The pyrroloquinoline-quinone dependent pyranose dehydrogenase from Coprinopsis cinerea (CcPDH) drives lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) action.
ABSTRACT: Fungi secrete a set of glycoside hydrolases and oxidoreductases, including lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), for the degradation of plant polysaccharides. LPMOs catalyze the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds after activation by an external electron donor. So far, only flavin-dependent oxidoreductases (from the auxiliary activity family AA3) have been shown to activate LPMOs. Here we present LPMO activation by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone (PQQ)-dependent pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) from Coprinopsis cinerea, CcPDH, the founding member of the recently discovered auxiliary activity family AA12. CcPDH contains a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1), an N-terminal family AA8 cytochrome domain, and a central AA12 dehydrogenase domain. We have studied the ability of full length CcPDH and its truncated variants to drive catalysis by two Neurospora crassa LPMOs. The results show that CcPDH indeed can activate the C1-oxidizing NcLPMO9F and the C4-oxidizing NcLPMO9C, that this activation depends on the cytochrome domain, and that the dehydrogenase and the LPMO reactions are strongly coupled. The two tested CcPDH-LPMO systems showed quite different efficiencies and this difference disappeared upon addition of free PQQ acting as a diphenol/quinone redox mediator, showing that LPMOs differ when it comes to their direct interactions with the cytochrome domain. Surprisingly, removal of the CBM domain from CcPDH had a considerable negative impact on the efficiency of the CcPDH-LPMO systems, suggesting that electron transfer in the vicinity of the substrate is beneficial. CcPDH does not oxidize cello-oligosaccharides, which makes this enzyme a useful tool for studying cellulose-oxidizing LPMOs.IMPORTANCE Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are currently receiving increasing attention because of their importance in degrading recalcitrant polysaccharides and their potential roles in biological processes such as bacterial virulence. LPMO action requires an external electron donor, and fungi growing on biomass secrete various so-called GMC oxidoreductases, including cellobiose dehydrogenase, which can donate electrons to LPMOs. This paper describes how an enzyme not belonging to the GMC oxidoreductase family, CcPDH, can activate LPMOs and provides new insights into the activation process by 1) describing the roles of individual CcPDH domains (a dehydrogenase, a cytochrome and a carbohydrate-binding domain), 2) showing that the PDH and LPMO enzyme reactions are strongly coupled, 3) demonstrating that LPMOs differ in terms of the efficiency of activation by the same activator, and 4) providing indications that electron transfer close to the substrate surface is beneficial for the overall efficiency of the CcPDH-LPMO system.
Project description:Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, facilitating the degradation of polymeric carbohydrates in biomass. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a biologically relevant electron donor in this process, with the electrons resulting from cellobiose oxidation being shuttled from the CDH dehydrogenase domain to its cytochrome domain and then to the LPMO catalytic site. In this work, we investigate the interaction of four Neurospora crassa LPMOs and five CDH cytochrome domains from different species using computational methods. We used HADDOCK to perform protein-protein docking experiments on all 20 combinations and subsequently to select four complexes for extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The potential of mean force is computed for a rotation of the cytochrome domain relative to LPMO. We find that the LPMO loops are largely responsible for the preferred orientations of the cytochrome domains. This leads us to postulate a hybrid version of NcLPMO9F, with exchanged loops and predicted altered cytochrome binding preferences for this variant. Our work provides insight into the possible mechanisms of electron transfer between the two protein systems, in agreement with and complementary to previously published experimental data.
Project description:Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds using molecular oxygen and an external electron donor. We have used NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to study the interactions of a broad-specificity fungal LPMO, NcLPMO9C, with various substrates and with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), a known natural supplier of electrons. The NMR studies revealed interactions with cellohexaose that center around the copper site. NMR studies with xyloglucans, i.e., branched ?-glucans, showed an extended binding surface compared with cellohexaose, whereas ITC experiments showed slightly higher affinity and a different thermodynamic signature of binding. The ITC data also showed that although the copper ion alone hardly contributes to affinity, substrate binding is enhanced for metal-loaded enzymes that are supplied with cyanide, a mimic of O2 (-) Studies with CDH and its isolated heme b cytochrome domain unambiguously showed that the cytochrome domain of CDH interacts with the copper site of the LPMO and that substrate binding precludes interaction with CDH. Apart from providing insights into enzyme-substrate interactions in LPMOs, the present observations shed new light on possible mechanisms for electron supply during LPMO action.
Project description:Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was discovered as a redox cofactor of prokaryotic glucose dehydrogenases in the 1960s, and subsequent studies have demonstrated its importance not only in bacterial systems but also in higher organisms. We have previously reported a novel eukaryotic quinohemoprotein that exhibited PQQ-dependent catalytic activity in a eukaryote. The enzyme, pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH), from the filamentous fungus Coprinopsis cinerea (CcPDH) of the Basidiomycete division, is composed of a catalytic PQQ-dependent domain classified as a member of the novel auxiliary activity family 12 (AA12), an AA8 cytochrome b domain, and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1), as defined by the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Here, we present the crystal structures of the AA12 domain in its apo- and holo-forms and the AA8 domain of this enzyme. The crystal structures of the holo-AA12 domain bound to PQQ provide direct evidence that eukaryotes have PQQ-dependent enzymes. The AA12 domain exhibits a six-blade ?-propeller fold that is also present in other known PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenases in bacteria. A loop structure around the active site and a calcium ion binding site are unique among the known structures of bacterial quinoproteins. The AA8 cytochrome domain has a positively charged area on its molecular surface, which is partly due to the propionate group of the heme interacting with Arg181; this feature differs from the characteristics of cytochrome b in the AA8 domain of the fungal cellobiose dehydrogenase and suggests that this difference may affect the pH dependence of electron transfer.IMPORTANCE Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is known as the "third coenzyme" following nicotinamide and flavin. PQQ-dependent enzymes have previously been found only in prokaryotes, and the existence of a eukaryotic PQQ-dependent enzyme was in doubt. In 2014, we found an enzyme in mushrooms that catalyzes the oxidation of various sugars in a PQQ-dependent manner and that was a PQQ-dependent enzyme found in eukaryotes. This paper presents the X-ray crystal structures of this eukaryotic PQQ-dependent quinohemoprotein, which show the active site, and identifies the amino acid residues involved in the binding of the cofactor PQQ. The presented X-ray structures reveal that the AA12 domain is in a binary complex with the coenzyme, clearly proving that PQQ-dependent enzymes exist in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. Because no biosynthetic system for PQQ has been reported in eukaryotes, future research on the symbiotic systems is expected.
Project description:Background:The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) superfamily is a large and functionally diverse family of oxidoreductases that share a common structural fold. Fungal members of this superfamily that are characterised and relevant for lignocellulose degradation include aryl-alcohol oxidoreductase, alcohol oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, pyranose dehydrogenase, and pyranose oxidase, which together form family AA3 of the auxiliary activities in the CAZy database of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Overall, little is known about the extant sequence space of these GMC oxidoreductases and their phylogenetic relations. Although some individual forms are well characterised, it is still unclear how they compare in respect of the complete enzyme class and, therefore, also how generalizable are their characteristics. Results:To improve the understanding of the GMC superfamily as a whole, we used sequence similarity networks to cluster large numbers of fungal GMC sequences and annotate them according to functionality. Subsequently, different members of the GMC superfamily were analysed in detail with regard to their sequences and phylogeny. This allowed us to define the currently characterised sequence space and show that complete clades of some enzymes have not been studied in any detail to date. Finally, we interpret our results from an evolutionary perspective, where we could show, for example, that pyranose dehydrogenase evolved from aryl-alcohol oxidoreductase after a change in substrate specificity and that the cytochrome domain of cellobiose dehydrogenase was regularly lost during evolution. Conclusions:This study offers new insights into the sequence variation and phylogenetic relationships of fungal GMC/AA3 sequences. Certain clades of these GMC enzymes identified in our phylogenetic analyses are completely uncharacterised to date, and might include enzyme activities of varying specificities and/or activities that are hitherto unstudied.
Project description:Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are industrially important oxidoreductases employed in lignocellulose saccharification. Using advanced time-resolved mass spectrometric techniques, we elucidated the structural determinants for substrate-mediated stabilization of the fungal LPMO9C from Neurospora crassa during catalysis. LPMOs require a reduction in the active-site copper for catalytic activity. We show that copper reduction in NcLPMO9C leads to structural rearrangements and compaction around the active site. However, longer exposure to the reducing agent ascorbic acid also initiated an uncoupling reaction of the bound oxygen species, leading to oxidative damage, partial unfolding, and even fragmentation of NcLPMO9C. Interestingly, no changes in the hydrogen/deuterium exchange rate were detected upon incubation of oxidized or reduced LPMO with crystalline cellulose, indicating that the LPMO-substrate interactions are mainly side-chain mediated and neither affect intraprotein hydrogen bonding nor induce significant shielding of the protein surface. On the other hand, we observed a protective effect of the substrate, which slowed down the autooxidative damage induced by the uncoupling reaction. These observations further complement the picture of structural changes during LPMO catalysis.
Project description:The catalytic function of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) to cleave and decrystallize recalcitrant polysaccharides put these enzymes in the spotlight of fundamental and applied research. Here we demonstrate that the demand of LPMO for an electron donor and an oxygen species as cosubstrate can be fulfilled by a single auxiliary enzyme: an engineered fungal cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) with increased oxidase activity. The engineered CDH was about 30 times more efficient in driving the LPMO reaction due to its 27 time increased production of H2 O2 acting as a cosubstrate for LPMO. Transient kinetic measurements confirmed that intra- and intermolecular electron transfer rates of the engineered CDH were similar to the wild-type CDH, meaning that the mutations had not compromised CDH's role as an electron donor. These results support the notion of H2 O2 -driven LPMO activity and shed new light on the role of CDH in activating LPMOs. Importantly, the results also demonstrate that the use of the engineered CDH results in fast and steady LPMO reactions with CDH-generated H2 O2 as a cosubstrate, which may provide new opportunities to employ LPMOs in biomass hydrolysis to generate fuels and chemicals.
Project description:Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are powerful enzymes that oxidatively cleave glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. The ability of these copper enzymes to boost the degradation of lignocellulose has greatly stimulated research efforts and biocatalytic applications within the biorefinery field. Initially found as oxidizing recalcitrant substrates, such as chitin and cellulose, it is now clear that LPMOs cleave a broad range of oligo- and poly-saccharides and make use of various electron-donating systems. Herein, substrate specificities and electron-donating systems of fungal LPMOs are summarized. A closer look at LPMOs as part of the fungal enzyme machinery might provide insights into their role in fungal growth and plant-pathogen interactions to further stimulate the search for novel LPMO applications.
Project description:Bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO10s) use redox chemistry to cleave glycosidic bonds in the two foremost recalcitrant polysaccharides found in nature, namely cellulose and chitin. Analysis of correlated mutations revealed that the substrate-binding and copper-containing surface of LPMO10s composes a network of co-evolved residues and interactions, whose roles in LPMO functionality are unclear. Here, we mutated a subset of these correlated residues in a newly characterized C1/C4-oxidizing LPMO10 from Micromonospora aurantiaca (MaLPMO10B) to the corresponding residues in strictly C1-oxidizing LPMO10s. We found that surface properties near the catalytic copper, i.e. side chains likely to be involved in substrate positioning, are major determinants of the C1:C4 ratio. Several MaLPMO10B mutants almost completely lost C4-oxidizing activity while maintaining C1-oxidizing activity. These mutants also lost chitin-oxidizing activity, which is typically observed for C1/C4-oxidizing, but not for C1-oxidizing, cellulose-active LPMO10s. Selective loss in C1-oxidizing activity was not observed. Additional mutational experiments disclosed that neither truncation of the MaLPMO10B family 2 carbohydrate-binding module nor mutations altering access to the solvent-exposed axial copper coordination site significantly change the C1:C4 ratio. Importantly, several of the mutations that altered interactions with the substrate exhibited reduced stability. This effect could be explained by productive substrate binding that protects LPMOs from oxidative self-inactivation. We discuss these stability issues in view of recent findings on LPMO catalysis, such as the involvement of H2O2 Our results show that residues on the substrate-binding surface of LPMOs have co-evolved to optimize several of the interconnected properties: substrate binding and specificity, oxidative regioselectivity, catalytic efficiency, and stability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. In contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. This study explores the secretomes of Aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (HA) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days. RESULTS:Aspergillus nidulans grew efficiently on cereal starches, whereas growth on pea starch was poor. The secretomes at days 3-5 were starch-type dependent as also reflected by amylolytic activity measurements. Nearly half of the 312 proteins in the secretomes were carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), mostly glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and oxidative auxiliary activities (AAs). The abundance of the GH13 ?-amylase (AmyB) decreased with time, as opposed to other starch-degrading enzymes, e.g., the GH13 AmyF, GH15 glucoamylases (GlaA and GlaB), and the GH31 ?-glucosidase (AgdE). Two AA13 LPMOs displayed similar secretion patterns as amylolytic hydrolases and were among the most abundant CAZymes. The starch-active AnLPMO13A that possesses a CBM20 carbohydrate-binding module dominated the starch-binding secretome fraction. A striking observation is the co-secretion of several redox-active enzymes with the starch-active AA13 LPMOs and GHs, some at high abundance. Notably nine AA9 LPMOs, six AA3 sub-family 2 (AA_2) oxidoreductases, and ten AA7 glyco-oligosaccharide oxidases were identified in the secretomes in addition to other non-CAZyme oxidoreductases. CONCLUSIONS:The co-secretion and high abundance of AA13 LPMOs are indicative of a key role in starch granule deconstruction. The increase in AA13 LPMO abundance with culture time may reflect accumulation of a more resistant starch fraction towards the later stages of the culture. The identification of AmyR sites upstream AA13 LPMOs unveils co-regulation of LPMOs featuring in starch utilization. Differential deployment of amylolytic hydrolases and LPMOs over time suggests additional regulatory mechanisms. The abundant co-secretion of distinct AA3 and AA7 oxidoreductases merits further studies into their roles and possible interplay with LPMOs and other enzymes in the deconstruction of starchy substrates. The study reports for the first time the biological significance of LPMOs in starch degradation and the temporal interplay between these and amylolytic hydrolases.
Project description:The enzymatic conversion of plant biomass has been recently revolutionized by the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) that carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These very powerful enzymes are abundant in fungal saprotrophs. LPMOs require activation by electrons that can be provided by cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs), but as some fungi lack CDH-encoding genes, other recycling enzymes must exist. We investigated the ability of AA3_2 flavoenzymes secreted under lignocellulolytic conditions to trigger oxidative cellulose degradation by AA9 LPMOs. Among the flavoenzymes tested, we show that glucose dehydrogenase and aryl-alcohol quinone oxidoreductases are catalytically efficient electron donors for LPMOs. These single-domain flavoenzymes display redox potentials compatible with electron transfer between partners. Our findings extend the array of enzymes which regulate the oxidative degradation of cellulose by lignocellulolytic fungi.