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All-trans-retinoic acid activates the pro-invasive Src-YAP-Interleukin 6 axis in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells while cerivastatin reverses this action.
ABSTRACT: All-trans-retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, can reduce the malignant phenotype in some types of cancer and paradoxically also can promote cancer growth and invasion in others. For instance, it has been reported that RA induces tumor suppression in tumor xenografts of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells while increasing tumor growth and metastases in xenografts of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The signaling pathways involved in the pro-invasive action of retinoic acid remain mostly unknown. We show here that RA activates the pro-invasive axis Src-YAP-Interleukin 6 (Src-YAP-IL6) in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, yielding to increased invasion of these cells. On the contrary, RA inhibits the Src-YAP-IL6 axis of triple-negative MDA-MB-468 cells, which results in decreased invasion phenotype. In both types of cells, inhibition of the Src-YAP-IL6 axis by the Src inhibitor PP2 drastically reduces migration and invasion. Src inhibition also downregulates the expression of a pro-invasive isoform of VEGFR1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, interference of YAP nuclear translocation using the statin cerivastatin reverses the upregulation of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the pro-invasive effect of RA on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and also decreases invasion and viability of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. These results altogether suggest that RA induces pro-invasive or anti-invasive actions in two triple-negative breast cancer cell lines due to its ability to activate or inhibit the Src-YAP-IL6 axis in different cancer cells. The pro-invasive effect of RA can be reversed by the statin cerivastatin.
Project description:Withaferin A (WA) isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently become an attractive phytochemical under investigation in various preclinical studies for treatment of different cancer types. In the present study, a comparative pathway-based transcriptome analysis was applied in epithelial-like MCF-7 and triple negative mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exposed to different concentrations of WA which can be detected systemically in in vivo experiments. Whereas WA treatment demonstrated attenuation of multiple cancer hallmarks, the withanolide analogue Withanone (WN) did not exert any of the described effects at comparable concentrations. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WA targets specific cancer processes related to cell death, cell cycle and proliferation, which could be functionally validated by flow cytometry and real-time cell proliferation assays. WA also strongly decreased MDA-MB-231 invasion as determined by single-cell collagen invasion assay. This was further supported by decreased gene expression of extracellular matrix-degrading proteases (uPA, PLAT, ADAM8), cell adhesion molecules (integrins, laminins), pro-inflammatory mediators of the metastasis-promoting tumor microenvironment (TNFSF12, IL6, ANGPTL2, CSF1R) and concomitant increased expression of the validated breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene (BRMS1). In line with the transcriptional changes, nanomolar concentrations of WA significantly decreased protein levels and corresponding activity of uPA in MDA-MB-231 cell supernatant, further supporting its anti-metastatic properties. Finally, hierarchical clustering analysis of 84 chromatin writer-reader-eraser enzymes revealed that WA treatment of invasive mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells reprogrammed their transcription levels more similarly towards the pattern observed in non-invasive MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, taking into account that sub-cytotoxic concentrations of WA target multiple metastatic effectors in therapy-resistant triple negative breast cancer, WA-based therapeutic strategies targeting the uPA pathway hold promise for further (pre)clinical development to defeat aggressive metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a proclivity for locoregional invasion. HNSCC mediates invasion in part through invadopodia-based proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Activation of Src, Erk1/2, Abl and Arg downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) modulates invadopodia activity through phosphorylation of the actin regulatory protein cortactin. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Abl and Arg function downstream of Src to phosphorylate cortactin, promoting invadopodia ECM degradation activity and thus assigning a pro-invasive role for Ableson kinases. We report that Abl kinases have an opposite, negative regulatory role in HNSCC where they suppress invadopodia and tumor invasion. Impairment of Abl expression or Abl kinase activity with imatinib mesylate enhanced HNSCC matrix degradation and 3D collagen invasion, functions that were impaired in MDA-MB-231. HNSCC lines with elevated EGFR and Src activation did not contain increased Abl or Arg kinase activity, suggesting that Src could bypass Abl/Arg to phosphorylate cortactin and promote invadopodia ECM degradation. Src-transformed Abl(-/-)/Arg(-/-) fibroblasts produced ECM degrading invadopodia containing pY421 cortactin, indicating that Abl/Arg are dispensable for invadopodia function in this system. Imatinib-treated HNSCC cells had increased EGFR, Erk1/2 and Src activation, enhancing cortactin pY421 and pS405/418 required for invadopodia function. Imatinib stimulated shedding of the EGFR ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) from HNSCC cells, where soluble HB-EGF enhanced invadopodia ECM degradation in HNSCC but not in MDA-MB-231. HNSCC cells treated with inhibitors of the EGFR-invadopodia pathway indicated that EGFR and Src are required for invadopodia function. Collectively, our results indicate that Abl kinases negatively regulate HNSCC invasive processes through suppression of an HB-EGF autocrine loop responsible for activating a EGFR-Src-cortactin cascade, in contrast to the invasion promoting functions of Abl kinases in breast and other cancer types. Our results provide mechanistic support for recent failed HNSCC clinical trials utilizing imatinib.
Project description:The non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL drives myeloid progenitor expansion in human chronic myeloid leukemia. ABL inhibition by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is a first-line treatment for this disease. Recently, ABL has also been implicated in the transforming properties of solid tumors, including triple negative (TN) breast cancer. TN breast cancers are highly metastatic and several cell lines derived from these tumors display high invasive activity in vitro. This feature is associated with the activation of actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia that promote extracellular matrix degradation. Here, we investigated nilotinib effect on the invasive and migratory properties of different TN breast cancer cell lines. Nilotinib decreased both matrix degradation and invasion in the TN breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. However, and unexpectedly, nilotinib increased by two-fold the invasive properties of the TN breast cancer cell line BT-549 and of Src-transformed fibroblasts. Both display much higher levels of ABL kinase activity compared to MDA-MB 231. Similar effects were obtained by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of ABL expression, confirming ABL central role in this process. ABL anti-tumor effect in BT-549 cells and Src-transformed fibroblasts was not dependent on EGF secretion, as recently reported in neck and squamous carcinoma cells. Rather, we identified the TRIO-RAC1 axis as an important downstream element of ABL activity in these cancer cells. In conclusion, the observation that TN breast cancer cell lines respond differently to ABL inhibitors could have implications for future therapies.
Project description:Src family kinases control multiple cancer cell properties including cell cycle progression, survival, and metastasis. Recent studies suggest that the Src inhibitor dasatinib blocks these critical cancer cell functions.Because the molecular mechanism of action of dasatinib in breast cancers has not been investigated, we evaluated the effects of dasatinib as a single agent and in combination with the commonly used chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, on the proliferation, viability, and invasive capacity of breast cancer cells lines earlier categorised as dasatinib-sensitive (MDA-MB-231) and moderately resistant (MCF7 and T47D). We also tested the effects of these drugs on the actin cytoskeleton and associated signalling pathways.The cell lines tested varied widely in sensitivity to growth inhibition (IC(50)=0.16-12.3 microM), despite comparable Src kinase inhibition by dasatinib (IC(50)=17-37 nM). In the most sensitive cell line, MDA-MB-231, dasatinib treatment induced significant G(1) accumulation with little apoptosis, disrupted cellular morphology, blocked migration, inhibited invasion through Matrigel (P<0.01), and blocked the formation of invadopodia (P<0.001). Importantly, combination treatment with doxorubicin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition in all cell lines and blocked the migration and invasion of the highly metastatic, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cell line.The observed synergy between dasatinib and doxorubicin warrants the re-evaluation of dasatinib as an effective agent in multi-drug regimens for the treatment of invasive breast cancers.
Project description:Bone metastasis is a severe complication of advanced breast cancer, resulting in osteolysis and increased mortality in patients. Raddeanin A (RA), isolated from traditional Chinese herbs, is an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin with anticancer potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of RA in breast cancer-induced osteolysis and elucidated the possible mechanisms involved in this process. We first verified that RA could suppress osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. Next, we confirmed that RA suppressed Ti-particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model, possibly through inhibition of the SRC/AKT signaling pathway. A breast cancer-induced osteolysis mouse model further revealed the positive protective effects of RA by micro-computed tomography and histology. Finally, we demonstrated that RA inhibited invasion and AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results indicate that RA is an effective inhibitor of breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
Project description:Many solid tumors, including breast cancer, show increased activation of several growth factor receptors, specifically epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its family members as well as c-Src, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that promotes proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, and induces metastasis. We hypothesize that inhibition of c-Src and EGFRs will be an effective therapeutic strategy for triple-negative breast cancer. To test our hypothesis, we used a c-Src-specific inhibitor dasatinib (BMS-354825; Bristol-Myers Squibb) and our newly developed ErbB-inhibitory protein (EBIP), a potential pan-ErbB inhibitor, in breast cancer cells. EBIP is composed of 1 to 448 amino acids of the ectodomain of human EGFR to which the 30-amino acid epitope (known as "U" region) of rat EGFR-related protein is fused at the COOH-terminal end. The combination of dasatinib and EBIP was found to be highly effective in inhibiting the growth of four different breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-468, SKBr-3, MDA-MB-453, and MDA-MB-231) that express different levels of EGFRs. In EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-468 cells, the combination, but not monotherapy, markedly stimulated apoptosis mediated by caspase-9 and caspase-8 and attenuated activation of EGFR and Src as well as tyrosine kinase activity. EBIP also inhibited heregulin-induced activation of HER-2 and HER-3 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. The combination therapy was highly effective in suppressing tumor growth ( approximately 90% inhibition) in MDA-MB-468-derived xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice. The latter could be attributed to induction of apoptosis. We conclude that combining dasatinib and EBIP could be an effective therapeutic strategy for breast cancer by targeting EGFRs and Src signaling.
Project description:Src kinase is elevated in breast tumors that are ER/PR negative and do not overexpress HER2, but clinical trials with Src inhibitors have shown little activity. The present study evaluated preclinical efficacy of a novel peptidomimetic compound, KX-01 (KX2-391), that exhibits dual action as an Src and pretubulin inhibitor. KX-01 was evaluated as a single-agent and in combination with paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-468 human ER/PR/HER2-negative breast cancer cells. Treatments were evaluated by growth/apoptosis, isobologram analysis, migration/invasion assays, tumor xenograft volume, metastasis, and measurement of Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), microtubules, Ki67, and microvessel density. KX-01 inhibited cell growth in vitro and in combination with paclitaxel resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. KX-01 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 tumor xenografts (1 and 5 mg/kg, twice daily). KX-01 inhibited activity of Src and downstream mediator FAK in tumors that was coincident with reduced proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. KX01 also resulted in microtubule disruption in tumors. Combination of KX-01 with paclitaxel resulted in significant regression of MDA-MB-231 tumors and reduced metastasis to mouse lung and liver. KX-01 is a potently active Src/pretubulin inhibitor that inhibits breast tumor growth and metastasis. As ER/PR/HER2-negative patients are candidates for paclitaxel therapy, combination with KX-01 may potentiate antitumor efficacy in management of this aggressive breast cancer subtype.
Project description:Goniothalamin (GTN) is toxic to several types of cancer cells in vitro. However, its effects on non-apoptotic cell death induction of human cancer cells have been poorly documented. Here, an investigation of the anti-cancer activity of GTN and the molecular signaling pathways of non-apoptotic cell death in the invasive human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line were undertaken. Apoptotic cell death was suppressed by using a pan-caspase inhibitor (Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone), z-VAD-fmk) as a model to study whether GTN induced caspase-independent cell death. In the anoikis study, MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured on poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)- or poly-HEMA- coated plates to mimic anoikis-resistance growth and determine whether GTN induced cell death and the mechanisms involved. GTN and z-VAD-fmk induced human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo necroptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses, with increased expressions of necroptotic genes such as rip1, rip3, and mlkl. GTN induced MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo anoikis via reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) protein expressions, inhibited the EGFR/FAK/Src survival signaling pathway, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase secretion.
Project description:Constitutive STAT3 activation by tyrosine phosphorylation of mutated or amplified tyrosine kinases (pYSTAT3) is critical for cancer initiation, progression, invasion, and motility of carcinoma cells. We showed that AF1q is associated with STAT3 signaling in breast cancer cells. In xenograft models, enhanced AF1q expression activated STAT3 and promoted tumor growth and metastasis in immunodeficient NSG mice. The cytokine secretory phenotype of MDA-MB-231LN breast cancer cells with altered AF1q expression revealed changes in expression of platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B). AF1q-induced PDGF-B stimulated motility, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231LN cells, and AF1q up-regulated platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling. Further, AF1q-induced PDGFR signaling enhanced STAT3 activity through Src kinase activation, which could be blocked by the Src kinase inhibitor PP1. Moreover, AF1q up-regulated tyrosine kinase signaling through PDGFR signaling, which was blockable by imatinib. In conclusion, we demonstrated that enhanced AF1q expression contributes to persistent and oncogenic pYSTAT3 levels in invasive carcinoma cells by activating Src kinase through activation of the PDGF-B/PDGFR cascade. Therefore, AF1q plays an essential role as a cofactor in PDGF-B-driven STAT3 signaling.