Four Years' Experience in the Diagnosis of Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Infants Detected in Three Spanish Newborn Screening Centers.
ABSTRACT: Identification of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is possible in the expanded newborn screening (NBS) due to the increase in tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1) and in the C14:1/C2, C14:1/C16, C14:1/C12:1 ratios detected in dried blood spots. Nevertheless, different confirmatory tests must be performed to confirm the final diagnosis. We have revised the NBS results and the results of the confirmatory tests (plasma acylcarnitine profiles, molecular findings, and lymphocytes VLCAD activity) for 36 cases detected in three Spanish NBS centers during 4 years, correlating these with the clinical outcome and treatment. Our aim was to distinguish unambiguously true cases from disease carriers in order to obtain useful diagnostic information for clinicians that can be applied in the follow-up of neonates identified by NBS.Increases in C14:1 and of the different ratios, the presence of two pathogenic mutations, and deficient enzyme activity in lymphocytes (<12% of the intra-assay control) identified 12 true-positive cases. These cases were given nutritional therapy and all of them are asymptomatic, except one. Seventeen individuals were considered disease carriers based on the mild increase in plasma C14:1, in conjunction with the presence of only one mutation and/or intermediate residual activity (18-57%). In addition, seven cases were classified as false positives, with normal biochemical parameters and no mutations in the exonic region of ACADVL. All these carriers and the false positive cases remained asymptomatic. The combined evaluation of the acylcarnitine profiles, genetic results, and residual enzyme activities have proven useful to definitively classify individuals with suspected VLCAD deficiency into true-positive cases and carriers, and to decide which cases need treatment.
Project description:The Iowa Newborn Screening (NBS) Program began screening for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD) in 2003. Untreated VLCAD can lead to liver failure, heart failure, and death. Current confirmatory testing recommendations by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) for VLCAD list molecular and functional analysis (i.e., fibroblast fatty acid oxidation probe) as optional. This can lead to misclassification of VLCAD carriers as false positives. Iowa implemented a comprehensive VLCAD confirmatory testing algorithm at the beginning of 2016 that included both molecular and fibroblast analysis. Here, we compare the historic multi-algorithmic confirmatory testing protocol (2005-2016) to this comprehensive protocol (2016-2017). A metabolic specialist reviewed all medical records and NBS data for each out-of-range VLCAD that fell in each testing period. During the comprehensive testing period, 48,651 specimens were screened. Thirteen individuals with out-of-range C14:1 results were classified as follows after review: ten carriers, zero true positives, zero false positives, zero lost to follow-up, and four unable to assess carrier status. During the variable testing period, a total of 486,566 specimens were screened. Eighty-five individuals with out-of-range C14:1 were classified as follows: 45 carriers, two true positives, four false positives, four lost to follow-up, and 30 unable to assess carrier status. Our findings suggest that many out-of-range VLCAD cases that do not receive molecular confirmatory testing could be carriers mistakenly classified as false positives. We recommend comprehensive molecular and functional testing for all children with out-of-range VLCAD NBS results.
Project description:Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, a condition in which the body is unable to break down long-chain fatty acids properly, is the most common fatty acid oxidation disorder in Japan. Tandem mass spectrometry has been used in newborn screening (NBS), allowing the detection of patients with VLCAD deficiency even before symptoms manifest. However, tandem mass spectrometry has a high false positive rate. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with false positive results for tetradecenoyl acylcarnitine (C14:1). This case-control study used data collected between the 1st of January 2014 and the 31st of March 2019. The case group was defined as patients having levels of both C14:1 and C14:1/C2 ratio higher than cut-off levels in the first newborn mass screening, who were eventually diagnosed as false positives by attending doctors at Kobe University Hospital, Palmore Hospital, or Kakogawa Central City Hospital in Japan. The control group comprised 100 patients randomly selected from the three facilities. The false positive group included 17 cases, and the control group contained 300 patients. The demographics of each group did not show any significant differences in sex, body weight at birth, Cesarean section rate, complete breastfeeding rate, or the number of feedings per day. However, the change in body weight at the sampling day of NBS in the false positive and control groups was -10.2%, and - 4.6%, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). In addition, body weight gain at the one-month medical checkup was 38.9 g/day in the false positive group and 44.1 g/day in the control group (p < 0.05). An elevation of C14:1 carnitine has been reported in situations involving the catalysis of fatty acid. Therefore, patients with severe body weight loss might be associated with poor sucking or poor milk supply, which might cause a false positive elevation of C14:1 and C14:1/C2. In suspected VLCAD deficiency, attending doctors should pay attention to body weight changes recorded during newborn mass screening.
Project description:To test whether follow-up testing for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency uncovers a diagnosis in patients with elevations of C14:1 and C14:2 plasma acylcarnitines after a controlled fasting study performed for clinically suspected hypoglycemia and to compare the acylcarnitine profiles from fasted patients without VLCAD deficiency vs patients with known VLCAD deficiency to determine whether metabolite testing distinguishes these groups.We performed a retrospective chart review and identified 17 patients with elevated C14:1 and C14:2 plasma acylcarnitine levels after a controlled fast and with testing for VLCAD deficiency (ACADVL sequencing or fibroblast fatty acid oxidation studies). The follow-up testing in all patients was inconsistent with a diagnosis of VLCAD deficiency. We compared the plasma acylcarnitine profiles from these fasted patients vs patients with VLCAD deficiency.C14:1/C12:1 was significantly lower (P < .001) in fasted patients vs patients with VLCAD deficiency. Metabolomics analysis performed in 2 fasted patients and 1 patient with VLCAD deficiency demonstrated evidence for up-regulated lipolysis and ?-oxidation in the fasted state.Elevations of plasma C14:1 and C14:2 acylcarnitines appear to be a physiologic result of lipolysis that occurs with fasting. Both metabolomics analysis and/or C14:1/C12:1 may distinguish C14:1 elevations from physiologic fasting-induced lipolysis vs VLCAD deficiency.
Project description:Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency can present at various ages from the neonatal period to adulthood, and poses the greatest risk of complications during intercurrent illness or after prolonged fasting. Early diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance can reduce mortality; hence, the disorder is included in the newborn Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in the United States. The Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System (IBEM-IS) was established in 2007 to collect longitudinal information on individuals with inborn errors of metabolism included in newborn screening (NBS) programs, including VLCAD deficiency. We retrospectively analyzed early outcomes for individuals who were diagnosed with VLCAD deficiency by NBS and describe initial presentations, diagnosis, clinical outcomes and treatment in a cohort of 52 individuals ages 1-18years. Maternal prenatal symptoms were not reported, and most newborns remained asymptomatic. Cardiomyopathy was uncommon in the cohort, diagnosed in 2/52 cases. Elevations in creatine kinase were a common finding, and usually first occurred during the toddler period (1-3years of age). Diagnostic evaluations required several testing modalities, most commonly plasma acylcarnitine profiles and molecular testing. Functional testing, including fibroblast acylcarnitine profiling and white blood cell or fibroblast enzyme assay, is a useful diagnostic adjunct if uncharacterized mutations are identified.
Project description:Because tandem mass spectrometry- (MS/MS-) based newborn screening identifies many suspicious cases of fatty acid oxidation and carnitine cycle disorders, a simple, noninvasive test is required to confirm the diagnosis. We have developed a novel method to evaluate the metabolic defects in peripheral blood mononuclear cells loaded with deuterium-labeled fatty acids directly using the ratios of acylcarnitines determined by flow injection MS/MS. We have identified diagnostic indices for the disorders as follows: decreased ratios of d27-C14-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine and d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II (CPT-II) deficiency, decreased ratios of d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d27-C14-acylcarnitine for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, and increased ratios of d29-C16-OH-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency, together with increased ratios of d7-C4-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I deficiency. The decreased ratios of d1-acetylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine could be indicative of ?-oxidation ability in patients with CPT-II, VLCAD, and TFP deficiencies. Overall, our data showed that the present method was valuable for establishing a rapid diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and carnitine cycle disorders and for complementing gene analysis because our diagnostic indices may overcome the weaknesses of conventional enzyme activity measurements using fibroblasts or mononuclear cells with assumedly uncertain viability.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD) is diagnosed in the US through newborn screening (NBS). NBS often unequivocally identifies affected individuals, but a growing number of variant patterns can represent mild disease or heterozygous carriers.<h4>Aims</h4>To evaluate the validity of standard diagnostic procedures for VLCADD by using functional in vitro tools.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively investigated 13 patient samples referred to our laboratory because of a suspicion of VLCADD but with some uncertainty to the diagnosis. All 13 patients were suspected of having VLCADD either because of abnormal NBS or suggestive clinical findings. ACADVL genomic DNA sequencing data were available for twelve of them. Ten of the patients had an abnormal NBS suggestive of VLCADD, with three samples showing equivocal results. Three exhibited suggestive clinical findings and blood acylcarnitine profile (two of them had a normal NBS and the third one was unscreened). Assay of VLCAD activity and immunoblotting or immunohistologic staining for VLCAD were performed on fibroblasts. Prokaryotic mutagenesis and expression studies were performed for nine uncharacterized ACADVL missense mutations.<h4>Results</h4>VLCAD activity was abnormal in fibroblast cells from 9 patients (8 identified through abnormal NBS, 1 through clinical symptoms). For these 9 patients, immunoblotting/staining showed the variable presence of VLCAD; all but one had two mutated alleles. Two patients with equivocal NBS results (and a heterozygous genotype) and the two patients with normal NBS exhibited normal VLCAD activity and normal VLCAD protein on immunoblotting/staining thus ruling out VLCAD deficiency. Nine pathogenic missense mutations were characterized with prokaryotic expression studies and showed a decrease in enzyme activity and variable stability of VLCAD antigen.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results emphasize the importance of functional investigation of abnormal NBS or clinical testing suggestive but not diagnostic of VLCADD. A larger prospective study is necessary to better define the clinical and metabolic ramifications of the defects identified in such patients.
Project description:Some success in identifying acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) deficiencies before they are symptomatic has been achieved through tandem mass spectrometry. However, there has been several challenges that need to be confronted, including excess false positives, the occasional false negatives and indicators selection. To select ideal indicators and evaluate their performance for identifying ACAD deficiencies, data from 352,119 newborn babies, containing 20 cases, were used in this retrospective study. A total of three new ratios, C4/C5DC+C6-OH, C8/C14:1, and C14:1/C16-OH, were selected from 43 metabolites. Around 903 ratios derived from pairwise combinations of all metabolites via multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. In the current study, the regression analysis was performed to identify short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, and very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency. In both model-building and testing data, the C4/C5DC+C6-OH, C8/C14:1 and C14:1/C16-OH were found to be better indicators for SCAD, MCAD and VLCAD deficiencies, respectively, compared to [C4, (C4, C4/C2)], [C8, (C6, C8, C8/C2, C4DC+C5-OH/C8:1)], and [C14:1, (C14:1, C14:1/C16, C14:1/C2)], respectively. In addition, 22 mutations, including 5 novel mutations and 17 reported mutations, in ACADS, ACADM, and ACADL genes were detected in 20 infants with ACAD deficiency by using high-thorough sequencing based on target capture. The pathogenic mutations of c.1031A > G in ACADS, c.449_452delCTGA in ACADM and c.1349G > A in ACADL were found to be hot spots in Suzhou patients with SCAD, MCAD, and VLCAD, respectively. In conclusion, we had identified three new ratios that could improve the performance for ACAD deficiencies compared to the used indicators. We considered to utilize C4/C5DC+C6-OH, C8/C14:1, and C14:1/C16-OH as primary indicators for SCAD, MCAD, and VLCAD deficiency, respectively, in further expanded newborn screening practice. In addition, the spectrum of mutations in Suzhou population enriches genetic data of Chinese patients with one of ACAD deficiencies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To improve the efficacy of newborn screening (NBS) for very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Data on all dried blood spots collected by the Dutch NBS from October 2007 to 2010 (742.728) were included. Based solely on the C14:1 levels (cutoff ≥0.8 μmol/L), six newborns with VLCADD had been identified through NBS during this period. The ratio of C14:1 over C2 was calculated. DNA of all blood spots with a C14:1/C2 ratio of ≥0.020 was isolated and sequenced. Children homozygous or compound heterozygous for mutations in the ACADVL gene were traced back and invited for detailed clinical, biochemical, and genetic evaluation. RESULTS:Retrospective analysis based on the C14:1/C2 ratio with a cutoff of ≥0.020 identified an additional five children with known ACADVL mutations and low enzymatic activity. All were still asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis (age 2-5 years). Increasing the cutoff to ≥0.023 resulted in a sensitivity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 37%. The sensitivity of the previously used screening approach (C14:1 ≥0.8) was 50%. CONCLUSION:This study shows that the ratio C14:1/C2 is a more sensitive marker than C14:1 for identifying VLCADD patients in NBS. However, as these patients were all asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis, this suggests that a more sensitive screening approach may also identify individuals who may never develop clinical disease. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to establish the risk of these VLCADD-deficient individuals for developing clinical signs and symptoms.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Newborn screening (NBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits detection of neonates with Glutaric Aciduria-Type II (GA-II). We report follow-up of positive GA-II screens by the New England Newborn Screening Program. METHODS:1.5 million infants were screened for GA-II (Feb 1999-Dec 2012). Specialist consult was suggested for infants with two or more acylcarnitine elevations suggestive of GA-II. RESULTS:82 neonates screened positive for GA-II, 21 weighing > 1.5 kg and 61 weighing ? 1.5 kg. Seven (one weighing < 1.5 kg), were confirmed with GA-II. Four of these had the severe form (died < 1 week). The other three have a milder form and were identified because of newborn screening. Two (ages > 5 years) have a G-Tube in place, had multiple hospitalizations and are slightly hypotonic. The third infant remains asymptomatic (9 months old). Two GA-II carriers were also identified. The remaining positive screens were classified as false positives (FP). Six infants (> 1.5 kg) classified as FP had limited diagnostic work-up. Characteristics and outcomes of all specimens and neonates with a positive screen were reviewed, and marker profiles of the cases and FP were compared to identify characteristic profiles. CONCLUSION:In addition to the severe form of GA-II, milder forms of GA-II and some GA-II carriers are identified by newborn screening. Some positive screens classified as FP may be affected with a milder form of the disorder. Characteristic GA-II profiles, quantified as GA-II indexes, may be utilized to predict probability of disorder and direct urgency of intervention for positive screens.
Project description:Introduction:Various markers, such as C14:1 and the C14:1/C2 ratio, are used as diagnostic markers of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD). However, the levels of these markers in patients with VLCADD overlap with those in heterozygous carriers and even healthy subjects. Materials and methods:In twenty-three affected patients and 15 heterozygous carriers with VLCADD, the accuracies of C14:1, C14:1/C12:1, C14:1/C2, and C14:1/C16 in dried blood spots (DBS) and serum were statistically estimated. Results:Among the serum markers, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, and validity of C14:1/C12:1 were superior to those of C14:1, C14:1/C2, and C14:1/C16, but C14:1/C2 demonstrated a statistical advantage compared with only C14:1 and C14:1/C16. Elevation in serum C14:1/C12:1 was observed in only one heterozygous carrier, whereas almost half of the carriers displayed false positive results for the other markers. Among the DBS markers, although the accuracy of C14:1/C2 was ostensibly the best, no statistical significance was observed. Discussion:Serum C14:1/C12:1 might be useful for differentiating patients with VLCADD from heterozygous carriers. Although serum C14:1/C2 was significantly useful for the detection of VLCADD, this marker could not distinguish the affected patients from carriers. C14:1/C12:1 might be optimal compared with the other markers.