A new species of the genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from southern Vietnam.
ABSTRACT: We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Phu Yen Province in southern Vietnam. Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) body size medium (SVL 28.0-29.3 mm in three adult males, 30.3 mm in single adult female); (2) supra-axillary glands present, creamy white; ventrolateral glands indistinct; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin roughly granular with larger tubercles, dermal ridges on dorsum absent; (5) rudimentary webbing present between fingers I-II and II-III; rudimentary webbing between all toes; fingers and toes without dermal fringes; (6) in life ventral surface greyish-violet with white speckling; (7) supratympanic fold distinct, dark brown in life; (8) iris bicolored, typically golden in upper half, fading to golden green in lower half; (9) tibia short (TbL/SVL 0.44-0.45 in males); and (10) eyes large and protuberant (ED/SVL 0.15-0.16 in males). From all congeners for which comparable sequences are available, the new species differs markedly in the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequence (P-distance>5.7%). The new species is currently known only from montane evergreen tropical forests of Song Hinh District, Phu Yen Province, and M'Drak District of Dak Lak Province at elevations of 470-630 m a.s.l. We suggest the new species should be considered as Data Deficient following the IUCN's Red List categories. We also report a previously unknown Leptolalax mtDNA lineage from an evergreen tropical forest in the Hoa Thinh District of Phu Yen Province, which may also represent an undescribed species.
Project description:A new bush frog species, Raorchestes cangyuanensis sp. nov., from Cangyuan, Yunnan Province, China, is described based on morphological and molecular analyses. It differs from all known congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size small, adult snout-vent length (SVL) 16.1-20.0 mm in males (n=3); tympanum indistinct; tips of all fingers and toes expanded into discs with circummarginal grooves; rudimentary webbing between toes; fingers and toes with lateral dermal fringes; inner and outer metacarpal tubercles present; heels meeting when limbs held at right angles to body; crotch with a distinct black patch; discs of fingers and toes orange; male with external single subgular vocal sac and reddish nuptial pad at the base of first finger.
Project description:A new species of the Asian leaf litter toad genus Leptobrachella from Guizhou Province, China is described based on molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphological comparisons, and bioacoustics data. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences supported the new species as an independent clade nested into the Leptobrachella clade and sister to L. bijie. The new species could be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small body size (SVL 30.8-33.4 mm in seven adult males, and 34.2 mm in one adult female); dorsal skin shagreened, some of the granules forming longitudinal short skin ridges; tympanum distinctly discernible, slightly concave; internasal distance longer than interorbital distance; supra-axillary, femoral, pectoral and ventrolateral glands distinctly visible; absence of webbing and lateral fringes on fingers; toes with rudimentary webbing and shallow lateral fringes, relative finger lengths II < IV < I < III; heels overlapped when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; and tibia-tarsal articulation reaches the tympanum.
Project description:A new species of the genus Megophrys from Zhejiang Province, China is described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses supported the new taxon as an independent clade nested into the Megophrys clade and sister to M. lishuiensis. The new species could be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characteristics: (1) small size (SVL 31.0-36.3 mm in male and 41.6 mm in female); (2) vomerine ridge present and vomerine teeth absent; (3) tongue not notched behind; (4) a small horn-like tubercle at the edge of each upper eyelid; (5) tympanum distinctly visible, rounded; (6) two metacarpal tubercles in hand; (7) relative finger lengths: II < I < IV < III; (8) toes with rudimentary webbing at bases; (9) heels overlapping when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; (10) tibiotarsal articulation reaching tympanum to eye when leg stretched forward; (11) an internal single subgular vocal sac in male; (12) in breeding male, the nuptial pads with black nuptial spines on the dorsal bases of the first and second fingers.
Project description:We describe a new species, Fejervarya muangkanensissp. nov., based on a series of specimens collected from Ban Tha Khanun, Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by morphological and molecular data, and can be diagnosed by the following characters: (1) small size (adult male snout-vent length (SVL) 33.5 mm; female SVL 40.0-40.9 mm); (2) tympanum small, discernible but unclear; (3) poorly developed toe webbing; (4) no lateral line system in adults; (5) characteristic "Fejervaryan" lines present in females; and (6) femoral glands absent. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA further supports it as a distinct lineage and distinguishes it from its congeners for which sequences are available.
Project description:A new species of the genus Megophrys is described from Guizhou Province, China. Molecular phylogenetic analyses supported the new species as an independent clade nested into the Megophrys. The new species could be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size moderate (SVL 49.3-58.2 mm in males); vomerine ridges present distinctly, vomerine teeth present; tongue feebly notched behind; tympanum distinctly visible, oval; two metacarpal tubercles in hand; toes with one-third webbing and wide lateral fringes; heels overlapped when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; tibiotarsal articulation reaching the level between tympanum and eye when leg stretched forward; an internal single subgular vocal sac present in male; in breeding male, the nuptial pads with large and sparse black nuptial spines present on the dorsal bases of the first two fingers.
Project description:Malaria in Vietnam has become focal to a few provinces, including Phu Yen. This study aimed to assess correlations between intervention (population proportion protected by insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying) and climatic variables with malaria incidence in Phu Yen Province. The Vietnam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology provided incidence data for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax for 104 communes of Phu Yen Province from January 2005 to December 2016. A multivariable, zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive prior structure to identify the underlying spatial structure of the data and quantify associations with covariates. There were a total of 2,778 P. falciparum and 1,770 P. vivax cases during the study period. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence increased by 5.4% (95% credible interval [CrI] 5.1%, 5.7%) and 3.2% (95% CrI 2.9%, 3.5%) for a 10-mm increase in precipitation without lag, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence decreased by 7.7% (95% CrI 5.6%, 9.7%) and 10.5% (95% CrI 8.3%, 12.6%) for a 1°C increase in minimum temperature without lag, respectively. There was a > 95% probability of a higher than provincial average trend of P. falciparum and P. vivax in Song Cau and Song Hoa districts. There was a > 95% probability of a lower than provincial average trend in Tuy Dong Xuan and Hoa districts for both species. Targeted distribution of resources, including intensified interventions, in this part of the province will be required for local malaria elimination.
Project description:A new species of Microhyla frog from the Nilphamari district of Bangladesh is described and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. Molecular phylogeny derived from mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that although the new species--designated here as Microhyla nilphamariensis sp. nov.--forms a clade with M. ornate, it is highly divergent from M. ornata and all of its congeners, with 5.7-13.2% sequence divergence at the 16S rRNA gene. The new species can be identified phenotypically on the basis of a set of diagnostic (both qualitative and quantitative) characters as follows: head length is 77% of head width, distance from front of eyes to the nostril is roughly six times greater than nostril-snout length, internarial distance is roughly five times greater than nostril-snout length, interorbital distance is two times greater than internarial distance, and distance from back of mandible to back of the eye is 15% of head length. Furthermore, inner metacarpal tubercle is small and ovoid-shaped, whereas outer metacarpal tubercle is very small and rounded. Toes have rudimentary webbing, digital discs are absent, inner metatarsal tubercle is small and round, outer metatarsal tubercle is ovoid-shaped, minute, and indistinct.
Project description:A new species of the genus Gracixalus, Gracixalusyunnanensis sp. n., is described based on a series of specimens collected from southwestern and southern Yunnan, China. This species is distinguished from all other known congeners by a combination of the following characters: relatively small body size in adult males (SVL 26.0-34.2 mm); dorsal surface yellow brown or red brown; distinctive conical asperities on dorsum; males with an external subgular vocal sac and linea masculina; throat, chest, and belly nearly immaculate; venter surface orangish with yellow spots, semi-transparent; snout rounded; supratympanic fold distinct; iris bronze; lack of white patch on temporal region; tibiotarsal projection absent; sides of body nearly smooth with no black blotch; finger webbing rudimentary; and toe webbing formula I1.5-2II1.5-2.7III.5-3IV2.5-1.5V. Genetically, the new species diverges from its congeners by 2.2%-14.1% (uncorrected p-distance) and is closest to G.guangdongensis. However, the new species can morphologically be separated from G.guangdongensis by distinctive conical tubercles on dorsum (versus absent), lateral surface nearly smooth with no black blotches on ventrolateral region (versus lateral surface rough, scattered with tubercles and black blotches on ventrolateral region), snout rounded (versus triangularly pointed), iris bronze (versus iris brown), and ventral surface orangish (versus throat and chest creamy white and belly light brown).
Project description:Background:Son La Province is located in north-western Vietnam and the province contains a large area of 440,000 hectares of natural forest. A wide range of elevations and the complexity of landforms have given this province a great diversity of natural habitats and a high level of biodiversity potential. However, the snake fauna of Son La province is still poorly studied. Previous studies documented 56 species of snakes from this province. New information:As a result of our field surveys in Phu Yen, Song Ma, Thuan Chau and Van Ho districts, we report five species of snakes for the first time from Son La Province, northern Vietnam, namely Boiga cyanea, B. guangxiensis, Lycodon meridionalis (Colubridae), Protobothrops cornutus and P. mucrosquamatus (Viperidae), with novel data about morphological characters. In addition, we provide an updated checklist of 61 snake species from Son La Province. The snake fauna of Son La Province also contains a number of species of conservation concern: 11 species listed in the Red Data Book of Vietnam (2007), four species listed in the IUCN Red List (2020) and four species listed in the Vietnam Governmental Decree No. 06 (2019).
Project description:The Asian leaf litter toads of the genus Leptolalax represent a highly diverse species group and currently contain 53 recognized species. During herpetological surveys in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan of China, we collected series of Leptolalax specimens from an isolated small fragment of montane evergreen forest. Subsequent study based on acoustic, morphological and molecular data reveals that there were three different species among the specimens sampled: while one of them belongs to Leptolalax ventripunctataus, the other two species represent unknown taxa and are described herein: Leptolalax purpurussp. nov. and Leptolalax yingjiangensissp. nov. The two new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the molecular divergences, acoustic data, and by a combination of morphological characters including: body size, dorsal and ventral patterns, dorsal skin texture, sizes of pectoral and femoral glands, degree of webbing and fringing on the toes and fingers, dorsum coloration and iris coloration in life. Our results further reveal that species diversity of the genus Leptolalax still remains highly underestimated and warrants further attention.