The DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulates IL-9 production in CD4(+) T cells.
ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of CD4(+) IL-9-producing helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, TGF-?1 and IL-4 downregulated Id3 expression, and this process required the kinase TAK1. A reduction in Id3 expression enhanced binding of the transcription factors E2A and GATA-3 to the Il9 promoter region, which promoted Il9 transcription. Notably, Id3-mediated control of TH9 differentiation regulated anti-tumor immunity in an experimental melanoma-bearing model in vivo and also in human CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized TAK1-Id3-E2A-GATA-3 pathway that regulates TH9 differentiation.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of IL-9-producing CD4+ helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 cell differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4+ T cells. Mechanistically, TGF-β1 and IL-4 downregulated Id3 expression, and this process required the kinase TAK1. A reduction in Id3 expression enhanced binding of the transcription factors E2A and GATA-3 to the Il9 promoter region, which promoted Il9 transcription. Notably, Id3’s control of TH9 differentiation regulated anti-tumor immunity in an experimental melanoma-bearing model in vivo and also in human CD4+ T cells in vitro. Thus, our study reveals a previously unrecognized TAK1–Id3–E2A–GATA-3 pathway that regulates TH9 differentiation. Overall design: Comapring of GATA3 binding after the TGF-β1 and IL-4 stimulations
Project description:With reduced thymic activity, the population of naïve T cells in humans is maintained by homeostatic proliferation throughout adult life. In young adults, naïve CD4 T cells have enormous proliferative potential and plasticity to differentiate into different lineages. Here, we explored whether naïve CD4 T-cell aging is associated with a partial loss of this unbiased multipotency. We find that naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals have developed a propensity to develop into TH9 cells. Two major mechanisms contribute to this predisposition. First, responsiveness to transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) stimulation is enhanced with age due to an upregulation of the TGF?R3 receptor that results in increased expression of the transcription factor PU.1. Secondly, aged naïve CD4 T cells display altered transcription factor profiles in response to T-cell receptor stimulation, including enhanced expression of BATF and IRF4 and reduced expression of ID3 and BCL6. These transcription factors are involved in TH9 differentiation as well as IL9 transcription suggesting that the aging-associated changes in the transcription factor profile favor TH9 commitment.
Project description:IL-9 is a proallergic cytokine produced by a newly proposed Th cell subset, Th9. Th9 cells can be generated by treatment of naive T cells with TGF-? and IL-4 in vitro. However, it is still not clear how TGF-? signaling regulates Th9 differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that Smad2 and Smad4, two transcriptional factors activated by TGF-? signaling, are required for Th9 differentiation in vitro. Deficiency of Smad2 or Smad4 in T cells resulted in impaired IL-9 expression, which was coincident with enrichment of repressive chromatin modification histone H3 K27 trimethylation and enhanced EZH2 binding to the Il9 locus. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 partially rescued IL-9 production in Smad-deficient Th9 cells. Smad proteins may displace EZH2 directly from the Il9 locus, because Smad2 and Smad4 can bind EZH2. Our data shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying Th9 cell differentiation, revealing that the TGF-?-Smad2/4-signaling pathway regulates IL-9 production through an epigenetic mechanism.
Project description:Tumor-specific CD4+ T helper 9 (TH9) cells, so-called because of their production of the cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9), are a powerful effector T cell subset for cancer immunotherapy. We found that pretreatment of naïve CD4+ T cells with IL-7 further enhanced their differentiation into TH9 cells and augmented their antitumor activity. IL-7 markedly increased the abundance of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by activating the STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways and promoting the acetylation of histones at the Il9 promoter. As a result, the transcriptional regulator Foxo1 was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, bound to the Il9 promoter, and induced the production of IL-9 protein. In contrast, Foxp1, which bound to the Il9 promoter in naïve CD4+ T cells and inhibited Il9 expression, was outcompeted for binding to the Il9 promoter by Foxo1 and translocated to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, forced expression of Foxo1 or a deficiency in Foxp1 in CD4+ T cells markedly increased the production of IL-9, whereas a deficiency in Foxo1 inhibited the ability of IL-7 to enhance the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells. Thus, we identified the roles of Foxo1 as a positive regulator and Foxp1 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation and antitumor activity, which may provide potential targets for cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Th9 cells preferentially produce IL-9 and participate in allergic responses and asthma. Differentiation of Th9 cells is induced by IL-4 and TGF-?, and then the cells are amplified by OX40 signals. The transcription factors PU.1, IRF4, and BATF are required for Th9 differentiation. BATF3 is an AP-1 family transcription factor that is highly homologous to BATF; however, its role in Th9 cells is poorly defined. Here, we show that OX40 signaling induced the expression of Batf3 and that its overexpression in the presence or absence of OX40 signaling increased the expression of IL-9 in Th9 cells. BATF3 physically interacted with IRF4 and was bound to the Il9 locus. A transient reporter assay revealed that the BATF3-IRF4 complex induced Il9 promoter activity. BATF3 rescued Il9 expression and restored the capacity to induce the airway inflammation in Batf KO Th9 cells. Thus, BATF3 itself is sufficient for the induction of Th9 cell differentiation and can substitute for BATF during Th9 cell differentiation.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms that direct transcription of the gene encoding the transcription factor Foxp3 in CD4(+) T cells remain ill-defined. We show here that deletion of the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 resulted in the defective generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells). We identify two transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-dependent mechanisms that were vital for activation of Foxp3 transcription and were defective in Id3(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Enhanced binding of the transcription factor E2A to the Foxp3 promoter promoted Foxp3 transcription. Id3 was required for relief of inhibition by the transcription factor GATA-3 at the Foxp3 promoter. Furthermore, Id3(-/-) T cells showed greater differentiation into the T(H)17 subset of helper T cells in vitro and in a mouse asthma model. Therefore, a network of factors acts in a TGF-?-dependent manner to control Foxp3 expression and inhibit the development of T(H)17 cells.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-9-producing CD4(+) T cells are a novel subset of T helper (Th) cells that develops independently of the Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T-cell lineages. Similar to the murine model, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-4 directed human naive CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-9. Whereas IL-4 suppressed TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 expression, TGF-beta failed to inhibit IL-4-mediated upregulation of the Th2 transcription factor GATA-3. Addition of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-beta or IL-21 to Th9-polarizing conditions augmented Th9 differentiation, while the Th1-associated cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-27 partially suppressed IL-9 production. Given that T cells are a primary source of IL-21, IL-21 expression was analyzed under Th9-polarizing conditions in the context of inflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, type I IFNs induced elevated levels of IL-21, and blockade of IL-21 abrogated their ability to enhance Th9 differentiation. Taken together, these data indicate a complex cytokine network in the regulation of human IL-9-producing CD4(+) T cells.
Project description:We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4+ T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4+ T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted a gene expression analysis of murine naïve CD4+ T-cells stimulated in the presence or absence of TLR2 co-stimulation. Unexpectedly, naïve CD4+ T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28. Under TH9 differentiation, we observed up-regulation of TH9 differentiation, evidenced by increases in both percent of IL-9 secreting cells and IL-9 in culture supernatants in the presence of TLR2 agonist both in polyclonal and Ag85B cognate peptide specific stimulations. Under non-polarizing conditions, TLR2 engagement on CD4+ T-cells had minimal effect on IL-9 secretion and TH9 differentiation, likely due to a prominent effect of TLR2 signaling on IFN-? secretion and TH1 differentiation. We also report that, TLR2 signaling in CD4+ T cells increased expression of transcription factors BATF and PU.1, known to positively regulate TH9 differentiation. These results reveal a novel role of T-cell expressed TLR2 in enhancing the differentiation and function of TH9 T cells.
Project description:We found that IL-7 pretreatment enhanced Th9 differentiation. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, we examine the gene expression profiles of CD4+ T cell and Th9 cells with or without IL-7 pretreatment. In Th9 cells, we found that Th9 related genes were greatly increased in IL-7 Th9 group, which demonstrated an enhanced Th9 differentiation. In CD4+ T cells, we found that IL-7 treatment resulted in a global gene expression change especially on chromatin remodeling related genes, which facilitated the entry of transcriptional factor to the Il9 promoter region and promoted Il9 transcription. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from naïve CD4+ T cells or Th9 cells from C57BL/6 mice with or without IL-7 treatment; For CD4+ T cells, IL-7 treated for 0h, 6h or 24h. For Th9 cells, naïve CD4+ T cells were treated for 48h and then cultured for 3 days under Th9 condittion.
Project description:T helper 9 (Th9) cells are effector CD4+ T cells that are characterized by the production of interleukin-9 (IL-9) and have been associated with allergic responses. Here, we found that the expression of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) was induced in Th9 and Foxo1 plays a crucial role in the differentiation of Th9 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Foxo1 or genetic disruption of Foxo1 in CD4+ T cells caused a reduction in IL-9 expression while upregulating IL-17A and IFN? production. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by luciferase assays revealed direct binding of Foxo1 to both the Il9 and Irf4 promoters and induces their transactivation. Lastly, adoptive transfer of Th9 cells into lungs induced asthma-like symptoms that were ameliorated by Foxo1 inhibitor, AS1842856. Together, our findings demonstrate a novel regulator of Th9 cells with a direct implication in allergic inflammation.