was most pronounced in 19-week-old db/db mice. The reduction of the glycocalyx length correlated with an increasing level of glycated haemoglobin and decreased endothelial NO production. In conclusion, AFM nanoindentation analysis revealed that stiffening of endothelial cells and diminished glycocalyx coverage occurred in early diabetes and were followed by the reduction of the glycocalyx length that correlated with diabetes progression.
Project description:Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has an anti-inflammatory effect, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation. Previous studies showed attenuation of diabetic nephropathy with MMF, but the underlying mechanisms were unclear. This study aimed to identify the effect of MMF on diabetic nephropathy and investigate its action mechanisms in type 2 diabetic mice model. Eight-week-old db/db and control mice (db/m mice) received vehicle or MMF at a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. MMF-treated diabetic mice showed decreased albuminuria, attenuated mesangial expansion, and profibrotic mRNA expressions despite the high glucose level. The number of infiltrated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the kidney was significantly decreased in MMF-treated db/db mice and it resulted in attenuating elevated intrarenal TNF-? and IL-17. The renal chemokines expression and macrophages infiltration were also attenuated by MMF treatment. The decreased expression of glomerular nephrin and WT1 was recovered with MMF treatment. MMF prevented the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice independent of glycemic control. These results suggest that the effects of MMF in diabetic nephropathy are mediated by CD4(+) T cell regulation and related cytokines.
Project description:Little is known about the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on coronary arteriole remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms that underlie coronary arteriole structural remodeling in type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. Passive structural properties of septal coronary arterioles isolated from 12- to 16-week-old diabetic db/db and control mice were assessed by pressure myography. Coronary arterioles from 12-week-old db/db mice were structurally similar to age-matched controls. By 16 weeks of age, coronary wall thickness was increased in db/db arterioles (p < 0.01), while luminal diameter was reduced (control: 118 ± 5 ?m; db/db: 102 ± 4 ?m, p < 0.05), augmenting the wall-to-lumen ratio by 58% (control: 5.9 ± 0.6; db/db: 9.5 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). Inward hypertrophic remodeling was accompanied by a 56% decrease in incremental elastic modulus (p < 0.05, indicating decreased vessel coronary wall stiffness) and a ~30% reduction in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in diabetic mice. Interestingly, aortic pulse wave velocity and femoral artery incremental elastic modulus were increased (p < 0.05) in db/db mice, indicating macrovascular stiffness. Molecular tissue analysis revealed increased elastin-to-collagen ratio in diabetic coronaries when compared to control and a decrease in the same ratio in the diabetic aortas. These data show that coronary arterioles isolated from type 2 diabetic mice undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling associated with decreased stiffness and increased elastin-to-collagen ratio which results in a decreased CFR. This study suggests that coronary microvessels undergo a different pattern of remodeling from macrovessels in type 2 DM.
Project description:We investigated the effect of a combination treatment with dapagliflozin (Dapa), a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and butyrate on weight change in db/db mice. Six-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to four groups: vehicle with normal chow diet (NCD), Dapa with NCD, vehicle with 5% sodium butyrate-supplemented NCD (NaB), or Dapa with 5% NaB. After six weeks of treatment, faecal microbiota composition was analysed by sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA genes. In the vehicle with NaB and Dapa?+?NaB groups, body weight increase was attenuated, and amount of food intake decreased compared with the vehicle with the NCD group. The Dapa?+?NaB group gained the least total and abdominal fat from baseline. Intestinal microbiota of this group was characterized by a decrease of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, a decrease of Adlercreutzia and Alistipes, as well as an increase of Streptococcus. In addition, the proportion of Adlercreutzia and Alistipes showed a positive correlation with total fat gain, whereas Streptococcus showed a negative correlation. Inferred metagenome function revealed that tryptophan metabolism was upregulated by NaB treatment. We demonstrated a synergistic effect of Dapa and NaB treatment on adiposity reduction, and this phenomenon might be related to intestinal microbiota alteration.
Project description:Huanglian-Renshen-Decoction (HRD) is widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We aimed to investigate the mechanism by which HRD regulates the glucose level. Forty 7-8-week-old db/db (BSK) mice were randomly assigned to the following four groups: model, low dose HRD (LHRD), high dose HRD (HHRD), and saxagliptin (SAX). Additionally, 10 db/m mice were assigned to control group. The experimental mice were administered 3.03g/kg/d and 6.06g/kg/d of HRD in the LHRD and HHRD groups, respectively, and 10mg/kg/d saxagliptin in the SAX group for 8 weeks. The control and model groups were supplied with distilled water. After the intervention, the pancreas and blood were collected and tested. Compared with that of model group, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) was significantly decreased in all intervention groups (p < 0.05 or 0.01), whereas fasting serum insulin (FINS) was increased significantly in both HHRD and SAX groups. The immunofluorescence images showed that the mass of insulin+ cells was increased and that of glucagon+ cells was reduced obviously in experimental groups compared to those of the model group. In addition, the coexpression of insulin, glucagon, and PDX1 was decreased in HHRD group, and the level of caspase 12 in islet was decreased significantly in all intervention groups. However, little difference was found in the number and morphology of islet, and the expression of ki67, bcl2, bax, caspase 3, and cleaved-caspase 3 in the pancreas among groups. Interestingly, the cleaved-Notch1 level was increased and the Ngn3 level in islet was decreased significantly in HHRD group. The HRD showed dose-dependent effects on glucose metabolism improvement through maintenance of ? cell identity via a mechanism that might involve the Notch1/Ngn3 signal pathway in db/db mice.