Effect of single-dose imipramine on chronic low-back and experimental pain. A randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Antidepressants are frequently prescribed as co-analgesics in chronic pain. While their efficacy is well documented for neuropathic pain, the evidence is less clear in musculoskeletal pain conditions. The present study therefore evaluated the effect of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine on chronic low-back pain in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled design. To explore the mechanisms of action and the influence of drug metabolism, multimodal quantitative sensory tests (QST) and genotyping for cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) were additionally performed. A single oral dose of imipramine 75 mg was compared to active placebo (tolterodine 1 mg) in 50 patients (32 females) with chronic non-specific low-back pain. Intensity of low-back pain was assessed on a 0-10 numeric rating scale at baseline and every 30 minutes after drug intake. Multimodal QST were performed at baseline and in hourly intervals for 2 hours. Pharmacogenetic influences of cytochrome P450 were addressed by CYP2D6 genotyping. No significant analgesic effect was detected neither on low-back pain nor on any of the sensory tests in the overall analyses. However, evidence for an interaction of the imipramine effect and CYP2D6 genotype was found for electrical and for pressure pain detection thresholds. Intermediate but not extensive metabolizers had a 1.20 times greater electrical pain threshold (95%-CI 1.10 to 1.31) and a 1.10 times greater pressure pain threshold (95%-CI 1.01 to 1.21) 60 minutes after imipramine than after placebo (p<0.001 and p = 0.034, respectively). The present study failed to demonstrate an immediate analgesic effect of imipramine on low-back pain. Anti-nociceptive effects as assessed by quantitative sensory tests may depend on CYP2D6 genotype, indicating that metabolizer status should be accounted for when future studies with tricyclic antidepressants are undertaken.
Project description:Inability to predict the therapeutic effect of a drug in individual pain patients prolongs the process of drug and dose finding until satisfactory pharmacotherapy can be achieved. Many chronic pain conditions are associated with hypersensitivity of the nervous system or impaired endogenous pain modulation. Pharmacotherapy often aims at influencing these disturbed nociceptive processes. Its effect might therefore depend on the extent to which they are altered. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can evaluate various aspects of pain processing and might therefore be able to predict the analgesic efficacy of a given drug. In the present study three drugs commonly used in the pharmacological management of chronic low back pain are investigated. The primary objective is to examine the ability of QST to predict pain reduction. As a secondary objective, the analgesic effects of these drugs and their effect on QST are evaluated.In this randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study, patients with chronic low back pain are randomly assigned to imipramine, oxycodone or clobazam versus active placebo. QST is assessed at baseline, 1 and 2 h after drug administration. Pain intensity, side effects and patients' global impression of change are assessed in intervals of 30 min up to two hours after drug intake. Baseline QST is used as explanatory variable to predict drug effect. The change in QST over time is analyzed to describe the pharmacodynamic effects of each drug on experimental pain modalities. Genetic polymorphisms are analyzed as co-variables.Pharmacotherapy is a mainstay in chronic pain treatment. Antidepressants, anticonvulsants and opioids are frequently prescribed in a "trial and error" fashion, without knowledge however, which drug suits best which patient. The present study addresses the important need to translate recent advances in pain research to clinical practice. Assessing the predictive value of central hypersensitivity and endogenous pain modulation could allow for the implementation of a mechanism-based treatment strategy in individual patients.Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01179828.
Project description:Polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 affect the efficacy and safety of tricyclics, with some drugs being affected by CYP2D6 only, and others by both polymorphic enzymes. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin, imipramine, and trimipramine are demethylated by CYP2C19 to pharmacologically active metabolites. These drugs and their metabolites, along with desipramine and nortriptyline, undergo hydroxylation by CYP2D6 to less active metabolites. Evidence from published literature is presented for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotype-directed dosing of tricyclic antidepressants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:Randomised controlled trials were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE (to September 2007), PsycINFO to June 2006, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2006, issue 2, and previous systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised controlled trials that compared antidepressant medication and placebo for patients with non-specific low-back pain, and used at least one clinically relevant outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two blinded review authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the trials. Meta-analyses were used to examine the effect of antidepressants on pain, depression and function, and the effect of antidepressant type on pain. To account for studies that could not be pooled, additional qualitative analyses were performed using the levels of evidence recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. MAIN RESULTS:Ten trials that compared antidepressants with placebo were included in this review. The pooled analyses showed no difference in pain relief (six trials; standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.28 to 0.16)) or depression (two trials; SMD 0.06 (95% CI -0.29 to 0.40)) between antidepressant and placebo treatments. The qualitative analyses found conflicting evidence on the effect of antidepressants on pain intensity in chronic low-back pain, and no clear evidence that antidepressants reduce depression in chronic low-back pain patients. Two pooled analyses showed no difference in pain relief between different types of antidepressants and placebo. Our findings were not altered by the sensitivity analyses which varied the level of methodological quality required for inclusion in the meta-analyses to allow data from additional trials to be examined. Two additional trials were identified in September 2007 and await assessment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:There is no clear evidence that antidepressants are more effective than placebo in the management of patients with chronic low-back pain. These findings do not imply that severely depressed patients with back pain should not be treated with antidepressants; furthermore, there is evidence for their use in other forms of chronic pain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Previous systematic reviews concluded that tricyclics antidepressants are superior to gabapentin for neuropathic pain, but were based on indirect comparisons from placebo-controlled trials. PURPOSE: To evaluate gabapentin versus tricyclic antidepressants for diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia, using direct and indirect comparisons. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966 to March Week 4 2008), the Cochrane central register of controlled trials (1st quarter 2008), and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: We selected randomized trials directly comparing gabapentin versus tricyclic antidepressants or comparing either of these medications versus placebo. DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were reviewed, abstracted, and quality-rated by two independent investigators using predefined criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS: We performed a meta-analysis of head-to-head trials using a random effects model and compared the results to an adjusted indirect analysis of placebo-controlled trials. RESULTS: In three head-to-head trials, there was no difference between gabapentin and tricyclic antidepressants for achieving pain relief (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.29). In adjusted indirect analyses, gabapentin was worse than tricyclic antidepressants for achieving pain relief (RR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.74). The discrepancy between direct and indirect analyses was statistically significant (p = 0.008). Placebo-controlled tricyclic trials were conducted earlier than the gabapentin trials, reported lower placebo response rates, had more methodological shortcomings, and were associated with funnel plot asymmetry. CONCLUSIONS: Though direct evidence is limited, we found no difference in likelihood of achieving pain relief between gabapentin and tricyclic antidepressants for diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia. Indirect analyses that combine data from sets of trials conducted in different eras can be unreliable.
Project description:The interaction of tricyclic antidepressants with the human (h) alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in different conformational states was compared with that for the noncompetitive antagonist mecamylamine by using functional and structural approaches. The results established that: (a) [(3)H]imipramine binds to halpha4beta2 receptors with relatively high affinity (K(d)=0.83+/-0.08 microM), but imipramine does not differentiate between the desensitized and resting states, (b) although tricyclic antidepressants inhibit (+/-)-epibatidine-induced Ca(2+) influx in HEK293-halpha4beta2 cells with potencies that are in the same concentration range as that for (+/-)-mecamylamine, tricyclic antidepressants inhibit [(3)H]imipramine binding to halpha4beta2 receptors with affinities >100-fold higher than that for (+/-)-mecamylamine. This can be explained by our docking results where imipramine interacts with the leucine (position 9') and valine (position 13') rings by van der Waals contacts, whereas mecamylamine interacts electrostatically with the outer ring (position 20'), (c) van der Waals interactions are in agreement with the thermodynamic results, indicating that imipramine interacts with the desensitized and resting receptors by a combination of enthalpic and entropic components. However, the entropic component is more important in the desensitized state, suggesting local conformational changes. In conclusion, our data indicate that tricyclic antidepressants and mecamylamine efficiently inhibit the ion channel by interacting at different luminal sites. The high proportion of protonated mecamylamine calculated at physiological pH suggests that this drug can be attracted to the channel mouth before binding deeper within the receptor ion channel finally blocking ion flux.
Project description:The structure of the bacterial leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus (LeuT(Aa)) has been used as a model for mammalian Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters, in particular the serotonin transporter (SERT). The crystal structure of LeuT(Aa) liganded to tricyclic antidepressants predicts simultaneous binding of inhibitor and substrate. This is incompatible with the mutually competitive inhibition of substrates and inhibitors of SERT. We explored the binding modes of tricyclic antidepressants by homology modeling and docking studies. Two approaches were used subsequently to differentiate between three clusters of potential docking poses: 1) a diagnostic SERT(Y95F) mutation, which greatly reduced the affinity for [(3)H]imipramine but did not affect substrate binding; 2) competition binding experiments in the presence and absence of carbamazepine (i.e., a tricyclic imipramine analog with a short side chain that competes with [(3)H]imipramine binding to SERT). Binding of releasers (para-chloroamphetamine, methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine/ecstasy) and of carbamazepine were mutually exclusive, but Dixon plots generated in the presence of carbamazepine yielded intersecting lines for serotonin, MPP(+), paroxetine, and ibogaine. These observations are consistent with a model, in which 1) the tricyclic ring is docked into the outer vestibule and the dimethyl-aminopropyl side chain points to the substrate binding site; 2) binding of amphetamines creates a structural change in the inner and outer vestibule that precludes docking of the tricyclic ring; 3) simultaneous binding of ibogaine (which binds to the inward-facing conformation) and of carbamazepine is indicative of a second binding site in the inner vestibule, consistent with the pseudosymmetric fold of monoamine transporters. This may be the second low-affinity binding site for antidepressants.
Project description:Opioids are frequently prescribed for chronic low back pain (CLBP), but there are broad individual differences in the benefits and risks of opioid therapy, including the development opioid-induced hyperalgesia. This study examined quantitative sensory testing (QST) data among a group of CLBP patients undergoing sustained oral opioid treatment. We investigated whether individual differences in psychological characteristics were related to opioid-induced changes in pain perception and pain modulation.The six-month, open-label trial evaluated patients with low to high levels of negative affect (e.g., symptoms of distress, depression and anxiety); participants underwent QST at baseline (prior to initiating treatment) and during oral opioid treatment.A chronic pain management center.The 31 study participants had chronic discogenic back pain, with a pain intensity rating >3/10. Participants were divided into groups with high vs. low levels of Negative Affect (NA).In the previously-published manuscript describing the clinical outcomes of the trial, high NA patients achieved only about half of the analgesic effect observed in the low NA group (Wasan AD, Michna E, Edwards RR, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated prospectively with diminished opioid analgesia and increased opioid misuse in patients with chronic low back pain. Anesthesiology 2015;123:861-72). The QST findings reported here suggested that tolerance to experimental (cold pressor) pain and conditioned pain modulation tended to decrease in the high NA group over the course of opioid treatment, while temporal summation of mechanical pain declined in the low NA group.These results reveal that while the low NA group seemed to exhibit a generally adaptive, analgesic pattern of changes during opioid management, the high NA group showed a pattern more consistent with opioid-induced hyperalgesic processes. A greater susceptibility to hyperalgesia-promoting changes in pain modulation among patients with high levels of distress may contribute to a lower degree of benefit from opioid treatment in high NA patients.
Project description:There is growing experience translating genomic data into clinical practice, as seen with the Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE (IGNITE) network. A primary example is the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on the beneficial and adverse effects of some opioids. Clinical recommendations exist to guide drug therapy based on CYP2D6 genotype for codeine, tramadol, oxycodone and hydrocodone, although the level of supporting evidence differs by drug. Limited evidence also supports the use of genetic data to guide other medications in chronic pain therapy, including tricyclic antidepressants and celecoxib. Pragmatic clinical trial data are needed in this area to better understand the impact of diverse populations, therapeutic interventions and clinical care environments on genotype-guided drug therapy for chronic pain.
Project description:The long-term effects of opioids on sensitization processes are believed to be mediated through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) changes observed after a ketamine infusion have been previously described but the effect that chronic opioids will have is not known. The results of this prospective randomized factorial trial compared the thermal QST changes observed after a .05 mg/kg ketamine infusion or a saline placebo in chronic pain subjects who were either opioid-naive or were chronically using opioids for chronic noncancer pain are presented. No baseline QST differences were noted between the 4 groups at baseline. Comparison of changes preinfusion with postinfusion QST measurements resulted in decreased average change in temporal summation response between opioid subjects who received a placebo compared with those who received a ketamine infusion (-5.22, SD = 9.96 vs 13.81, SD = 19.55; P = .004). Additionally, the average change in temporal summation was decreased among subjects who received a ketamine infusion and were not chronically using opioids compared with subjects who were using chronic opioids and received a placebo infusion (-1.91, SD = 13.25 vs 13.81, SD = 19.55; P = .007). The results indicate that low-dose ketamine infusions produce subtle changes in QST phenotypes that are modified by the chronic use of opioids. This illustrates the potential diagnostic and therapeutic value of ketamine in the setting of chronic opioid use. PERSPECTIVE:The presented data further our understanding of modulation of sensory perception in the setting of chronic opioid use and the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The use of low-dose ketamine infusions may be useful for the treatment as well as diagnosis of opioid-related neuropathic conditions.
Project description:Chronic low back pain (CLBP) was shown to be associated with pathophysiological changes at several levels of the sensorimotor system. Changes in sensory thresholds have been reported but complete profiles of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) were only rarely obtained in CLBP patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate comprehensive QST profiles in CLBP at the painful site (back) and at a site distinct from their painful region (hand) and to compare these data with similar data in healthy controls. We found increased detection thresholds in CLBP patients compared to healthy controls for all innocuous stimuli at the back and extraterritorial to the painful region at the hand. Additionally, CLBP patients showed decreased pain thresholds at both sites. Importantly, there was no interaction between the investigated site and group, i.e. thresholds were changed both at the affected body site and for the site distinct from the painful region (hand). Our results demonstrate severe, widespread changes in somatosensory sensitivity in CLBP patients. These widespread changes point to alterations at higher levels of the neuraxis or/and to a vulnerability to nociceptive plasticity in CLBP patients.