Reduction of infection by inhibiting mTOR pathway is associated with reversed repression of type I interferon by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
ABSTRACT: Type I interferons (IFNs) are critical in animal antiviral regulation. IFN-mediated signalling regulates hundreds of genes that are directly associated with antiviral, immune and other physiological responses. The signalling pathway mediated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase regulated by IFNs, is key in regulation of cellular metabolism and was recently implicated in host antiviral responses. However, little is known about how animal type I IFN signalling coordinates immunometabolic reactions during antiviral defence. Here, using porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we found that the genes in the mTOR signalling pathway were differently regulated in PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages at different activation statuses. Moreover, mTOR signalling regulated PRRSV infection in MARC-145 and primary porcine cells, in part, through modulating the production and signalling of type I IFNs. Taken together, we determined that the mTOR signalling pathway involves PRRSV infection and regulates expression and signalling of type I IFNs against viral infection. These findings suggest that the mTOR signalling pathway has a bi-directional loop with the type I IFN system and imply that some components in the mTOR signalling pathway can be utilized as targets for studying antiviral immunity and for designing therapeutic reagents.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to interfere with the signaling of type I interferons (IFNs). Here we found PRRSV A2MC2 induced type I IFNs in cultured cells. A2MC2 replication in MARC-145 cells resulted in the synthesis of IFN-?2 protein, transcript elevation of the IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56, and the proteins of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) and ISG56. A2MC2 infection of primary porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) also led to the elevation of the two proteins, but had little cytopathic effect. Furthermore, A2MC2 infection of MARC-145 or PAM cells had no detectable inhibitory effect on the ability of IFN-? to induce an antiviral response. Sequencing analysis indicated that A2MC2 was closely related to VR-2332 and Ingelvac PRRS MLV with an identity of 99.8% at the nucleotide level. The identification of this IFN-inducing PRRSV isolate may be beneficial for vaccine development against PRRS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious viral disease of swine. At present, there are vaccines for the control of PRRSV infection, but the effect is not satisfactory. The recombination of attenuated vaccines causes significant difficulties with the prevention and control of PRRSV. Type III interferons (IFNs), also called IFN-?s, were newly identified and showed potent antiviral activity within the mucosal surface and immune organs. RESULTS:Therefore, primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were used for this investigation. To this end, we found that the replication of PRRSV in PAMs was significantly reduced after pre-treatment with IFN-?3, and such inhibition was dose- and time-dependent. The plaque formation of PRRSV abrogated entirely, and virus yields were reduced by four orders of magnitude when the primary PAMs were treated with IFN-?3 at 1000?ng/ml. In addition, IFN-?3 in our study was able to induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes 15 (ISG15), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase 1 (OAS1), IFN-inducible transmembrane 3 (IFITM3), and myxoma resistance protein 1(Mx1) in primary PAMs. CONCLUSIONS:IFN-?3 had antiviral activity against PRRSV and can stimulate the expression of pivotal interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), i.e., ISG15, Mx1, OAS1, and IFITM3. So, IFN-?3 may serve as a useful antiviral agent.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes severe diseases in pigs and great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in antiviral immunity. In the present study, we demonstrated that infection with the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06 antagonized type I IFN expression induced by poly(I·C) in both porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMo). Subsequently, we showed that the inhibition of poly(I·C)-induced IFN-? production by PRRSV was dependent on the blocking of NF-?B signaling pathways. By screening PRRSV nonstructural and structural proteins, we demonstrated that nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), a viral 3C-like serine protease, significantly suppressed IFN-? expression. Moreover, we verified that nsp4 inhibited NF-?B activation induced by signaling molecules, including RIG-I, VISA, TRIF, and IKK?. nsp4 was shown to target the NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO) at the E349-S350 site to mediate its cleavage. Importantly, nsp4 mutants with defective protease activity abolished its ability to cleave NEMO and inhibit IFN-? production. These findings might have implications for our understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis and its mechanisms for evading the host immune response.Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major agent of respiratory diseases in pigs. Like many other viruses, PRRSV has evolved a variety of strategies to evade host antiviral innate immunity for survival and propagation. In this study, we show that PRRSV nsp4 is a novel antagonist of the NF-?B signaling pathway, which is responsible for regulating the expression of type I interferons and other crucial cytokines. We then investigated the underlying mechanism used by nsp4 to suppress NF-?B-mediated IFN-? production. We found that nsp4 interfered with the NF-?B signaling pathway through the cleavage of NEMO (a key regulator of NF-?B signaling) at the E349-S350 site, leading to the downregulation of IFN-? production induced by poly(I·C). The data presented here may help us to better understand PRRSV pathogenesis.
Project description:Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of the PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as nonself by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and strongly induced type I interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The interaction between the two stem-loops inside the pseudoknot structure was sufficient for IFN induction, since disruption of the pseudoknot interaction powerfully dampened the IFN induction. Furthermore, transfection of the 3' UTR pseudoknot transcripts in PAMs inhibited PRRSV replication in vitro Importantly, the predicted similar structures of other arterivirus members, including equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), also displayed strong IFN induction activities. Together, in this work we identified an innate recognition mechanism by which the PRRSV 3' UTR pseudoknot region served as PAMPs of arteriviruses and activated innate immune signaling to produce IFNs that inhibit virus replication. All of these results provide novel insights into innate immune recognition during virus infection.IMPORTANCE PRRS is the most common viral disease in the pork industry. It is caused by PRRSV, a positive single-stranded RNA virus, whose infection often leads to persistent infection. To date, it is not yet clear how PRRSV is recognized by the host and what is the exact mechanism of IFN induction. Here, we investigated the nature of PAMPs on PRRSV and the associated PRRs. We found that the 3' UTR pseudoknot region of PRRSV, which has been proposed to regulate viral RNA synthesis, could act as PAMPs recognized by RIG-I and TLR3 to induce type I IFN production to suppress PRRSV infection. This report is the first detailed description of pattern recognition for PRRSV, which is important in understanding the antiviral response of arteriviruses, especially PRRSV, and extends our knowledge on virus recognition.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, and the current strategies for controlling PRRSV are limited. Interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) has been reported to have a broader role in the regulation of the type I interferons (IFNs) response to RNA and DNA viruses. However, the function of IFI16 in PRRSV infection is unclear. Here, we revealed that IFI16 acts as a novel antiviral protein against PRRSV-2. IFI16 could be induced by interferon-beta (IFN-?). Overexpression of IFI16 could significantly suppress PRRSV-2 replication, and silencing the expression of endogenous IFI16 by small interfering RNAs led to the promotion of PRRSV-2 replication in MARC-145 cells. Additionally, IFI16 could promote mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated production of type I interferon and interact with MAVS. More importantly, IFI16 exerted anti-PRRSV effects in a MAVS-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that IFI16 has an inhibitory effect on PRRSV-2, and these findings contribute to understanding the role of cellular proteins in regulating PRRSV replication and may have implications for the future antiviral strategies.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important disease with a significant impact on the pig industry. It is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), which predominantly infects and replicates in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), providing a useful in vitro model for understanding the host immune response to PRRSV infection. We pretreated PAMs with porcine IFN-α to induce an antiviral state within the cells and subsequently infected them with highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV. Changes in global gene expression in IFN-α-pretreated PAMs in response to HP-PRRSV infection were determined by RNA-sequence analysis. A total of 346 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were transcriptionally upregulated by porcine IFN-α. Among these up-regulated DEGs, 93 showed significantly attenuated expression levels in response to HP-PRRSV infection. These attenuated DEGs were remarkably enriched in immune-response-related terms, such as 'RIG-Ilike receptor signaling pathway', 'Response to virus', and 'Response to stimulus'. Notably, expression levels of 93.8% (15/16) of antiviral genes (such as PKR, OAS1, IFIT1(ISG56) and ISG15), and genes encoding retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I protein (LOC100737466(DDX58), a cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor), interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7, a key transcriptional regulator of type I IFN-dependent immune response), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (LOC100738308(STAT1), a transcription factor for IFN-stimulated genes), and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TNFSF10, a cytokine initiating proapoptotic signaling cascades) were significantly attenuated by HP-PRRSV infection. These results suggest that HP-PRRSV can counteract the type I IFN-induced antiviral state by interfering with the expression of genes involved in the host-defense response. Overall design: Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus counteracts type I interferon-induced antiviral state by interfering with the expression of hostdefense genes
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant threat to the global swine industry. Porcine sialoadhesin (poSn) has been previously shown to mediate PRRSV attachment and internalization. In the current study, we report its unidentified role in antagonism of type I interferon (IFN) production during PRRSV infection. We determined that poSn facilitated PRRSV infection via inhibition of type I IFN transcription. Mechanistically, poSn interacted with a 12 kDa DNAX-activation protein (DAP12), which was dependent on residues 51-57 within DAP12 transmembrane domain (TMD). PRRSV exploited the poSn-DAP12 pathway to attenuate activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). More importantly, the poSn-DAP12 pathway was involved in inhibiting poly (I:C)-triggered IFN production. All these results reveal a novel role of poSn in suppressing host antiviral responses, which deepens our understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused large economic losses in the swine industry in recent years. Current PRRS vaccines fail to effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, there is a need to develop new antiviral strategies. MicroRNAs play critical roles in intricate host-pathogen interaction networks, but the involvement of miRNAs during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection is not well understood. In this study, pretreatment with miR-26a induced a significant inhibition of PRRSV replication and remission of the cytopathic effect in MARC-145 cells, and this antiviral effect was sustained for at least 120 h. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that the PRRSV genome was not the target of miRNA-26a. Instead, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that miR-26a significantly up-regulated innate anti-viral responses, including activating the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and promoting the production of IFN-stimulated genes. These findings suggest that delivery of miR-26a may provide a potential strategy for anti-PRRSV therapies.
Project description:Interferons (IFNs) have been known as antiviral genes and they are classified by type 1, type 2, and type 3 IFN. The type 1 IFN consists of IFN?, IFN?, IFN?, and IFN? whereas the type 2 IFN consists of only IFN?, which is a key cytokine driving T helper cell type 1 immunity. IFN? belongs to the type 3 IFN, which is also known as IL-28 and IL-29 possessing antiviral activities. Type 1 IFN is produced by viral infection whereas type 2 IFN is induced by mitogenic or antigenic T-cell stimuli. The IFN? of bovine was first discovered in an ungulate ruminant recognition hormone. IFN? belongs to the type 1 IFN with the common feature of type 1 IFN such as antiviral activity. IFNs have been mostly studied for basic research and clinical usages therefore there was no effort to investigate IFNs in industrial animals. Here we cloned porcine IFN?8 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Korean domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). The newly cloned IFN?8 amino acid sequence from Korean domestic pig shares 98.4% identity with the known porcine IFN?8 in databank. The recombinant porcine IFN?8 showed potent antiviral activity and protected bovine Madin-Darby bovine kidney epithelial (MDBK) cells from the cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus, but it failed to protect human Wistar Institute Susan Hayflick (WISH) cells and canine Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial-like (MDCK) cells. The present study demonstrates species specific antiviral activity of porcine IFN?8.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection eliminates production of type I interferons (IFNs) in host cells, which triggers an antiviral immune response through the induction of downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), thus escaping the fate of host-mediated clearance. The IFN-induced transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) has recently been identified as an ISG and plays a pivotal role against enveloped RNA viruses by restricting cell entry. However, the role of IFITM3 in PRRSV replication is unknown. The present study demonstrated that overexpression of IFITM3 suppresses PRRSV replication, while silencing of endogenous IFITM3 prominently promoted PRRSV replication. Additionally, it was shown that IFITM3 undergoes S-palmitoylation and ubiquitination modification, and both posttranslational modifications contribute to the anti-PRRSV activity of IFITM3. Further study showed that PRRSV particles are transported into endosomes and then into lysosomes during the early stages of infection, and confocal microscopy results revealed that PRRSV particles are transported to IFITM3-positive cellular vesicles. By using a single virus particle fluorescent labeling technique, we confirmed that IFITM3 can restrict PRRSV membrane fusion by inducing accumulation of cholesterol in cellular vesicles. Additionally, we found that both endogenous and exogenous IFITM3 are incorporated into newly producing PRRS virions and diminish viral intrinsic infectivity. By using cell coculture systems, we found that IFITM3 effectively restricted PRRSV intercellular transmission, which may have been caused by disrupted membrane fusion and reduced viral infectivity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that swine IFITM3 interferes with the life cycle of PRRSV, and possibly other enveloped arteritis viruses, at multiple steps.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), is of great economic significance to the swine industry. Due to the complicated immune escape mechanisms of PRRSV, there are no effective vaccines or therapeutic drugs currently available against PRRS. Identification of cellular factors and underlying mechanisms that establish an effective antiviral state against PRRSV can provide unique strategies for developing antiviral vaccines or drugs. As an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene, the role of IFN-induced transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) in PRRSV infection has not been reported as of yet. In the present study, it was shown that IFITM3 can exert a potent anti-PRRSV effect, and PRRS virions are trafficked to IFITM3-containing cell vesicles, where viral membrane fusion is impaired by cholesterol accumulation that is induced by IFITM3. Additionally, both endogenous and exogenous IFITM3 are incorporated into newly assembled progeny virions, and this decreased their intrinsic infectivity.