Phosphatidyl Inositol 3 Kinase-Gamma Balances Antiviral and Inflammatory Responses During Influenza A H1N1 Infection: From Murine Model to Genetic Association in Patients.
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes severe pulmonary disease characterized by intense leukocyte infiltration. Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are central signaling enzymes, involved in cell growth, survival, and migration. Class IB PI3K or phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase-gamma (PI3K?), mainly expressed by leukocytes, is involved in cell migration during inflammation. Here, we investigated the contribution of PI3K? for the inflammatory and antiviral responses to IAV. PI3K? knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to lethality following infection with influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1. In the early time points of infection, infiltration of neutrophils was higher than WT mice whereas type-I and type-III IFN expression and p38 activation were reduced in PI3K? KO mice resulting in higher viral loads when compared with WT mice. Blockade of p38 in WT macrophages infected with IAV reduced levels of interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein to those induced in PI3K? KO macrophages, suggesting that p38 is downstream of antiviral responses mediated by PI3K?. PI3K? KO-derived fibroblasts or macrophages showed reduced type-I IFN transcription and altered pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a cell autonomous imbalance between inflammatory and antiviral responses. Seven days after IAV infection, there were reduced infiltration of natural killer cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes, increased concentration of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid, reduced numbers of resolving macrophages, and IL-10 levels in PI3K? KO. This imbalanced environment in PI3K? KO-infected mice culminated in enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species release, and lung damage that together with the increased viral loads, contributed to higher mortality in PI3K? KO mice compared with WT mice. In humans, we tested the genetic association of disease severity in influenza A/H1N1pdm09-infected patients with three potentially functional PIK3CG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1129293, rs17847825, and rs2230460. We observed that SNPs rs17847825 and rs2230460 (A and T alleles, respectively) were significantly associated with protection from severe disease using the recessive model in patients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Altogether, our results suggest that PI3K? is crucial in balancing antiviral and inflammatory responses to IAV infection.
Project description:Grail is a well-characterized mediator of metabolic disease, tumour progression, and immune response. However, its role in influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Grail knockdown potentiates IAV infection, whereas Grail overexpression blocks IAV replication. The intranasal administration of IAV to Grail KO mice led to a lower survival rate than in similarly infected wild-type mice. Additionally, IAV-infected Grail KO mice had higher viral titres, greater immune cell infiltration, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. Mechanistically, we showed that Grail interacts with viral nucleoprotein (NP), targeting it for degradation and inhibiting IAV replication. NP expression was increased in Grail knockdown cells and reduced in cells overexpressing Grail. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Grail acts as a negative regulator of IAV infection and replication by degrading viral NP. These data increase our understanding of the host antiviral response to infection with IAV.
Project description:Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. It requires interaction with an adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), to activate downstream signaling pathways. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which RIG-I-dependent recognition of IAV infection <i>in vivo</i> triggers innate immune responses, we infected mutant mice lacking RIG-I or MAVS with influenza A virus (IAV) and measured their innate immune responses. As has previously been demonstrated with isolated deletion of the virus recognition receptors TLR3, TLR7, and NOD2, RIG-I or MAVS knockout (KO) did not result in higher mortality and did not reduce IAV-induced cytokine responses in mice. Infected RIG-I KO animals displayed similar lung inflammation profiles as did WT mice, in terms of the protein concentration, total cell count, and inflammatory cell composition in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RNA-Seq results demonstrated that all types of mice exhibited equivalent antiviral and inflammatory gene responses following IAV infection. Together, the results indicated that although RIG-I is important in innate cytokine responses <i>in vitro</i>, individual deletion of the genes encoding RIG-I or MAVS did not change survival or innate responses <i>in vivo</i> after IAV infection in mice.
Project description:IFN? is a key regulator of inflammatory responses but its role in influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis is unclear. Our studies show that infection of mice lacking the IFN? receptor (IFN?R-/-) at a dose which caused severe disease in wild type 129?Sv/Ev (WT) mice resulted in milder clinical symptoms and significantly lower lung virus titers by 6 days post-infection (dpi). Viral spread was reduced in IFN?R-/- lungs at 2 and 4 dpi. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were lower in IFN?R-/- mice at 2 dpi and there was less infiltration of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells than in WT mice. There was no difference in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and alveolar macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 2 and 4 dpi but by 4 dpi IFN?R-/- mice had significantly higher percentages of neutrophils. Our data strongly suggest that IAV can use the inflammatory response to promote viral spread.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that can cause mild to severe illness and potentially death. Antiviral drugs are an important countermeasure against IAV; however, drug resistance has developed, thus new therapeutic approaches are being sought. Previously, we demonstrated the antiviral activity of a novel nuclear export inhibitor drug, verdinexor, to reduce influenza replication in vitro and pulmonary virus burden in mice. In this study, in vivo efficacy of verdinexor was further evaluated in two animal models or influenza virus infection, mice and ferrets. In mice, verdinexor was efficacious to limit virus shedding, reduce pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and moderate leukocyte infiltration into the bronchoalveolar space. Similarly, verdinexor-treated ferrets had reduced lung pathology, virus burden, and inflammatory cytokine expression in the nasal wash exudate. These findings support the anti-viral efficacy of verdinexor, and warrant its development as a novel antiviral therapeutic for influenza infection.
Project description:Airway epithelial cells and macrophages differ markedly in their responses to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. To investigate transcriptional responses underlying these differences, purified subsets of type II airway epithelial cells (ATII) and alveolar macrophages (AM) recovered from the lungs of mock- or IAV-infected mice at 9?h postinfection were subjected to RNA sequencing. This time point was chosen to allow for characterization of cell types first infected with the virus inoculum, prior to multicycle virus replication and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways. In the absence of infection, AM predominantly expressed genes related to immunity, whereas ATII expressed genes consistent with their physiological roles in the lung. Following IAV infection, AM almost exclusively activated cell-intrinsic antiviral pathways that were dependent on interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF3/7) and/or type I IFN signaling. In contrast, IAV-infected ATII activated a broader range of physiological responses, including cell-intrinsic antiviral pathways, which were both independent of and dependent on IRF3/7 and/or type I IFN. These data suggest that transcriptional profiles hardwired during development are a major determinant underlying the different responses of ATII and AM to IAV infection.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Airway epithelial cells (AEC) and airway macrophages (AM) represent major targets of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in the lung, yet the two cell types respond very differently to IAV infection. We have used RNA sequencing to define the host transcriptional responses in each cell type under steady-state conditions as well as following IAV infection. To do this, different cell subsets isolated from the lungs of mock- and IAV-infected mice were subjected to RNA sequencing. Under steady-state conditions, AM and AEC express distinct transcriptional activities, consistent with distinct physiological roles in the airways. Not surprisingly, these cells also exhibited major differences in transcriptional responses following IAV infection. These studies shed light on how the different transcriptional architectures of airway cells from two different lineages drive transcriptional responses to IAV infection.
Project description:Increased risk for bacterial superinfections substantially contributes to the mortality caused by influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics. While the mechanistic basis for this lethal synergism is still insufficiently understood, immune modulation through the viral infection has been shown to be involved. Since the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a major sensor for the viral genome, we studied how IAV recognition by TLR7 influences the development of secondary pneumococcal infection. In a mouse model of IAV, TLR7-deficient hosts induced a potent antiviral response and showed unchanged survival. In secondary pneumococcal infection during acute influenza, TLR7ko mice showed a fatal outcome similar to wild-type (WT) hosts, despite significantly delayed disease progression. Also, when bacterial superinfection occurred after virus clearance, WT and TLR7-deficient hosts showed similar mortality, even though we found the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages isolated from IAV-pre-infected hosts to be enhanced in TLR7ko over WT mice. Thus, we show that a virus-sensing PRR modulates the progression of secondary pneumococcal infection following IAV. However, the fatal overall outcome in WT as well as TLR7ko hosts suggests that processes distinct from TLR7-triggering override the contribution of this single PRR.
Project description:N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a responsible gene for a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D). This is the first study aiming to assess the contribution of NDRG1 to differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, which has important implications for bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. Ndrg1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal curvature of the spine, high trabecular bone mass, and reduced number of osteoclasts. We observed that serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and macrophage-related cytokines were markedly decreased in KO mice. Differentiation of bone marrow (BM) cells into osteoclasts, M1/M2-type macrophages and dendritic cells was all impaired. Furthermore, KO mice also showed reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis by cancer cells, accompanied by decreased infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages. The transfer of BM-derived macrophages from KO mice into BM-eradicated wild type (WT) mice induced much less tumor angiogenesis than observed in WT mice. Angiogenesis in corneas in response to inflammatory stimuli was also suppressed with decreased infiltration of macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that NDRG1 deficiency attenuates the differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, suppressing bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. This study strongly suggests the crucial role of NDRG1 in differentiation process for macrophages.
Project description:Gastrointestinal prokinetic agents function as serotonin-4 receptor (5-HT<sub>4</sub>R) agonists to activate myenteric plexus neurons to release acetylcholine (ACh), which then induce anti-inflammatory action. Details of this pathway, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study is to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism underlying the 5-HT<sub>4</sub>R agonist, mosapride citrate (MOS)-induced anti-inflammatory action on postoperative ileus (POI). POI models were generated from wild-type C57BL6/J (WT), 5-HT<sub>4</sub>R knock-out (S4R KO), ?7 nicotinic AChR KO (?7?R KO), and M2 muscarinic ACh receptor KO (M2R KO) mice. MOS attenuated leukocyte infiltration in WT. MOS-induced anti-inflammatory action was completely abolished in both S4R KO and S4R KO mice upon wild-type bone marrow transplantation. MOS-induced anti-inflammatory action against macrophage infiltration, but not neutrophil infiltration, was attenuated in ?7?R KO mice. Selective ?7nAChR agonists (PNU-282987 and AR-R17779) also inhibited only macrophage infiltration in POI. MOS-mediated inhibition of neutrophil infiltration was diminished by atropine, M2AChR antagonist, methoctramine, and in M2R KO mice. Stimulation with 5-HT<sub>4</sub>R inhibits leukocyte infiltration in POI, possibly through myenteric plexus activation. Released ACh inhibited macrophage and neutrophil infiltration likely by activation of ?7nAChR on macrophages and M2AChR. Thus, macrophage and neutrophil recruitment into inflamed sites is regulated by different types of AChR in the small intestine.
Project description:The host innate defence against influenza virus infection is an intricate system with a plethora of antiviral factors involved. We have identified host histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as an anti-influenza virus factor in cultured cells. Consistent with this, we report herein that HDAC6 knockout (KO) mice are more susceptible to influenza virus A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) infection than their wild type (WT) counterparts. The KO mice lost weight faster than the WT mice and, unlike WT mice, could not recover their original body weight. Consequently, more KO mice succumbed to infection, which corresponded with higher lung viral loads. Conversely, the expression of the critical innate antiviral response genes interferon alpha/beta, CD80, CXCL10 and IL15 was significantly downregulated in KO mouse lungs compared to WT mouse lungs. These data are consistent with the known function of HDAC6 of de-acetylating the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and activating the host innate antiviral response cascade. Loss of HDAC6 thus leads to a blunted innate response and increased susceptibility of mice to influenza A virus infection.
Project description:The enlarged adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by inflammation, including the recruitment and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the scavenger receptor CD36 in high fat diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation and cell death.Obesity and adipose tissue inflammation was compared in CD36 deficient (CD36 KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice fed a high fat diet (60% kcal fat) for 16 weeks and the inflammatory response was studied in primary adipocytes and macrophages isolated from CD36 KO and WT mice.Compared to WT mice, CD36 KO mice fed a high fat diet exhibited reduced adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation, with decreased adipocyte cell death, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and macrophage and T-cell accumulation. In primary cell culture, the absence of CD36 expression in macrophages decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine, pro-apoptotic and ER stress gene expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Likewise, CD36 deficiency in primary adipocytes reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion in response to LPS. Primary macrophage and adipocyte co-culture experiments showed that these cell types act synergistically in their inflammatory response to LPS and that CD36 modulates such synergistic effects.CD36 enhances adipose tissue inflammation and cell death in diet-induced obesity through its expression in both macrophages and adipocytes.